2IntroductionThis chapter introduces the concepts and skills necessary to understand the time value of money and its applications.
3Notation I denotes simple interest i denotes the interest rate per periodn denotes the number of periodsPMT denotes cash payment (annuities only)PV denotes the present value dollar amountT denotes the tax ratet denotes timePV0 = principal amount at time 0FVn = future value n time periods from time 0
4Simple Interest Simple Interest Interest paid on the principal sum onlyI = PV0 i nFVn = PV0 + I = PV0 + PV0 i n
5Compound Interest Compound Interest Interest paid on the principal and on priorinterest that has not been paid or withdrawnFV1 = PV0(1+i)1FV2 = FV1(1+i)1 = PV0(1+i)2FV3 = FV2(1+i)1 = PV0(1+i)2(1+i)1 = PV0(1+i)3
6Future Value of a Cash Flow At the end of year n for a sum compounded at interest rate i is FVn = PV0(1 + i)n FormulaSee Figure 4.1.In Table I in the text, (FVIFi,n) shows the future value of $1 invested for n years at interest rate i: FVIFi,n = (1 + i)n Table IWhen using the table, FVn = PV0(FVIFi,n)See Figure 4.2.
8Tables Have Three Variables Interest factors (IF)Time periods (n)Interest rates per period (i)If you know any two, you can solve algebraically for the third variable.
9Present Value of a Cash Flow PV0 = FVn[1/(1+i)n] FormulaPVIFi, n = [1/(1+i)n] Table IIPV0 = FVn(PVIFi, n) Table IISee Figure 4.3.
10Present Value of a Cash Flow PV0 = FVn[1/(1+i)n]
11Example Using FormulaWhat is the PV of $100 one year from now with 12 percent (annual) interest compounded monthly?PV0 = $100 1/( /12)(12 1)= $100 1/( )= $100 ( )= $ 88.74
12Example Using Table II PV0 = FVn(PVIFi, n) = $100(.887) From Table II = $ 88.70
13Annuity A series of equal dollar CFs for a specified number of periods Ordinary annuity is where the CFs occur at the end of each period.Annuity due is where the CFs occur at the beginning of each period.
14Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity Formula for IFFVANn = PMT(FVIFAi, n) Table III
15Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity Suppose Ms. Jefferson receives a three-year ordinary annuity of $1,000 per year and deposits the money in a savings account at the end of each year. The account earns interest at a rate of 6% compounded annually. How much will her account be worth at the end of the three-year period?
16Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity See Figure 4.6.FVAN3 = PMT(FVIFA0.06, 3)= $1,000(3.184) = $3,184
17Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity FormulaPVAN0 = PMT(PVIFAi, n) Table IV
18Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity What is the present value of an ordinary $1,000 annuity received at the end of each year for five years discounted at a 6% rate?See Figure 4.8.PVAN0 = PMT(PVIFA0.06, 5)= $1,000(4.212)= $4,212
19Annuity Due Future Value of an Annuity Due FVANDn = PMT(FVIFAi, n)(1 + i)Table IIIPresent Value of an Annuity DuePVAND0 = PMT(PVIFAi, n)(1 + i)Table IV
20Annuity DueConsider the case of Jefferson cited earlier. If she deposits $1,000 in a savings account at the beginning of each year for the next three years and the account earns 6% interest, compounded annually, how much will be in the account at the end of three years?See Figure 4.7.FVAND3 = PMT(FVIFA0.06, 3)( )= $1,000(3.375) = $3,375
21Annuity DueConsider the case of a five-year annuity of $1,000 each year, discounted at 6% interest rate. What is the present value of this annuity if each payment is received at the beginning of each year?See Figure 4.9.PVAND0 = PMT(PVIFA0.06, 5)( )= $1,000(4.465)= $4,465
22Other Important Formulas Sinking FundPMT = FVANn (FVIFAi, n) Table IIIPayments on a LoanPMT = PVAN0 (PVIFAi, n) Table IVPresent Value of a PerpetuityPVPER0 = PMT iNeed better title for this slide
23Example: Sinking Fund Problem Suppose the Omega Graphics Company wishes to set aside an equal, annual, end-of-year amount in a “sinking fund account” earning 10% per annum over the next five years. The firm wants to have $5 million in the account at the end of five years to retire (pay off) $5 million in outstanding bonds. How much must be deposited in the account at the end of each year?
24Solution Based on Table III $5,000,000 = PMT(FVIFA0.10, 5)= PMT(6.105) PMT = $819,001
25Solution Based on the Financial Calculator 1. 5,000,000 → FV2. 10 → %i3. 5 → N4. Compute5. PMT (= -818,987.40)
26Example: Payments on a Loan Suppose you borrowed $10,000 from the ICBC. The loan is for a period of four years at an interest rate of 10%. It requires that you make four equal, annual, end-of-year payments that include both principal and interest on the outstanding balance.
27Solution Based on Table IV PMT = PVAN0 (PVIFAi, n)= $10,000 (PVIFA0.10, 4)= $10,000 3.170= $3,155
28Solution Based on the Financial Calculator 1. 10,000 → PV2. 10 → %i3. 4 → N4. Compute5. PMT (= -3,154.71)
29Present Value of a Perpetuity Assume that Kansas City Power & Light series E preferred stock promises payments of $4.50 per year forever and that an investor requires a 10% rate of return on this type of investment. How much would the investor be willing to pay for this security?PVPER0 = PMT iPVPER0 = $4.50 10% = $45
30Present Value of an Uneven Payment Stream Algebraically, the present value of an uneven payment stream can be represented asSee Figure 4.10.
31Present Value of Deferred Annuities Suppose that you wish to provide for the college education of your daughter. She will begin college five years from now, and you wish to have $15,000 available for her at the beginning of each year in college. How much must be invested today at a 12% annual rate of return in order to provide the four-year, $15,000 annuity for your daughter?See Figure 4.11.
32Solution Based on Tables II and III First step: calculate the present value of the four-year (ordinary) annuityPVAN4 = $15,000(PVIFA0.12, 4)= $15,000(3.037)= $45,555Second step: calculate the present value of the (ordinary) annuityPVAN0 = PVAN4(PVIF0.12, 4)= $45,555(0.636) = $28,973
34Interest Compounded More Frequently Than Once Per Year Suppose:m = # of times interest is compounded per yearn = # of yearsFuture ValuePresent Value
35Compounding and Effective Rates Rate of interest per compounding periodEffective annual rate of interest
36Compounding and Effective Rates Suppose a bank offers you a loan an annual nominal interest rate of 12% compounded quarterly. What effective annual interest rate is the bank charging you?
37ExampleMr. Moore is 45 years old today (Dec. 31) and is beginning to plan for his retirement. He wants to set aside an equal amount at the end of each of the next 20 years so that he can retire at age 65. He expects to live to the maximum age of 85 and wants to be able to withdraw $25,000 per year from the account on his 66th through 85th birthdays.
38ExampleThe account is expected to earn 10 percent per annum for the entire period of time. Determine the size of the annual deposits that must be made by Mr. Moore.
39Solution Based on Tables III and IV PVAN = PMT(PVIFA0.10,20)= $25,000(8.514)= $212,850 (needed on 65th birthday)$212,850 = PMT(FVIFA0.10,20)= PMT(57.275) PMT = $3,716.28
41ExampleYou sold 1000 shares of stock today for $ per share that you paid $50 for 5 years ago. Determine the average annual rate of return on your investment, assuming the stock paid no dividends.
42Solution Based on Table II PV0 = FVn(PVIFi, n);n = 5; PV0 = $50; FV5 = $80.515$50 = $80.515(PVIFi, 5)(PVIFi, 5) = 0.621; Therefore i = 10% from Table II.
43ExampleThe Texas lottery agrees to pay the winner $500,000 at the end of each year for the next 20 years. What is the future value of this lottery if you plan to put each payment in an account earning 12 percent?
44Solution Based on Table III FVAN20= PMT(FVIFAi, n)= $500,000(FVIFA0.12, 20)= $500,000(72.052)= $36,026,000
45Solution Based on the Financial Calculator ,000 → PMT2. 12 → %i3. 20 → N4. Compute5. FV (= 36,026,221.22)
46ExampleYour firm has just leased a $32,000 BMW for you. The lease requires five beginning of the year payments that will fully amortize the cost of the car. What is the amount of the payments if the interest rate is 10 percent?
47Solution Based on Table IV PVAND0 = PMT(PVIFAi, n)(1+i)$32,000 = PMT(PVIFA0.10, 5)(1+10%)$32,000 = PMT(3.791)(1.10) PMT = $7,673.68
48Solution Based on the Financial Calculator 1. 32,000 → PV2. 10 → %i3. 5 → N4. Compute5. PMT (= -8,441.52)6. -8, 1.10 = -7,674.11