3 The first one’s always easy American RevolutionIncubationFrench have financial difficulties as a result of seven years warTax coloniesUnfair gov acts (Quartering act)SymptomsBoycott French goodsAttack French officialsBoston Tea PartyFormation of Continental CongressIn opposition to parliamentary ruleDeclaration of IndependenceInspired by John Locke’s enlightenment idealsCrisisWar with FranceConvalescenceConstitutionBased on freedom, equality, and popular sovereigntyBritain/BritishThe first one’s always easy
4 French Revolution Incubation Symptoms Crisis Convalescence Third estate wanted more representationSymptomsThird estate breaks off as the National AssemblyDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenLife, liberty, and fraternityCrisisAustrian and Prussian armies invade to restore the old orderConvention abolishes the monarchy and proclaims a republicRadical Jacobins dominate convention in a reign of terrorConvalescenceDirectory- conservative reaction to the conventionExecute Jacobin leader and establish a new constitution
5 Was the only successful salve revolt in history Haitian RevolutionIncubationHarsh conditions placed on slavesFree blacks came back from American Revolution with new ideasSymptomsSlaves show discontentSlaves run away and make maroon communitiesCrisisBlack slaves rebel and fight against white plantation owners (gens de couleur), who also wanted independence from FranceFrench send soldiersYellow fever takes a heavy toll on them, are then expelled by slave armyToussaint Louverture creates a constitutionDeclare independence in 1803Establish the republic of Haiti in 1804Was the first successful slave revolt in historyInspired many others to do the sameWas the only successful salve revolt in history
6 Land, not representation Mexican RevolutionIncubationEnlightened ideas / US revolution influencedColonists took most productive lands and pushed natives to unattractive landsJuan Manuel de Rosas “reign of terror”SymptomsLa ReformaCalls for land reforms and to limit the power of the military and the Roman Catholic ChurchCrisisPeasants and middle class against Porfifio DiazZapata and Francisco Villa were leadersFighting for tierra y libertad (representation and liberty)Military forces catch and kill Zapata and VillaConvalescenceMexican ConstitutionLand redistribution, universal suffrage, minimum wages, maximum hoursLand, not representation
7 Nationalism Nation Community that people associate themselves with Common language, customs, cultural traditions, values, historical experiencesSome held a common religion; most identifies themselves politically, socially, and culturally, and over looked religious differencesCultural NationalismDeepen appreciation for the historical experiences of the national community, and its cultural accomplishmentsPolitical NationalismDemanded solidarity and loyalty to a certain community or nation, encouraged political leaders to establish national states.
8 Industrialization Starts in Russia Developments and inventions Primary source of fuel goes from wood to coalCoal was more abundant and accessibleColonies supplied raw materialsDevelopments and inventionsFlying shuttle-John KaySpinning mule-Samuel CromptonWater driven power loom-Edmund CartwrightSteam engine-James WattCombined with steel leads to improved transportationGreat Britain
9 Communication and Transportation Steam Engine + Steel/Iron =SteamshipsRailroadsThese lowered transportation costs and created dense transportation networksCanals cut down transportation time, however not many were made due to excessive costs.PanamaSuezGrandWRONG!!! Canals, Railroads, and steamships cut costs as well as travel time.
10 Spread of Industrialization British monopolized industrialization ( )Prevented the emigration of skilled workersFranceNapoleon ends international trade barriersFrance moves toward industrialization by mid 19th centuryGermanyOtto Van Bismarck sponsored heavy industry after unificationNorth AmericaSlow start compared to Europe (few laborers)Cotton- 1820’sRailroad networks- 1860’sHeavy Metal- 1870’s
11 Spread of Industrialization RussiaBy 1900 Russia produced ½ of worlds oil and a significant amount of its iron and armamentsPromoted by finance minister Sergei Witte and TsarsConstruction of trans-Siberian railroadReformed commercial law to protect industries and steamship companiesencouraged foreign investorsJapanBy 1900 was the most industrialized land in all of AsiaImperial government supportedHired foreign experts to establish industryCreated new industries/ opened technical schoolsGov. owned all businesses, once a business could operate itself it was sold to a private entrepreneur.Zaibatsu similar to trusts and cartels
12 Factory System Replaced the putting out system Working Conditions Created a division of labor (workers specialize in one task; like on an assembly line)Working ConditionsEasier, and more healthy for workers, better benefits were givenWorkers lost statusNo skill was requiredBecame just “wage earners”Protests (formation of unions)Luddites strike- destroy mill machinesWorkers suffered long hours in harsh conditions, that were sometimes very hazardous to their health
13 Industrial Capitalism EconomicCapitalism- a Political system in which private parties make goods and services available on a free market.Industrialization is extremely expensiveLarge scale corporations get hundreds of investors to fundNew laws protect these investors from liability in their investmentsMass productionGoods were now cheaper and easier to makeInterchangeable gun parts/ assembly linesMonopolies, Trusts, and CartelsCompetitive associationsVertical Organization- dominate all facets of a single industryHorizontal Organization- consolidation or cooperation of independent companies in same business
14 Industrialization Affects on Society Demographic changesPopulation growthBetter diets, a higher standard of living and sanitationDecline in birth ratesLower death rate = less births neededBirth controlUrbanizationPeople move from country to cities50% of people now live in cities by 1900150 cities with over people by 1900Gov makes building codes and sewer systemsAs a result of shoddy housing, polluted air, bad water supplies
15 Demographic Changes Migrations Industrial migrations 2.3 million to the US to workEuropeans in factoriesTwo hundred thousand Chinese workers to CA for railroadsPlantation migrations4 million Italians and Brazilians to Latin AmericaAsians to Cuba and Caribbean sugar fields
16 Serfdom Emancipation of the Serfs (Russia) Opposition to serfdom grew among high officials based on moral grounds, the observation that it was an obstacle to economic development, and the nasty business of peasant revolts.Serfs gained:freedomopportunities to become landownersgradual elimination of labor obligationspolitical rightsredemption money from gov.Serfs did not gain many more political rights and received no money from the gov, in fact they paid extra taxes and suffered debt for the rest of their lives
17 Wrote to England, and strengthened the anti slave movement SlaveryAbolition of the Atlantic Slave TradeOlaudah Equiano writes book as a slave, strengthens the anti slave movement in SpainProfitability of slaves declinesCare for, put down rebellions, price of slaves was rising, wage laborers in factories was cheaper, Africa was a better source of raw materials than slavesDenmark was first, followed by Britain, and ending with Spain in 1845Not all slaves were emancipated
18 Social Changes Social classes Upper Class (captains of industry) Business owners, control of capitalMiddle ClassManagers, accountants, professionals (doctors, lawyers)Grew substantially as a result of industrializationLower Class (working class)Unskilled laborers and factory workers
19 Social Changes Family Men Increased responsibility and status Upper and middle class men were expected to be the sole providers of the familyWomenWorking women were forced to bring their kids to mines or factories where they worked, promoted child laborMiddle and upper class women were expected to stay at home and care for the childrenWomen gained and increased opportunity for domestic servicesOverall their opportunities were narrowedChildrenForced to work to help provide for familiesEnglish parliament began to regulate this is 1840’sEducation was required for all children in 1881No children at work
20 Social Changes Social reform Trade Unions Regulated hours, restricted work for women and childrenBismarck in Germany sponsored medical insurance and social securityTrade UnionsProtected workers interestsEmployers forced to be more responsive to the workers, attempted to prevent violence
21 Western Dominance Industrialization Increased economic dominance Mass productionIncreased exportIncreased military dominanceGuns, cannons, shipsImperialism / Colonialismthe policy of extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or coloniesInfluences can be political or economicModern imperialism refers to Chinas influence on smaller surrounding nationsRefers to European dominance and later US as well as Japanese influence
22 Western Dominance Motives for Imperialism Economic Political Need for resources and raw materials to support rapid industrializationWould consume industrial productsProvide migration lands for increasing populationPoliticalHeld strategic sites for harbors, supply naval forcesDeny advantageous positions to rival nationsDiffuse social tensions by diverting public attention to imperialist venturesIncreased national identity and patriotism in peopleJustificationEuropeans were superior, doing the world a favor by colonizingHad to spread Islam, and defend the interests of converts in these landsChristianity was spread by European Monasteries
23 Reactions to Western Dominance Spheres of influence regarded as evil in the Boxer RebellionMeiji Restoration conformed to some western ideals to further economy and restructure gov.In Latin America, regarded it as repressive economicallyNative Americans suffered genocide, resentful. Evident in Ghost Dance.Neo-Colonialism in Africa regarded as racist (social darwinism)
24 New Governmental Ideologies Democracy- the free and equal right of every person to participate in a system of government, often practiced by electing representatives of the people by the majority of the peopleInspired by enlightened idealsPopular sovereigntyIndividual freedomPolitical and Legal equalityLimitationsReformHarder to reform, everyone has an equal say, takes longer to come to and agreement than for one person to decideWomenThe equality and advantages of democracy were not extended to women until the 20th centuryRacismThe equality and advantages of democracy were not extended to all ethnicitiesLand owning white males were dominant in democracy
25 New Governmental Ideologies Socialism- political and economic theory of social organization based on the collective ownership of the means of productionUtopian SocialistsEstablished a model for a society based on equalityCooperative control of industry and education for all childrenMarx and Engels- 19th century socialistsSaid utopian socialists were unrealistic and unproductivePromoted industrial capitalismCompetition leads to increased wealth of workersState/courts/ police were tools of the capitalist ruling class to make sure everything was fair.Strongly opposed capitalism and claimed that it would result in the exploitation of the working class, stated that the courts and police were ways to get away with this.
26 New Government Ideologies Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto (1848)Claimed that the excess of capitalism leads to communist revolutionProletariat will rise up and destroy capitalismFollowed by socialism: fair and equal societyThe communist Manifesto held no influence until a much later date when it was reffered to in order to build Chinese communism.The Communist Manifesto dominated the socialist scene and ideology throughout the 19th century.