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5- 1 McGraw Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Sixth Edition Richard A. Brealey Stewart C. Myers Alan J. Marcus Slides by Matthew Will Chapter 5 McGraw Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Time Value of Money

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5- 2 Topics Covered Future Values and Compound Interest Present Values Multiple Cash Flows Level Cash Flows Perpetuities and Annuities Effective Annual Interest Rates Inflation & Time Value

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5- 3 Future Values Future Value - Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest. Compound Interest - Interest earned on interest. Simple Interest - Interest earned only on the original investment.

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5- 4 Future Values Example - Simple Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100. Interest Earned Per Year = 100 x.06 = $ 6

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5- 5 Example - Simple Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100. TodayFuture Years 1 2 3 4 5 Interest Earned Value100 Future Values 6 106 6 112 6 118 6 124 6 130 Value at the end of Year 5 = $130

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5- 6 Future Values Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance. Interest Earned Per Year =Prior Year Balance x.06

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5- 7 Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance. TodayFuture Years 1 2 3 4 5 Interest Earned Value100 Future Values 6 106 6.36 112.36 6.74 119.10 7.15 126.25 7.57 133.82 Value at the end of Year 5 = $133.82

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5- 8 Future Values Future Value of $100 = FV

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5- 9 Future Values Example - FV What is the future value of $100 if interest is compounded annually at a rate of 6% for five years?

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5- 10 Future Values with Compounding Interest Rates

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5- 11 Manhattan Island Sale Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for $24 in 1626. Was this a good deal? To answer, determine $24 is worth in the year 2008, compounded at 8%. FYI - The value of Manhattan Island land is well below this figure.

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5- 12 Present Values Present Value Value today of a future cash flow. Discount Rate Interest rate used to compute present values of future cash flows. Discount Factor Present value of a $1 future payment.

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5- 13 Present Values

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5- 14 Present Values Example You just bought a new computer for $3,000. The payment terms are 2 years same as cash. If you can earn 8% on your money, how much money should you set aside today in order to make the payment when due in two years?

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5- 15 Present Values Discount Factor = DF = PV of $1 Discount Factors can be used to compute the present value of any cash flow.

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5- 16 The PV formula has many applications. Given any variables in the equation, you can solve for the remaining variable. Time Value of Money (applications)

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5- 17 Present Values with Compounding Interest Rates

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5- 18 Value of Free Credit Implied Interest Rates Internal Rate of Return Time necessary to accumulate funds Time Value of Money (applications)

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5- 19 PV of Multiple Cash Flows Example Your auto dealer gives you the choice to pay $15,500 cash now, or make three payments: $8,000 now and $4,000 at the end of the following two years. If your cost of money is 8%, which do you prefer?

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5- 20 Present Values Present Value Year 0 4000/1.08 4000/1.08 2 Total = $3,703.70 = $3,429.36 = $15,133.06 $4,000 $8,000 Year 0 12 $ 4,000 $8,000

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5- 21 Perpetuities & Annuities

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5- 22 PV of Multiple Cash Flows PVs can be added together to evaluate multiple cash flows.

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5- 23 Perpetuities & Annuities Perpetuity A stream of level cash payments that never ends. Annuity Equally spaced level stream of cash flows for a limited period of time.

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5- 24 Perpetuities & Annuities PV of Perpetuity Formula C = cash payment r = interest rate

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5- 25 Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Perpetuity In order to create an endowment, which pays $100,000 per year, forever, how much money must be set aside today in the rate of interest is 10%?

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5- 26 Perpetuities & Annuities Example - continued If the first perpetuity payment will not be received until three years from today, how much money needs to be set aside today?

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5- 27 Perpetuities & Annuities PV of Annuity Formula C = cash payment r = interest rate t = Number of years cash payment is received

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5- 28 Perpetuities & Annuities PV Annuity Factor (PVAF) - The present value of $1 a year for each of t years.

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5- 29 Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Annuity You are purchasing a car. You are scheduled to make 3 annual installments of $4,000 per year. Given a rate of interest of 10%, what is the price you are paying for the car (i.e. what is the PV)?

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5- 30 Perpetuities & Annuities Applications Value of payments Implied interest rate for an annuity Calculation of periodic payments Mortgage payment Annual income from an investment payout Future Value of annual payments

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5- 31 Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Future Value of annual payments You plan to save $4,000 every year for 20 years and then retire. Given a 10% rate of interest, what will be the FV of your retirement account?

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5- 32 Effective Interest Rates Annual Percentage Rate - Interest rate that is annualized using simple interest. Effective Annual Interest Rate - Interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.

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5- 33 Effective Interest Rates example Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual Percentage Rate (APR)?

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5- 34 Effective Interest Rates example Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual Percentage Rate (APR)?

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5- 35 Inflation Inflation - Rate at which prices as a whole are increasing. Nominal Interest Rate - Rate at which money invested grows. Real Interest Rate - Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.

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5- 36 Inflation Annual Inflation, % Annual U.S. Inflation Rates from 1900 - 2007

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5- 37 Inflation approximation formula

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5- 38 Inflation Example If the interest rate on one year govt. bonds is 6.0% and the inflation rate is 2.0%, what is the real interest rate? Savings Bond

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5- 39 Inflation Remember: Current dollar cash flows must be discounted by the nominal interest rate; real cash flows must be discounted by the real interest rate.

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5- 40 Web Resources

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