Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

America: Past and Present Chapter 5

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "America: Past and Present Chapter 5"— Presentation transcript:

1 America: Past and Present Chapter 5

2 Contested Meanings of Empire
1760s an optimistic post-war period Striking ethnic and racial diversity 60% of population under 21 years old High level of post-war prosperity Wealth unevenly distributed Americans proud to be part of Europe’s most thriving, prosperous empire 2

3 Breakdown of Political Trust
1760--George III ascended throne Suspicions on both sides of the Atlantic that Crown wished to enlarge its powers Conflict over Parliamentary sovereignty English officials assumed that Parliament must have ultimate authority Colonists tried to reserve internal colonial authority for their own legislatures 3

4 No Taxation Without Representation: the American Perspective
Colonists assume their legislatures equal in some ways to Parliament Americans not represented at all in Parliament Only colonial assemblies could tax Americans 4

5 Appeal to Political Virtue
John Locke, "Commonwealthmen" inform colonial political thought All governments believed susceptible to corruption into “tyranny” “Tyranny” understood as any attempt to encroach upon the people's liberty “Virtuous” citizens, alert to rights and determined to live free, resist tyranny 5

6 Challenge and Resistance: Eroding the Bonds of Empire
Large, expensive army left in America at the end of the Seven Years’ War Colonists doubted the army’s value Pontiac’s War Exposed the British army’s weakness Revealed the desperate situation of Native Americans after withdrawal of French Colonists determined to settle trans-Appalachian West 6

7 Paying off the National Debt
First minister George Grenville attempts to reduce England’s war debt Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act) Merchants and gentry protest, most colonists ignore

8 Mobilizing the People 1765--Stamp Act requires that colonists purchase stamp to validate documents Unites the gentry and the mass of the population in protest Protest includes mob riots, boycotts Stamp Act Congress petitions the King and Parliament for repeal 7

9 Saving Face 1766--New administration in office, favors repeal of Stamp Act Repeal tied to Declaratory Act of 1766 Parliament sovereign over America "in all cases whatsoever" Controversy estranges colonists from English officials 8

10 A Foolish Boast: Tea and Sovereignty
Charles Townshend: chancellor of the exchequer 1767--Townshend Duties tax American imports of paper, lead, glass, and tea American Board of Customs Commissioners created to collect duties 9

11 Response to the Townshend Duties
Sons of Liberty organize boycott of English goods Circular letter from Massachusetts House of Representatives urges protest 92 Massachusetts Representatives defy government order to rescind letter 10

12 Creating Patriotic Martyrs
English government moves troops from frontier to Boston to save money Tensions increased March 5, English soldiers fired on Boston mob, killed five Americans Incident labeled a “massacre” Paul Revere engraving a best-seller Tensions defused by Lord North 11

13 Last Days of the Old Order, 1770-1773
1770--New prime minister, Lord North, leads repeal of all duties except tea marked by tranquility Customs collectors antagonize colonists Radicals protest tea tax as violation of American rights Committees of correspondence built up alternative political structure 12

14 The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party
1773--Parliament passes Tea Act Designed to help the East India Company by making its sale cheaper in America Americans interpret as a subtle ploy to get them to consume taxed tea December Boston protestors dump the tea into the harbor 13

15 English Reaction: The Coercive Acts
Port of Boston closed until tea paid for Massachusetts government restructured Upper house made appointive body Town meetings permitted only once per year Accused officials to be tried in England, not America Army authorized to quarter troops wherever needed 14

16 The Quebec Act: An Error in Timing
Quebec Act establishes authoritarian government for Canada Colonists interpret Act as final proof of Parliamentary plot to enslave America Mainland colonies rally to support Boston, protest the British blockade 15

17 The Ultimate Crisis Parliament’s insistence on supremacy would make rebellion unavoidable Ben Franklin suggests Parliament secure colonial loyalty by renouncing claim to supremacy Parliament rejects Franklin’s advice 16

18 Decision for Independence
September First Continental Congress in response to Coercive Acts Congress commends “Suffolk Resolves” urging forcible resistance Intercolonial “Association” halts commerce with Britain until Coercive Acts repealed 17

19 Shots Heard Around the World
April 19, skirmish breaks out in Lexington, Massachusetts Fighting spread along road between Lexington, Concord, Boston English retreat to Boston with heavy losses 18

20 Beginning “The World over Again:” Early War Effort
June Congress appoints George Washington commander of Boston force English government blockades colonial ports, hires German mercenaries Royal governors urge slaves to take up arms against their masters 19

21 Beginning “The World over Again:” Decision for Independence
January Thomas Paine’s Common Sense urges independence July 2, Independence voted by Congress July 4--Declaration of Independence issued 20

22 Fighting for Independence
English task Meet challenge of long supply line Use better-trained army to occupy territory Crush the popular spirit of independence Washington’s task Defend territory as well as possible Keep his army intact Militia’s role: compel support for Revolution 21

23 Testing the American Will, July-August 1776
American army routed on Long Island New York City captured Washington forced to retreat through New Jersey British obtain thousands of “Oaths of Allegiance” in wake of retreat 22

24 "Times That Try Men's Souls"
December 25, Washington captures Trenton January 3, Washington captures Princeton Victories rekindle wartime patriotism British consolidate forces, leave territory in patriot control 23

25 Victory in a Year of Defeat: Campaigns of 1777
British campaign for New York under John Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga British capture Philadelphia under General William Howe Washington's army winters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania 24

26 The French Alliance Saratoga prompts British suit for peace to prevent Franco-American alliance Terms include repeal of all laws since 1763, respect for colonial taxation rights February Americans ally with France to secure full independence 25

27 The Final Campaign Spring English capture Savannah and Charleston August American army routed at Camden, South Carolina Nathaniel Greene’s forces deal several defeats to English under Cornwallis October Cornwallis surrenders to Washington’s combined forces 26

28 The Loyalist Dilemma Loyalists treated poorly by both sides
English never fully trusted Loyalists Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some More than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at war’s end 27

29 Winning the Peace Peace Treaty of 1783 negotiated by Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay Terms secured by playing France against England, include independence U.S. gains all territory east of Mississippi River, between Canada and Florida U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic 28

30 Post-Colonial Experience
The American Revolution begins construction of new form of government Question remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people? 29

Download ppt "America: Past and Present Chapter 5"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google