2Important ReformsIn the early and mid 1800s Parliament passed important new laws:Free trade- end to tariffs on trade between countries. Based off of the idea of laissez faire.Some British tariffs were repealed in the 1820s.The Corn Laws remained, these were heavy tariffs on imported grain.Free traders called on Parliament to repeal the Corn Laws.
6Campaign Against Slavery In 1807 Britain became the first European power to abolish slave trading.This was due to Enlightened ideas about the evils of slavery, as well as pressure from the abolition movement.This did not actually ban slavery.In 1833, Parliament passed a law banning slavery.
8Crime and PunishmentIn the early 1800s more than 200 crimes were punishable by death.The following were capital offenses:MurderShopliftingSheep stealingImpersonating an army veteranSome juries would not convict criminals because the punishment was so harsh.
10Executions Executions occurred in public. A hanging would often draw a crowd of thousands of spectators.Criminals did not receive a proper burial, their bodies were often given to medical colleges for dissection.
13Changes to Punishment Capital offenses were reduced. By 1850 the only crimes punishable by death were:MurderPiracyTreasonArsonParliament ended public hangings in 1868.Imprisonment due to debt was also outlawed.
14Penal ColoniesPetty criminals were transported to penal colonies, or settlements for convicts.These colonies were set up in the new British territory of Australia.
16Victories for the Working Class Working conditions were dangerous during the early industrial age.Parliament started to pass laws to regulate conditions in factories and mines.1842- mine owners were forbidden to employ women or children under the age of 10.1847- women and children were limited to a 10-hour work day.
18Victories for the Working Class Other laws that were passed in the late 1800s:Regulation of safety conditionsEnforcement by safety inspectorsMinimum wageMaximum work hours
19The Growth of Labor Unions Labor unions used to be outlawed during the early Industrial Revolution.Unions became legal in 1825, but going on strike remained illegal until later.Union membership exploded between and 1914.Unions improved the lives of the working class by:Demanding higher wagesDemanding shorter hours
21Later ReformsBoth parties enacted reform to benefit the working class between the late 1800s and the early 1900s.Disraeli sponsored laws to:Improve public healthImprove worker housingGladstone pushed:Free elementary education for all childrenTo open government jobs based on merit, not birth or wealth
22Fabian Society Socialist society Founded in 1883 Promoted gradual change through legal means, not violence.
23Labour Party Formed in 1900 Grew in power Became one of Britain's two main parties by the 1920s
24Social Welfare Laws Britain began passing them in the early 1900s. They protected the poor and disadvantaged.These laws were modeled after those of Bismark in Germany.They provided accident, health, and unemployment insuranceThis was an argument against socialism.
25Women's Suffrage Emmeline Pankhurst was a suffragist. She promoted suffrage through radical means including:Interupting speakers in Parliament with “Votes for women!”Organized massive public demonstrations.Violence: Breaking windows, burning buildings.Hunger strikes.In 1918 Parliament granted the right to vote to women over 30.
27Instability in Ireland Britain had been conquering Ireland in theIreland was colonized in the 1600s.Absentee landlords owned large estates but did not live in them.Irish peasants paid rent to landlords in England.They also (even though they were Catholic) had to pay tithes to the Church of England.
28Irish NationalismThe Irish resented British influence and rejected British rule.In the 1800s Irish nationalist campaigned for freedom and justice.Daniel “The Liberator” O'Connell organized the Irish Catholic League to demand fairness.In 1829 Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation.This let Irish vote and hold political office, but not enjoy freedoms like speaking their language.
30Irish Potato FamineUnder British rule, three quarters of Irish farmland was used to grow crops to export.In 1845, a disease destroyed the potato crop.Tenants were evicted because the had no money.Britain continued to ship what was left away, and about one million men, women, and children died of starvation or disease.Many immigrated to the U.S. or Canada.
32Struggle for Home RuleThe Irish famine left the Irish with distrust for the British.In 1850 they created the Fenian Brotherhood to liberate Ireland from British rule by force.In 1870 a leader was chosen, Charles Stewart Parnell.He pressed Parliament for home rule, or local self government.
33Home Rule at Last In 1914 passed a home rule bill. It delayed the law until 1921 when southern Ireland became independent.