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Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 1 The Time Value of Money: Present Value of a Bond and Effective Interest Amortization Appendix to.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 1 The Time Value of Money: Present Value of a Bond and Effective Interest Amortization Appendix to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 1 The Time Value of Money: Present Value of a Bond and Effective Interest Amortization Appendix to Chapter 15

2 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 2 Time Value of Money Interest – cost of using money Borrower – interest expense Lender – interest revenue

3 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 3 Present Value $100,000 ????

4 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 4 Present Value Depends on three factors: 1.Dollar amounts to be paid in the future 2.Length of time between investment and future payment 3.Interest rate Computing present value is called discounting

5 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 5 Future Value 1 yr ????? $1,000 10% Interest = $1,000 x.10 = $100 Principal =1,000 Future value$1,100 Or Future value = 1,000 x 1.10 = $1,100 Present Value Future Value If you invest $1,000 today and earn 10% interest, you will have $1,100 at the end of one year

6 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 6 Present Value 1 yr ????? $1,100 10% Present value x 1.10 = $1,100 Present value = $1,100/1.10 Present value = $1,000 Present Value Future Value Present value is just taking the interest out. If you can earn 10% interest and want to receive $1,100 in one year, you will have to invest $1,000 today

7 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 7 Present Value 1 yr ????? $1,100 10% Present value x 1.10 = $1,100 Present value = $1,100/1.10 Present value = $1,000 Present Value Future Value 2 yrs Present value x 1.10 = $1,000 Present value = $1,000/1.10 Present value = $909 What if you would like to receive $1,100 in TWO years instead. How much would you have to invest today? 1,000

8 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 8 Present Value of $1 Table 1 yr ????? $1,100 10% Present Value Future Value 2 yrs Present Value = Future Value x Table Factor = $1,100 x = $909 Look on the Present Value of $1 table. Find the table factor where the percentage rate and the number of periods intersect

9 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 9 Present Value of an Annuity 1 yr ????? $1,100 10% Present Value Future Value 2 yrs Present Value of $1,100 in one year: $1,100 x = $1,000 $1,100 Present Value of $1,100 in two years: $1,100 x = $909 $1,000 + $909 = $1,909 Now, what if you would like to receive $1,100 at the end of EACH year for 2 years? How much would you have to invest today? If you invest $1,909 today and earn 10% interest compounded annually, you can withdraw $1,100 at the end of each year for two years This type of cash flow is called an annuity – equal cash flows over equal periods of time at a constant rate of interest

10 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 10 Present Value of an Annuity Table 1 yr ????? $1,100 10% Present Value Future Value 2 yrs $1,100 Present Value of an Annuity = Payments x Table Factor = $1,100 x = $1,909.60

11 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 11 Present Value of a Bond $100,000 One type of cash flow is the principal that will be received when the bond matures. (Present value of $1)

12 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 12 Present Value of a Bond $4,500 Another type of cash flow is the interest payments that will be received every six months. (Present value of an annuity)

13 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 13 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2a What are the future cash flows? –$88,000 lump sum (present value of $1) –$5,280 interest payments based on stated rate (present value of annuity) What is the market rate? –6% (12%/2) How many times is interest compounded? –20 (10 years x 2)

14 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 14 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2a. Present value of $88,000 to be received in 20 interest payment periods at 6% interest $88,000 x 0.312$27,456 Present value of annuity of $5,280 to be received 20 times at 6% interest $5,280 x ,562 Total present value$88,018 Use the present value of annuity table. Find the factor where the number of interest payment periods = 20 (twice a year for 10 years) and the interest rate = 6% (12%/2 times a year) This is the amount an investor would be willing to pay in order to receive both the principal and interest payments in the future Use the present value of 1 table. Find the factor where the number of interest payment periods = 20 (twice a year for 10 years) and the interest rate = 6% (12%/2 times a year) Note: the present value should be $88,000. The difference of $18 is due to rounding to three decimal places in the present value tables

15 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 15 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2b What are the future cash flows? –$88,000 lump sum (present value of $1) –$5,280 interest payments based on stated rate (present value of annuity) What is the market rate? –7% (14%/2) How many times is interest compounded? –20 (10 years x 2)

16 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 16 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2b Present value of $88,000 to be received in 20 interest payment periods at 7% interest $88,000 x 0.258$22,704 Present value of annuity of $5,280 to be received 20 times at 7% interest $5,280 x ,936 Total present value$78,640

17 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 17 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2c What are the future cash flows? –$88,000 lump sum (present value of $1) –$5,280 interest payments based on stated rate (present value of annuity) What is the market rate? –5% (10%/2) How many times is interest compounded? –20 (10 years x 2)

18 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 18 Present Value of a Bond P15A-2c Present value of $88,000 to be received in 20 interest payment periods at 5% interest $88,000 x 0.377$33,176 Present value of annuity of $5,280 to be received 20 times at 5% interest $5,280 x ,799 Total present value$98,975

19 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 19 Effective-Interest Amortization Preferred method over straight-line When amounts are materially different, GAAP requires effective-interest method Allocates bond interest expense over life of bonds in a way that yields constant rate of interest

20 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 20 Effective-Interest Method Interest expense = Carrying value x market rate of interest Cash = Face x stated rate of interest Difference is amount of premium or discount to amortize

21 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 21 Amortization Table Semiannual Interest Period (a) Interest Payment (b) Interest Expense (b-a) Discount Amortization Discount Account Balance Bond Carrying Amount

22 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 22 P15A-5P15A-5 1. $200,000 x 1.10 = $220, Interest payments = $200,000 x 4% = $8,000

23 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 23 P15A-5P15A-5 Amortization Table Semiannual Interest Period (a) Interest Payment (b) Interest Expense (a-b) Premium Amortization Premium Account Balance Bond Carrying Amount $220,0005/31/08$20,000 $8,000$6,60011/30/08 5/31/09 $1,40018,600218,600 8,0006,5581,44217,158217,158 Face x Stated Rate Carrying Value x Market Rate

24 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 24 P15A-5P15A-5 GENERAL JOURNAL DATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDIT May 31 Cash 220,000 Premium on Bonds Payable 20,000 Bonds Payable 200,000 Nov 30Interest Expense 6,600 Premium on Bonds Payable1,400 Cash8,000

25 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 25 P15A-5P15A-5 GENERAL JOURNAL DATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDIT 2009 May 31Interest Expense 6,558 Premium on Bonds Payable1,442 Cash8,000

26 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 26 P15A-8P15A-8 Present value of $400,000 to be received in 20 interest payment periods at 4% interest $400,000 x 0.456$182,400 Present value of annuity of $14,500 to be received 20 times at 4% interest $14,500 x ,055 Total present value$379,455

27 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 27 P15A-8P15A-8 Amortization Table Semiannual Interest Period (a) Interest Payment (b) Interest Expense (b-a) Discount Amortization Discount Account Balance Bond Carrying Amount $379,45512/31/01$20,545 $14,500$15,1786/30/02 12/31/02 $67819,867380,133 14,50015, ,162380,838

28 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 28 P15A-8P15A-8 GENERAL JOURNAL DATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDIT Dec 31 Cash 379,455 Discount on Bonds Payable 20,545 Bonds Payable 400, Jun 30Interest Expense 15,178 Discount on Bonds Payable 678 Cash14,500

29 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 29 P15A-8P15A-8 GENERAL JOURNAL DATEDESCRIPTIONREFDEBITCREDIT 2002 Dec 31 Interest Expense 15,205 Discount on Bonds Payable 705 Cash14,500

30 Copyright © 2007 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved 30 End of Chapter 15 Appendix


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