By Zac Redman Tempest Plott Trevor Nissen Heather Hight
Revolutions French American Haitian Mexican
American Revolution 1775-1781 Incubation –French have financial difficulties as a result of seven years war Tax colonies Unfair gov acts (Quartering act) Symptoms –Boycott French goods –Attack French officials –Boston Tea Party –Formation of Continental Congress In opposition to parliamentary rule –Declaration of Independence Inspired by John Locke’s enlightenment ideals Crisis –War with France Convalescence –Constitution Based on freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty Britain/British The first one’s always easy
French Revolution Incubation –Third estate wanted more representation Symptoms –Third estate breaks off as the National Assembly –Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Life, liberty, and fraternity Crisis –Austrian and Prussian armies invade to restore the old order –Convention abolishes the monarchy and proclaims a republic Radical Jacobins dominate convention in a reign of terror Convalescence –Directory- conservative reaction to the convention –Execute Jacobin leader and establish a new constitution
Haitian Revolution Incubation –Harsh conditions placed on slaves –Free blacks came back from American Revolution with new ideas Symptoms –Slaves show discontent –Slaves run away and make maroon communities Crisis –Black slaves rebel and fight against white plantation owners (gens de couleur), who also wanted independence from France –French send soldiers Yellow fever takes a heavy toll on them, are then expelled by slave army –Toussaint Louverture creates a constitution Incubation –Declare independence in 1803 –Establish the republic of Haiti in 1804 Was the first successful slave revolt in history –Inspired many others to do the same Was the only successful salve revolt in history
Mexican Revolution Incubation –Enlightened ideas / US revolution influenced –Colonists took most productive lands and pushed natives to unattractive lands –Juan Manuel de Rosas “reign of terror” Symptoms –La Reforma Calls for land reforms and to limit the power of the military and the Roman Catholic Church Crisis –Peasants and middle class against Porfifio Diaz –Zapata and Francisco Villa were leaders Fighting for tierra y libertad (representation and liberty) –Military forces catch and kill Zapata and Villa Convalescence –Mexican Constitution Land redistribution, universal suffrage, minimum wages, maximum hours Land, not representation
Nationalism Nation –Community that people associate themselves with Common language, customs, cultural traditions, values, historical experiences Some held a common religion; most identifies themselves politically, socially, and culturally, and over looked religious differences Cultural Nationalism –Deepen appreciation for the historical experiences of the national community, and its cultural accomplishments Political Nationalism –Demanded solidarity and loyalty to a certain community or nation, encouraged political leaders to establish national states.
Industrialization Starts in Russia –Primary source of fuel goes from wood to coal Coal was more abundant and accessible –Colonies supplied raw materials Developments and inventions –Flying shuttle-John Kay –Spinning mule-Samuel Crompton –Water driven power loom-Edmund Cartwright –Steam engine-James Watt Combined with steel leads to improved transportation Great Britain
Steam Engine + Steel/Iron = –Steamships –Railroads These lowered transportation costs and created dense transportation networks Canals cut down transportation time, however not many were made due to excessive costs. –Panama –Suez –Grand Communication and Transportation WRONG!!! Canals, Railroads, and steamships cut costs as well as travel time.
Spread of Industrialization British monopolized industrialization (1750-1800) –Prevented the emigration of skilled workers France –Napoleon ends international trade barriers France moves toward industrialization by mid 19 th century Germany –Otto Van Bismarck sponsored heavy industry after unification North America –Slow start compared to Europe (few laborers) Cotton- 1820’s Railroad networks- 1860’s Heavy Metal- 1870’s
Spread of Industrialization Russia –By 1900 Russia produced ½ of worlds oil and a significant amount of its iron and armaments –Promoted by finance minister Sergei Witte and Tsars Construction of trans-Siberian railroad Reformed commercial law to protect industries and steamship companies encouraged foreign investors Japan –By 1900 was the most industrialized land in all of Asia –Imperial government supported Hired foreign experts to establish industry Created new industries/ opened technical schools Gov. owned all businesses, once a business could operate itself it was sold to a private entrepreneur. –Zaibatsu similar to trusts and cartels
Factory System Replaced the putting out system –Created a division of labor (workers specialize in one task; like on an assembly line) Working Conditions –Easier, and more healthy for workers, better benefits were given –Workers lost status No skill was required Became just “wage earners” Protests (formation of unions) –Luddites strike- destroy mill machines Workers suffered long hours in harsh conditions, that were sometimes very hazardous to their health
Industrial Capitalism Capitalism- a Political system in which private parties make goods and services available on a free market. Industrialization is extremely expensive –Large scale corporations get hundreds of investors to fund –New laws protect these investors from liability in their investments Mass production –Goods were now cheaper and easier to make –Interchangeable gun parts/ assembly lines Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels –Competitive associations –Vertical Organization- dominate all facets of a single industry –Horizontal Organization- consolidation or cooperation of independent companies in same business Economic
Industrialization Affects on Society Demographic changes –Population growth Better diets, a higher standard of living and sanitation –Decline in birth rates Lower death rate = less births needed Birth control Urbanization –People move from country to cities 50% of people now live in cities by 1900 150 cities with over 100000 people by 1900 Gov makes building codes and sewer systems –As a result of shoddy housing, polluted air, bad water supplies
Demographic Changes Migrations –Industrial migrations 2.3 million to the US to work –Europeans in factories –Two hundred thousand Chinese workers to CA for railroads –Plantation migrations 4 million Italians and Brazilians to Latin America Asians to Cuba and Caribbean sugar fields
Serfdom Emancipation of the Serfs (Russia) –Opposition to serfdom grew among high officials based on moral grounds, the observation that it was an obstacle to economic development, and the nasty business of peasant revolts. –Serfs gained: freedom opportunities to become landowners gradual elimination of labor obligations political rights redemption money from gov. Serfs did not gain many more political rights and received no money from the gov, in fact they paid extra taxes and suffered debt for the rest of their lives
Slavery Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade –Olaudah Equiano writes book as a slave, strengthens the anti slave movement in Spain –Profitability of slaves declines Care for, put down rebellions, price of slaves was rising, wage laborers in factories was cheaper, Africa was a better source of raw materials than slaves –Denmark was first, followed by Britain, and ending with Spain in 1845 Not all slaves were emancipated Wrote to England, and strengthened the anti slave movement
Social Changes Social classes –Upper Class (captains of industry) Business owners, control of capital –Middle Class Managers, accountants, professionals (doctors, lawyers) –Grew substantially as a result of industrialization –Lower Class (working class) Unskilled laborers and factory workers
Social Changes Family –Men Increased responsibility and status Upper and middle class men were expected to be the sole providers of the family –Women Working women were forced to bring their kids to mines or factories where they worked, promoted child labor Middle and upper class women were expected to stay at home and care for the children Women gained and increased opportunity for domestic services –Overall their opportunities were narrowed –Children Forced to work to help provide for families –English parliament began to regulate this is 1840’s –Education was required for all children in 1881 No children at work
Social Changes Social reform –Regulated hours, restricted work for women and children –Bismarck in Germany sponsored medical insurance and social security Trade Unions –Protected workers interests –Employers forced to be more responsive to the workers, attempted to prevent violence
Western Dominance Industrialization –Increased economic dominance Mass production Increased export –Increased military dominance Guns, cannons, ships Imperialism / Colonialism –the policy of extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or colonies Influences can be political or economic –Modern imperialism refers to Chinas influence on smaller surrounding nations Refers to European dominance and later US as well as Japanese influence
Western Dominance Motives for Imperialism –Economic Need for resources and raw materials to support rapid industrialization Would consume industrial products Provide migration lands for increasing population –Political Held strategic sites for harbors, supply naval forces Deny advantageous positions to rival nations Diffuse social tensions by diverting public attention to imperialist ventures –Increased national identity and patriotism in people Justification –Europeans were superior, doing the world a favor by colonizing –Had to spread Islam, and defend the interests of converts in these lands Christianity was spread by European Monasteries
Reactions to Western Dominance Spheres of influence regarded as evil in the Boxer Rebellion Meiji Restoration conformed to some western ideals to further economy and restructure gov. In Latin America, regarded it as repressive economically Native Americans suffered genocide, resentful. Evident in Ghost Dance. Neo-Colonialism in Africa regarded as racist (social darwinism)
New Governmental Ideologies Democracy- the free and equal right of every person to participate in a system of government, often practiced by electing representatives of the people by the majority of the people Inspired by enlightened ideals –Popular sovereignty –Individual freedom –Political and Legal equality Limitations –Reform Harder to reform, everyone has an equal say, takes longer to come to and agreement than for one person to decide –Women The equality and advantages of democracy were not extended to women until the 20 th century –Racism The equality and advantages of democracy were not extended to all ethnicities –Land owning white males were dominant in democracy
New Governmental Ideologies Socialism- political and economic theory of social organization based on the collective ownership of the means of production Utopian Socialists –Established a model for a society based on equality –Cooperative control of industry and education for all children Marx and Engels- 19 th century socialists –Said utopian socialists were unrealistic and unproductive –Promoted industrial capitalism Competition leads to increased wealth of workers State/courts/ police were tools of the capitalist ruling class to make sure everything was fair. Strongly opposed capitalism and claimed that it would result in the exploitation of the working class, stated that the courts and police were ways to get away with this.
New Government Ideologies Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto (1848) –Claimed that the excess of capitalism leads to communist revolution –Proletariat will rise up and destroy capitalism Followed by socialism: fair and equal society The communist Manifesto held no influence until a much later date when it was reffered to in order to build Chinese communism. The Communist Manifesto dominated the socialist scene and ideology throughout the 19 th century.