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Chapter 14 Cyber Crimes © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Cyber Crimes © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Cyber Crimes © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved

2 2 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Objectives 1. Discuss typical uses for the Internet. 2. Differentiate among the three general categories of cyber crime. 3. Discuss the process of investigating and processing various types of computer evidence. 4. Distinguish among the four types of computer evidence presented at court.

3 3 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Objectives 5. Identify various types of evidence that can be collected at a cyber crime scene and its forensic value. 6. Discuss the importance of the various tools available to cyber crime investigators/experts. 7. Explain the importance of the expert witness in cyber crimes.

4 4 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Objectives 8. Examine how cyber evidence is documented. 9. Discuss concerns associated with the future of cyber crimes.

5 5 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Vocabulary o clone—a copy made in the same type of media o computer forensics—the specialized practice of identifying, preserving, extracting, documenting, and interpreting electronic data that can be used as evidence o content spyware—software that is used to allow a hacker to access all the activity on an individual’s personal/business computer

6 6 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Vocabulary o cyber-terrorism—hacking into a company’s internal networking system for the purpose of demonstrating or protesting a political agenda o hacking—intentionally entering an unauthorized network system o Internet forensics—uses the same analysis techniques as computer forensics except the emphasis is placed on the Internet as a whole

7 7 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction—Vocabulary o malware—software designed to provide unauthor- ized access to a computer system o phishing—illegally gathering personal information o Trojan horse—software designed with the intention to harm a computer or the information therein o worm—self-replicating malware program that spreads through a computer system by sending copies of itself to networked computers

8 8 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved It Takes a Hacker o Kevin Mitnick, computer hacker, evaded detection until he hacked Shimomura’s computer o Tsutomu Shimomura, a computer engineer, helped the FBI catch the elusive hacker Monitoring posts track Mitnick’s activities Trail led to Raleigh, NC Driving the streets to pick up signature signals o Mitnick is the first convicted of gaining access to an interstate computer for criminal purposes

9 9 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Introduction (Obj 14.1) o Computer forensics—is the systematic identification, preservation, extraction, documentation, and analysis of electronic data that could potentially be used as evidence in court o Internet forensics—similar to computer forensics but with an emphasis on the Internet as a whole

10 10 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Identity Theft o A criminal can obtain personal information by: Searching trash for sensitive papers that are not shredded Phishing—defrauding a victim by sending e- mails that look real and asking for information Spyware programs that reside on a victim’s computer and collect sensitive information

11 11 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Phishing Example

12 12 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Phishing Process

13 13 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Types of Cyber Crime (Obj 14.2) 1. Computer integrity crimes 2. Computer-assisted crimes 3. Computer content crimes

14 14 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved 1 – Computer Integrity Crimes o Crimes that involve illegal access to data on a computer or network o Hacking—intentionally entering an unauthorized computer or network Hacker 1 —someone entering with criminal intent Hacker 2 —someone who is hired to legitimately test the vulnerability of a security system o Cyber-terrorism—hacking into a network for protesting a political agenda

15 15 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Hacker Computer Code

16 16 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Computer Integrity Crimes o Social Engineering—establishing trust with key inside people with the intent of determining possible passwords o Malware—software designed to provide unauthorized access to a computer Trojan horse—appears legitimate, but Worm—self-replicating malware that spreads to other computers and networks o Content spyware—allows a hacker to access all the activity on an individual’s computer

17 17 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved 2 – Computer-Assisted Crimes o The Virtual Bank Robbery o The Virtual Sting o The Virtual Scam

18 18 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved 3 – Computer Content Crimes o Posting illegal content on the Internet Sexually explicit materials Child pornography Hateful or aggressive speech or text related to race and extreme politics Distribution of information about making and using drugs and weapons Sites for organizations to do harm Distasteful s, chat rooms, and blogs

19 19 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Investigation and Prosecuting (Obj 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8) o Forensic value of collectable evidence

20 20 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Investigation and Prosecuting o Preserving the Evidence Chain of custody Turn off or pull the plug? When and how to turn a computer on

21 21 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Investigation and Prosecuting o Analyzing the Evidence Cloning—creating an exact copy of the hard drive, bit by bit Use the hard drive copy for analysis Difficult to find the pertinent data Software programs sort and index computer evidence

22 22 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Trace Evidence o In computer forensics, trace evidence is essentially hidden evidence in deleted files. o A computer’s hard drive is made up of sectors, chunks of memory to store files and data. The sectors consist of clusters, smaller segments of memory.

23 23 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved How Slack Space is Created

24 24 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Recovering Metadata

25 25 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Forensic Tools o When deciding what equipment to use, take into consideration: type of investigation type of evidence operating system extensive training in the equipment financial resources of the cyber crime department

26 26 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Documenting Evidence o Relevant and fact- based o Understandable format o Clearly written o Describe evidence collection process o Results clearly stated

27 27 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Presenting Computer Evidence in Court o Four types of computer evidence may be presented in court Real—actual and tangible Documentary—written Testimonial—written or spoken by witness Demonstrative—facts or objects

28 28 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Presenting Computer Evidence in Court

29 29 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Expert Testimony o The expert must tell the jury What he or she did Why he or she did it How he or she did it What the findings were

30 30 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Future of Cyber Crime (Obj 14.9) o Encourage cyber ethics o Educate the public to protect itself and understand the consequences o Keeping up with new technologies

31 31 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary o Individuals and businesses use the Internet to provide mobile access to data, to share information, for education, and for communication. o The Internet is important for financial transactions o As we rely more and more on the Internet, the greater the risk of unauthorized access to private information

32 32 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary o The 3 categories of computer and Internet crimes: computer integrity crimes, computer-assisted crimes, and computer content crimes. o Hackers have strong skills in computers and computer systems they are trying to expose. o Phishing is defrauding the victim by sending a fraudulent, real-looking that asks the recipient to update (reveal) their personal information.

33 33 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary o All evidence collected during an investigation of a cyber crime must first be cloned. o Documented evidence in a report must be concise and fact based. o Four types of computer evidence are used in court real evidence, documentary evidence, testimonial evidence, and demonstrative evidence.

34 34 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary o Collected data is typically the most compelling evidence provided in cyber crime trials; o However, investigators must first prove that the integrity of the hardware was maintained when collecting the evidence. o The expert witness: is often key in the decision made by a jury, and must present fact-based evidence in a way that is clear and convincing to a jury.

35 35 Forensic Science II: Cyber Crimes, Chapter 14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary o The potential pool of cyber criminals grows as technology improves, and the number of people who use computers grows. o As technology advances, law-enforcement agencies must continue to establish procedures and methods for managing online activity.


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