Presentation on theme: "WATERS Network, an NSF environmental observatory initiative: Transformative facilities for environmental research, education, and outreach Patrick Brezonik."— Presentation transcript:
2 WATERS Network is an MREFC (Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction) initiativein two directorates of the National Science FoundationCLEANER (ENG) + Hydrologic Observatories (GEO)= WATERS Network)
3 Four critical deficiencies in current abilities: Why WATERS Network?Critical importance of water to societyand ecosystems, and increasing demandsfor water.Growing recognition that old-style,piecemeal, small-scale research effortssimply are not adequate.Courtesy of Tom HarmonFour critical deficiencies in current abilities:1. Basic data about water-related processes at needed spatial and temporal resolution.2. The means to integrate data from different media and sources (observations,experiments, simulations).3. Sufficiently accurate modeling and decision-support tools to predict underlyingprocesses and forecast effects of different engineering management strategies.4. The understanding of fundamental processes needed to transfer knowledgeand predictions across spatial and temporal scales—from the scale ofmeasurements to the scale of a desired management action.
4 WATERS Network: MISSION STATEMENT Transform our understanding of the Earth’s water andrelated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporalscales to enable forecasting of critical water-related processesthat affect and are affected by human activities…and develop scientific and engineering tools that willenable more effective management approaches for waterresources in large-scale human-stressed environments.
5 WATERS Network Grand Challenge How do we better detect (in near-real time, where appropriate), predict,and manage the effects of human activities and natural perturbations onthe quantity, distribution and quality of water?Examples of more specific science questions forthree hydrologic-climatic regionsCoastal How spatially/temporally variable are pollutant inputs in coastal watersheds, and how canpublic drinking water supplies and fisheries be protected using engineered systems? What sampling frequency and spatial extent is required to obtain accurate assessments ofpollutant quantities in coastal watersheds susceptible to large variations in water flows dueto large storms events, particularly hurricanes?Humid-ContinentalWhat environmental conditions, variables and disturbances lead to elevated pathogen levelsor unacceptable taste/odor problems, and how should drinking water treatment plants respond? What rate of mercury emissions and landscape characteristics will maintain human andwildlife exposure to methylmercury in safe bounds?Arid-Continental How can issues of water conservation and reclamation be effectively managed in the arid west? Can sustainable communities be developed, minimizing impacts to undeveloped landscapeand controlling pollution and runoff problems for downstream communities?
6 DRAFT SCIENCE QUESTIONS WATERS NetworkDRAFT SCIENCE QUESTIONSHow are the fate and transport of water, sediments, andcontaminants affected by spatial and temporal variability?How do we scale our knowledge of processes from point to management levels?How can sensing systems improve identification of the spatial and temporal sources of water contaminants, their pathways through the environment, and their reaction rates?What treatment/management practices have the greatest benefits for reducing large-scale contaminant and sediment transport and improving human and ecological health?How can human uses of water be made sustainable in light of long-term environmental and demographic changes?
7 The Idea: The WATERS Network will: 1. Consist of: (a) a national network of interacting field sites; across a range ofspatial scales, climate and land-use/cover conditions(b) teams of investigators studying human-stressedlandscapes, with an emphasis on water problems;(c) specialized support personnel, facilities, and technology; and(d) integrative cyberinfrastructure to provide a shared-use networkas the framework for collaborative analysis2. Transform environmental engineering and hydrologic science researchand education3. Enable more effective management of water resources in human-dominatedenvironments based on observation, experimentation, modeling,engineering analysis, and design
8 Network Design Principles: Enable multi-scale, dynamic predictive modeling for water, sediment,and water quality (flux, flow paths, rates), including:Near-real-time assimilation of dataFeedback for observatory designPoint- to national-scale predictionNetwork provides data sets and framework to test:Sufficiency of the dataAlternative model conceptualizationsMaster Design Variables:ScaleClimate (arid vs humid)Coastal vs inlandLand use, land cover, populationdensityEnergy and materials/industryLand form and geologyNested Observatoriesover Range of Scales:Point (individual sensor sites)Plot (100 m2)Sub-catchment (2 km2)Catchment (10 km2) – single land useWatershed (100–10,000 km2) – mixed useBasin (10,000–100,000 km2)Continental
9 IIIIIIIIISimplified schema of a potential national WATERS Network based on threehydrologic regions: (I) coastal, (II) humid-continental, and (III) arid-continental;large blue circles: regional, watershed-based observatories; smaller circles:nested watershed and intensively instrumented field sites. NOTE: All locationsshown are hypothetical examples.
10 WATERS Network will employ a variety of technologically advanced methods, many gathering data in real-time, to measure water-related environmentalprocesses in natural and human-dominated systems.
11 WATERS Network observatories in the humid-continental portion of the U WATERS Network observatories in the humid-continental portion of the U.S.likely will be based on the concept of nested watersheds and will include fieldsites to measure water-related processes in pristine, managed (agricultural),and urban areas.
12 In addition to a physical architecture based on climate and land-use patterns, WATERS Network will have “meta-units” or “problemsheds”to focus on specific water issues.
13 The Urban Water Cycle P ET E RO RO RO I Stormdrains Wells Septic InterbasinTransfers ofWater &WastewaterPImperviousSurfacesRiparian &UplandForest PatchesStormdrainsETEROROROIWellsWaterTableSepticSystemsArtificialChannelsRootingZoneWastewaterConduitsWaterSupplyPipesLocal GWHyporheic &Parafluvial ZonesRegional GWCourtesy of Ken Belt, USFS
14 ADVANCES IN SENSORS ARE OCCURRING AT BREATH-TAKING RATES Microcytometryusing FlowCamMicrobialGenosensor(D. Fries, USF)FlowCAM Images ofZebra mussel veligers Nierzwicki-Bauer, RPIDepth profiler using computer-controlled, programmable winchsonde package includesConductivityTemperatureTurbidityDOpH/ORPChlorophyll-aInternal batteryData transmitted viacellular modemSolar AUV (SAUV II)Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI)Falmouth Scientific Inc.Art Sanderson, RPISontek-YSI
15 WATERS Network cyberinfrastructure QIT – fast development in the last 25 years. The configuration, operation and results that may be provided by these techniques position them on the front-line of the state-of-the-art techniques. They incorporate the most salient features of the new generation of instruments. They have become extensively used in fluid mechanics and thermodynamic investigations. More recently QIT gain popularity in the civil engineering community. My visit in Japan is aimed at continuing and boosting a Kobe Univ. – IIHR collaboration (started in 1995) in the area of creative implementation of QIT in civil engineering applications.Imaged-based techniques for various applications have been developed at IIHR in the last six years. These techniques are mainly implementations of fluid mechanics experimental tools for hydraulics research.8
16 Development of WATERS Network CI is based on the concept of providing supporting technology for all the steps in the basic research processIntegrated CIECID Project Focus: CyberenvironmentsSupporting TechnologyDataServicesWorkflows & Model ServicesKnowledge ServicesMeta-WorkflowsCollaboration ServicesDigital LibraryHIS Project FocusAnalyze Data &/or Assimilate into Model(s)Link &/or Run Analyses &/or Model(s)Create Hypo-thesisObtain DataDiscuss ResultsPublishResearch Process
17 Data Sources Extract Transform CUAHSI Web Services Load Applications NASASTORETAmerifluxExtractNCDCUnidataNWISNCARTransformCUAHSI Web ServicesExcelVisual BasicShauna – the ones on top are a bunch of web sites providing data that go through the CUAHSI Web Services (basically some software) which allows all this data to be used in all these other software packages listed across the bottom. The ones in red are the ones that are connections that are already built. It would look good to redo this in ESRI style.ArcGISC/C++LoadMatlabFortranAccessJavaApplicationsSome operational services
18 Meta-Workflow Using CyberIntegrator: Observatory efforts will involve:Studying complex systems that require coupling analyses or models of different system componentsReal-time, automated updating of analyses and modeling that require diverse toolsCyberIntegrator is a prototype technology to support modeling and analysis of complex systemsSome key features of CyberIntegrator:● Integration of heterogeneous tools: GeoLearn, D2K, Kepler/Ptolemy, Excel, Im2Learn, ArcGIS, D2KWS● Provenance information gathering: records user’s activities, fromdata to models to visualization to publication to provide easily reproducible history and make recommendations of next steps to users● Reduce manual labor in linking models and analysis tools, visualizeresults and update in real time
19 Models for the processes Rainfall (database)RR(Sobek-Rainfall-Runoff)River(InfoWorks RS)Sewer(Mouse)
21 History of Recent Planning CLEANER (WATERS Network) Project Office established in August 2005.Six committees have prepared draft reports on:Science challenges and issues Cyberinfrastructure needsSensors and sensor networks Organization (consortium possibilities)Role of social sciences in EOs Educational plansSee2. Interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists, withwith additional advisors, are developing a conceptual design via a set of science and technical requirements that links the science issues with the facilities needed to achieve the science goals. Draft report due in spring 2007.
22 Recent Progress, cont.3. NSF (and others) are funding numerous projects related tosensor network development.4. Tangible progress is being made on the development ofcyberinfrastructure needs for WATERS Network:● Cyberinfrastructure Committee is creating a CI program plan● Three new CEO:P projects focus on cyberinfrastructure for water research.● Two major projects are creating CI prototypes for WATERS:● CUAHSI’s Hydrologic Information System (David Maidment, PI) now hascapabilities to extract and merge water data from various databases.● NCSA’s Environmental CI Demonstration project (ECID) (Barbara Minskerand Jim Meyer, Co-PIs) is developing a prototype “cyberintegrator” toprovide a meta-work-flow system to streamline analysis of data from diversesources and link various models and analysis tools.
23 Recent Progress, cont.5. Workshop on modeling needs (Tucson, May 2006) for NSF’senvironmental observatories enhanced collaboration among theinitiatives, stimulated communication among modelers across fields, andproduced useful contacts with other federal agencies. This also led to theformation of a Project Office Modeling Committee, which will produce areport for WATERS Network in January 2007.6. The National Research Council’s Water Scienceand Technology Board issued a report “CLEANERand NSF’s Environmental Observatories” supportingthe concept of WATERS Network, and providingadvice on science questions and implementationissues (May 2006). Negotiations for a full-scalecommittee study are underway.
24 Recent Progress, cont.7. EET and HS jointly are funding 11 new “test-bed” projects to gain fieldexperience with EO development and operation (FY 2006/early FY 2007).Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in theSan Joaquin Valley and Sierra NevadaA Synthesis of Community Data and Modeling for Advancing River Basin Science: theEvolving Susquehanna River Basin ExperimentDesign and Demonstration of a Distributed Sensor Array for Predicting Water Flow andNitrate Flux in the Santa Fe BasinWireless Technologies and Embedded Networked Sensing: Application to IntegratedUrban Water Quality ManagementClear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory: from Vision toward RealityAn Environmental Information System for Hypoxia in Corpus Christi Bay:A WATERS Network Test-bedLinking Time and Space of Snowpack Runoff: Crown of the Continent Hydrologic ObservatoryFerryMon, Unattended Water Quality Monitoring Utilizing Advanced Environmental SensingDemonstration and Development of a Test-Bed Digital Observatory for the SusquehannaRiver Basin and Chesapeake BayTools for Environmental Observatory Design and Implementation: Sensor Networks,Dynamic Bayesian Nutrient Flux Modeling, and Cyberinfrastructure AdvancementQuantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories: a Missing Link inUnderstanding How the Built Environment Affects the Hydrologic Cycle
26 The Need…and Why Now?Nothing is more fundamental to life than water. Not only is watera basic need, but adequate safe water underpins the nation’shealth, economy, security, and ecology.NRC (2004) Confronting the nation’s water problems: the role of research.● Water use globally will triple in the next two decades, leading to increases in erosion,pollution, dewatering, and salinization.● Major U.S. aquifers (e.g., the Ogallala) are being mined and the resource consumed.● Only ~55% of the nation’s river and stream miles and acres of lakes and estuariesfully meet their intended uses; ~45% are polluted, mostly from diffuse-source runoff.● From 1990 through 1997, floods caused more than $34 billion in damages in the U.S.● Of 45,000 U.S. wells tested for pesticides, 5,500 had harmful levels of at least one.● Fish consumption advisories are common in 30 states because of elevated mercury levels.FY 2008 Administration R&D Budget Priorities: U.S. and global supplies of fresh watercontinue to be critical to human health and economic prosperity. Agencies are developing acoordinated, multi-year plan to improve understanding of the processes that control wateravailability and quality, and collect the data needed to ensure an adequate water supply forthe future. Agencies should participate in this plan and its implementation.