Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution 1763-1775 Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution 1763-1775."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Road to Revolution 1763-1775 Chapter 7The Road to Revolution
2 Roots of Revolution Immigrants= independent spirit Republicanism Radical Whigs
3 Paul Revere, by John Singleton Copley, ca Paul Revere, by John Singleton Copley, ca This painting of the famed silversmith-horseman challenged convention—but reflected the new democratic spirit of the age—by portraying an artisan in working clothes. Note how Copley depicted the serene confidence of the master craftsman and Revere’s quiet pride in his work.
4 Mercantilism Mercantilism- expansion of wealth= power Colonies= raw material, guaranteed marketsBuy from GB, supply necessariesNavigation ActsLed to currency shortagePaper currency, bankruptcy lawsParliamentary veto right
5 Pros and Cons of Mercantilism Navigation Acts loosely enforcedLess competition for coloniesMonopoly on tobaccoStrong army and navyDependent and stifling
6 The Stamp Act Seven Years War= empire and debt Prime Minister George GrenvilleNavigation Acts and Sugar Act 1764Quartering Act 1765The Stamp Act 1765Needed $ for new armyNecessary for protection vs. matter of principle (liberties)
7 The hated Stamp Act of 1765 required stamps, certifying payment of tax, on all sorts of legal and commercial documents. This stamp was to be affixed to insurance policies and probated wills.
8 The Stamp Act Trial of offenders in admiralty courts Reason for troops? No French!“no taxation without representation”Difference between legislation and taxation“virtual representation”Americans didn’t want represented in Parliament
9 Repeal of Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress 1765 colonial unity? Nonimportation agreements across coloniesHomespun clothes, no lamb (avoid British textiles)Colonial solidarity- common personSpinning bees, boycott petitionsSons of Liberty, Daughters of LibertyInfrastructure broke down out of fear
10 Even common household wares in the 1760s testified to the colonists’ mounting rage against the Stamp Act. Many people in Britain sympathized with the Americans—and sought to profit from their anger, as this English-made teapot demonstrates.
11 Public Punishment for the Excise Man, 1774 This popular rendering of the punishment of Commissioner of Customs John Malcomb shows him tarred and feathered and forcibly “paid” with great quantities of tea. From the Liberty Tree in the background dangles the threat of hanging, all for attempting to collect duties in Boston.
12 Repeal of Stamp Act British businessmen hurt economically Protested to Parliament to repeal! (1/2 of shipping for American trade)2 million Americans don’t have to pay for 1/3 of defense?Repealed Stamp Act but passed Declaratory ActAbsolute sovereignty (“bind” colonies)
13 Townshend Acts Charles Townshend= Chancellor of the Exchequer Indirect duties (tea)Still seen as a tax$ on royal governors and judgesSuspended NY assemblysmuggling
14 The Boston “Massacre” 1768 British troops sent to Boston March 5, 1770: Boston MassacreCrispus AttucksTrial John Adams defended soldiers
15 Committees of Correspondence King George III and Prime Minister Lord NorthRepeal of Townshend Acts (except tea)Sam Adams= propaganda, rebellion“trained mob”Committees of CorrespondenceSedition?
16 Tea Parties British East India Company= monopoly on tea Americans didn’t allow any of the tea inBoston officials refused to back downGovernor HutchinsonBoston Tea PartyGB to punish Massachusetts
17 Intolerable Acts AKA Coercive Acts 1774 Quebec Act Boston Port Act Massachusetts Government ActQuartering ActJustice ActQuebec Act
18 Continental CongressContinental Congress 55 delegates to Philadelphia September 5- October 24, 1774Listing grievances for kingCreated The Association- complete boycottBattles at Lexington and Concord
19 British Strengths Bigger population naval power/army wealth for hired soldiersLoyalists/Indians allied
20 British Weaknesses France on America’s side no organized leadership American brothersWhigs opposed Toriesdistance problemPoor quality of suppliesno major city to capture
21 American Strengths Leadership Foreign aid/officers Self sustaining agricultureMoral advantage
22 American Weaknesses Unification? Hierarchy? No constitution until 1781 Sectional disputesDepreciated paper $Deserting soldiers, lack of guns