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Menu Year 13: Ireland 1801-1921 Unit 1: Lessons 1-8 The Act of Union; Daniel O’Connell Catholic Emancipation; Repeal & reform PowerPoint presentations.

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Presentation on theme: "Menu Year 13: Ireland 1801-1921 Unit 1: Lessons 1-8 The Act of Union; Daniel O’Connell Catholic Emancipation; Repeal & reform PowerPoint presentations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Menu Year 13: Ireland Unit 1: Lessons 1-8 The Act of Union; Daniel O’Connell Catholic Emancipation; Repeal & reform PowerPoint presentations OHTs Other visual sources used in lessons Gary Hillyard, Ashfield School ‘Ireland in Schools’ NPS School of Education, U. Nottingham

2 Menu Lesson 1Why did some people oppose the Act of Union? Overview OHT How Ireland was governed before 1800? Lesson 2What impact did the Act of Union have on Ireland? Overview OHT Dublin riot Beat the teacher Lesson 3How did Catholic Emancipation fare before O’Connell? Overview OHT Connections Lesson 4Who was Daniel O’Connell? Overview Lesson 5How was Catholic Emancipation achieved? Overview OHT Vocabulary builder – Clare election OHT Cartoon ‘The Reformation’ Lessons 6-7What next for Daniel O’Connell? Overview Lesson 6OHT Tara meetingOHT Tara meeting Lesson 7What exactly does O’Connell want?What exactly does O’Connell want? Lesson 8How successful was O’Connell in gaining what he set out to achieve? Overview Sources

3 Menu Why did some people oppose the Act of Union? Aims To understand the arguments for and against the Act of Union. Lesson 1

4 Menu Lord Lieutenant (Viceroy). Ministers Chief Secretary Irish Parliament Administered Ireland – often a member of the aristocracy and a cabinet member. Were usually always English – known as the ‘Castle’. Responsible for pushing government legislation through the Irish Parliament. Until 1782 could only pass laws approved by the English. Thereafter, could introduce their own laws. Lesson 1

5 Menu Aims To understand the arguments for and against the Act of Union. Task: You are going to be given a set of cards. Your group must come up with a speech which summarises your argument and your stance towards the Act of Union. Your aim is to persuade the rest of the group to your views. You must include all of your arguments in your speech. Lesson 1

6 Menu Aims To understand the arguments for and against the Act of Union. Feedback – speak away! So what were the arguments for and against the Act of Union? Lesson 1

7 Menu Aims To understand the arguments for and against the Act of Union. Homework: Read page 27 of the textbook and use it to complete page 2 of the workbook. Lesson 1

8 Menu Lord Lieutenant (Viceroy). Ministers Chief Secretary Irish Parliament Administered Ireland – often a member of the aristocracy and a cabinet member. Were usually always English – known as the ‘Castle’. Responsible for pushing government legislation through the Irish Parliament. Until 1782 could only pass laws approved by the English. Thereafter, could introduce their own laws. Lesson 1 - OHT

9 Menu What impact did the Act of Union have on Ireland? Aims To examine change and continuity after the Act. Lesson 2

10 Menu Aims To examine change and continuity after the Act. Read through page 28 of your textbook and log supporting details for your worksheet. Change Continuity Lesson 2

11 Menu Aims To examine change and continuity after the Act. Great mobbing and rioting threatened, but I hope Mr Grattan is a little afraid of his head. He got out of one scrape miraculously. However, I trust he is aware that ‘miracles don’t happen every day’. The amiable idol was carried all about Sackville Street, Putland Square etc. etc. the day before yesterday in his sedan chair by a most tumultuous and riotous mob, and deposited afterwards at Mr George Ponsonby’s, where a fine dinner was made for him, and where he was ushered in with the shoutings, huzzaings and applauses enough to rend the skies! After which the mob proceeded to a Mr McClelland’s (a Northern member, I believe) whom they knew as a Unionist, and paraded before his house of a long time menacing and abusing and calling him to appear, that they might apprize him of his fate and all those who acted as he did. However, they dispersed at length after thundering at the knocker and frightening all the poor females of the family into fits etc. etc. I assure you, my dear Lord, none in this country can walk upon velvet…The exasperation of the town is most alarming. Indeed, one knows not what may be the end or issue of this formidable undertaken in the state and temper in which the whole kingdom is at present. God grant it may come to fortunate conclusion. What is happening here and why? Lesson 2

12 Menu Aims To examine change and continuity after the Act. Final task: Write a 50 word summary of how the British would have appeared to Irish Catholics after the act was passed. Lesson 2

13 Menu Beat the Teacher Read through the sheet about the work you should have completed for homework. Mark on the sheet the mistakes and replace them with the correct answers. Lesson 2

14 Menu Emancipation before O’Connell Aims To examine the build up to O’Connell’s challenge of Emancipation. Lesson 3

15 Menu ANSWER – During the reign of Charles II, a law was passed which made it virtually impossible for Catholics to become MPs because to do so they would have to take communion at a Church England church. Lesson 3 OHT

16 Menu Aims To examine the build up to O’Connell’s challenge of Emancipation. Task: Read through the information sheet and use it to fill out the definitions for the keywords and people. Lesson 3

17 Menu Aims To examine the build up to O’Connell’s challenge of Emancipation. On the floor are the six key terms you were asked to find definitions for in your homework. The aim is to go across all six stepping stones quoting what each keyword means. The rest of the class will decide how close you are to the definition. Task: Read through the timeline. Extract the information about O’Connell’s life and create a timeline of his life. There should be no details which do not relate directly to O’Connell on your timeline. Lesson 3

18 Menu Who was Daniel O’Connell? Aims To begin to learn the key features of O’Connell’s life. Lesson 4

19 Menu Aims To begin to learn the key features of O’Connell’s life. Based on the obituaries, which words would you use to describe O’Connell? Lesson 4

20 Menu Aims To begin to learn the key features of O’Connell’s life. Task 1: Use pages of the textbook to fill out the first section of the Catholic Association worksheet. Task 2: Now use the sources to answer the questions on the back of the sheet. Lesson 4

21 Menu How was Catholic Emancipation achieved? Aims To examine how Catholics achieved political freedoms. Lesson 5

22 Menu Vocab Builder In July 1828 Daniel O’Connell stood for election in County Clare. Voters ignored the views of their landlords and vote en mass for O’Connell. He won by 2057 votes to 982. Which words could be used to describe how O’Connell would have felt after the election? EcstaticDisappointedProudRebellious DauntedConfidentPessimisticNotable DefiantCooperativeHopefulScared What words would you use to describe how the British government would have felt? Lesson 5 OHT/1

23 Menu Aims To examine how Catholics achieved political freedoms. Section 1 – The County Clare Election Why was this going to cause a huge problem for the British Government? Section 2 – The Catholic Emancipation Bill. How would the Catholics in Ireland have reacted to this? Section 3 - Was Catholic Emancipation granted to avoid civil war rather than out of a spirit of generosity and tolerance within Britain? Lesson 5

24 Menu Cartoon, ‘The Reformation’, Lesson 5 OHT/2

25 Menu Aims To examine how Catholics achieved political freedoms. Homework: You are going to be given a topic slip. The slip will have one section of the textbook from which you are to make notes. Over the next two lessons I will be leading a PowerPoint about the next section of work. The notes you make from your section will be fed-back during the appropriate section of the PowerPoint. Hence, it is crucial that you do it and that you are here!!!!! Lesson 5

26 Menu What next for Daniel O’Connell? Aim To examine O’Connell’s focus after Emancipation was achieved. Lessons 6 & 7

27 Menu What does this image show? Lessons 6 & 7

28 Menu What is next? Reform? ‘I could try to ensure that I work within parliament to push for reforms for Ireland which could lead to greater justice and fairness and equality of legislation in Ireland’. Repeal? ‘Or I could campaign in Ireland for a movement to push for the repeal of the Act of Union. I am, after all being paid the O’Connell tribute in recognition of my services to Irish Catholics’. In the end O’Connell’s long-term aim of repeal was replaced with a short-term desire for reform. However, O’Connell was prepared to re-ignite the repeal campaign if the Union failed and equality was not achieved. But why did he take this stance?

29 Menu Stage 1 - Reform Why reform? Middle-class opposition Opposition from the church. Peasant frustrations The ‘tithe war’ – Rural violence Lessons 6 & 7

30 Menu So what reform took place? Reform Act – 2.The Coercion Act 1833 – 3.Education Reform 1832 – 4.Irish Church Act Lessons 6 & 7

31 Menu The Lichfield House Compact Government was still very anti-repeal. This ruled out repeal. The Whigs and the Radicals were more likely to continue reform. Therefore, O’Connell wanted an alliance. That alliance came in February 1835 – the Conservatives were in a minority government which could have been overthrown by an alliance between opponents. The Whigs, Radicals and Irish (of which there were around 39) joined together and defeated the Conservative government. Lessons 6 & 7

32 Menu What…more reform? 1.The work of Thomas Drummond – 2.Tithes – Poor Law Act – Corporations Act - Lessons 6 & 7

33 Menu Little had changed in Ireland – the position of the Irish was not much better and O’Connell appeared to be the Whigs’ lap-dog, compromising all of the time …’if that experiment failed, I would come back with tenfold force to the repeal’. Lessons 6 & 7

34 Menu My first object is to get Ireland for the Irish…Old Ireland and liberty! That is what I am struggling for…What numberless advantages would not the Irish enjoy if they possessed their own country? A domestic parliament would encourage Irish manufactures…Irish commerce and protect Irish agriculture. The labourer, the artisan, and the shopkeeper would all be benefited by the repeal of the union…They say we want separation from England, but what I want is to prevent separation taking place…what motive could we have to separate if we obtain all these blessings?...I want you to do nothing that is not open and legal, but if the people unite with me and follow my advice it is impossible not to get the Repeal…there was no pursuit of Roman Catholic interests as opposed to Protestant…the object in view was the benefit of the whole nation. Daniel O’Connell, 14 th May 1843 What exactly does O’Connell want? Lessons 6 & 7

35 Menu Stage 1 – Repeal (1840+) Support? Catholic Church Parish PriestsSome bishops Archbishop MacHale Young Ireland X = Middle-classes? Lessons 6 & 7

36 Menu Mass Meetings Repeal Rent Increased support? Methods of the Repeal Association Lessons 6 & 7

37 Menu Why did the Repeal movement fail? Failure? Lessons 6 & 7

38 Menu The end of Repeal and O’Connell October 7 th 1843 May 1844 June February th May 1847 Lessons 6 & 7

39 Menu What? Even more reform? Peel (Conservative Prime Minister from 1841) continued the Whig attempts reform Ireland. Proposed a new franchise reform allowing £5 freeholders to vote. Proposed a Bill to give compensation to Irish tenants who had been evicted. This would pay for the improvements made to their property. Maynooth College – The Colleges Bill – Lessons 6 & 7

40 Menu How successful was O’Connell in gaining what he set out to achieve? Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Lesson 8

41 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Read through the text and try and work out what the missing words are by using the words around the gap to help you. Lesson 8

42 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 1 - O. MacDonagh, The Emancipist - Daniel O’Connell , It was his earlier pressure which had forced Peel and his Cabinet, at last, onto the path of concession in Ireland; and, once committed to that path, they saw the breaking of O’Connell’s power as the necessary preliminary to a course of Irish reform. The fact that it was a Tory and not a Whig administration which intended to yield ground should not blind us...to the essential fact that it was a British government which would yield, in the face of Irish agitation. O’Connell himself had repeatedly, if partly rhetorically, begged to be put out of business - the business of Repeal - by being outbid by ‘Justice for Ireland’. Up to a point, this was precisely Peel’s intention - to undercut O’Connell’s movement by concessions. Lesson 8

43 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 2 - Harriet Martineau, History of the Thirty Years Peace , The untruthfulness of O’Connell must be regarded as a constitutional attribute in O’Connell two sets of characteristics were united...He was genuinely impetuous, ardent, open-hearted, patriotic, ad devoted; and then again, he was genuinely cautious and astute; calculating, sly, untruthful; grasping. selfish, and hypocritical. He was profuse, and he was sordid; he was rash, and he was unfathomably politic; now he was flowing out, and now he was circumventing. Among all his charges, however, he never was brave, he never was reliable or accurate; and he never kept his eye off the money boxes which supplied his annual income from the scrapings of the earnings of the poor. Lesson 8

44 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 3 - O. MacDonagh in A New History of Ireland, volume 5, edited by W.E. Vaughan, His part in the later campaigns for Catholic emancipation had both promoted him to a sort of national leadership and cleared away what was, in many ways, a great cross-issue obstructing the path of reform. His entry into parliament in 1830 transformed his situation and both enabled and induced him to develop an entirely new grammar of pressure politics...Well before he shifted his focus from Westminster again, he had established his domination in Catholic Ireland by persuading or compelling his political rivals, the trade unions, the priests, the Catholic bourgeoisie, and the rural masses to support him...throughout his parliamentary manoeuvres. In short, he had turned Catholic Ireland into something like a gigantic political party, which, of course, the leader had to tend and listen to, but which in the last resort he could count on to back him, even blindly. Lesson 8

45 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 4 - John Mitchell, Jail Journal. He led them, as I believe, all wrong for forty years. He was a lawyer; and never could come to the point of denying and defying British law. He was a Catholic, sincere and devout; and would not see that the Church had ever been the enemy of Irish Freedom. He was an aristocrat, by position and by taste; and the name of a Republic was odious to him. Lesson 8

46 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 5 - A. MacIntyre, The Liberator - Daniel O’Connell ad the Irish Party , The age of O’Connell witnessed a series of important reforms in Ireland, undertaken by Government partly in obedience to current ideas about economics and society but also, in a more tangible and immediate fashion, in response to the presence and activity of the O’Connellite party in Parliament. Whatever the final judgement on O’Connell’s party, there can be no doubt of its success as a political pressure group. From the conclusion in 1832 of the struggle for Parliamentary Reform until the effective rise of Chartism and the Anti-Corn Law League in the early 1840s, the Irish question formed a central theme of British politics. Lesson 8

47 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Source 6 - P. O’Farrell, Ireland’s English Question, O’Connell, with remarkable political genius, contrived a marriage of convenience between religion and national politics...He welded an effective and enduring alliance between nationalism and Catholicism in Ireland...O’Connell enlisted the power of Irish Catholicism to reformist political objectives. Source 7 - Charles Greville, The Greville Memoirs, 7 June Up to the conquest of Catholic Emancipation his was certainly a great and glorious career. What he might have done and what he ought to have done after that, it is not easy to say, but undoubtedly he did far more mischief than good, and exhibited anything but a wise, generous, and patriotic spirit. In Peel’s Administration he did nothing but mischief, and it is difficult to comprehend with what object and what hope he threw Ireland into confusion, and got up that Repeal agitation, the folly and impracticability of which nobody must have known so well as himself. Lesson 8

48 Menu Aims To examine the success of O’Connell’s leadership. Use the information from the last four lessons plus the sources to complete the writing grid for the essay which you will write up for homework. Lesson 8


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