3Postwar Trends World War I left Americans exhausted - Debate over League of Nations had divides themEconomy adjusted as cost of living doubled- Farm & factory orders were down- Soldiers took jobs from women& minorities- Farmers & factory workers sufferedMany Americans responded to the stressful conditions by becoming fearful of outsiders- Nativism swept nation - prejudice against foreign-born people- Isolationism became popular - pulling away from world affairs
5Fear of CommunismThe spread of Communism was perceived as a threat to America (The Red Scare)Communism - economic, political system, single- party government- ruled by dictator- no private propertyVladimir Lenin & the Bolsheviks set up Communist state in Russia
6Fear of CommunismU.S. Communist Party formed (70, 000 radicals joined)- Some Industrial Workers of the World join
7Fear of Communism Several bombs were mailed to government & businesses - People feared Red conspiracyAttorney General A. Mitchell Palmer took action- Appointed J. Edgar Hoover as special assistant- They hunted down Communists, socialists, & anarchists (Palmer Raids)- Anarchists oppose any form of government- Palmer Raids trampled civil rights & failed to find evidence of conspiracy
8Limiting Immigration Anti-Immigrant Attitudes had been growing in America since the 1880s- Southern & Eastern European immigrantsNeed for unskilled labor decreased in the U.S. after WWINativists believed fewer immigrants were needed since their were fewer unskilled jobs available,Also thought immigrant anarchists and socialists were Communist
9The Quota System 1919 - 1921, number of immigrants grew almost 600% 141,000 to 805,000Nativsists pressured Congress to limit immigration from certain countries (Southern & Eastern Europe)The Emergency Quota Act of set up a Quota system- Established the maximum number of people who could enter the U.S. from each country- sharply reduced European immigration
10The Quota System1924 – Amended law limited European arrivals to 2% of number of its national living in the U.S. in 1890- Discriminated against southern, eastern Europeans (Didn’t arrive until after 1890)Law also prohibited Japanese immigration;- Caused ill will between U.S. & Japan- Japan had faithfully kept the Gentlemen’s agreement to limit emigration to the U.S. that had been negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt in 1907- Many Canadians & Mexicans entered
11A Time of Labor Unrest Government didn’t allow strikes in wartime over 3,000 strikesEmployers were against raises& unions;- Labeled strikers as Communists
12The Boston Police Strike Boston police went on strike over raises & the right to unionize- Hadn’t received a raise since beginning of WWI)Mass. Governor Calvin Coolidge ended strike by calling out the National Guard- “there is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime”Replaced strikers with new policemenPeople praised Coolidge for saving Boston if not the nation from communism- He was nominated as Warren G. Harding’s running mate in the 1920 election
15The Steel Mill StrikeSeptember Steel workers went on strike for the right to negotiate shorter working hours & a living wage- Also wanted union recognition & Collective bargaining rightsSteel Companies hired strike beaters & used force (Police, Federal troops & state militias)Used propaganda to link strikers to communistLater negotiatedTalks deadlocked
16The Steel Mill StrikeWilson appealed to both sides& the strike ended January 1920report on the harsh working conditions shocked the publicSteel companies agreed to a 8-hour day but no union
17The Coal Miners’ Strike John L. Lewis became head of United Mine Workers of AmericaLed strike & defied a court order to return to workCoal minors accepted arbitration- Miners received 27% wage increase- Lewis became national hero
18Labor Movement Loses Appeal 1920s - union membership dropped from over 5 million to 3.5 millionImmigrants were willing to work for lessHard to organize workers due to different languagesFarmers who moved to the city were used to relying on themselvesLess than 1% of African Americans & just over 3% whites were in union
19EOCT REVIEWSSUSH16: The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I.Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction. 1. What is communism? Socialism?2. What was the Red Scare?
20Vocabulary Karl Marx – The father of Communism Communism – Economic system in which the government owns all aspects.Red Scare - The fear in the United States that Communism would spread.Palmer Raids - Raids in the United States that were implemented to prevent Communist from coming into the United States.
21The Harding Presidency The Harding administration appeals to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but results in scandalThe Harding Presidency
22The 1920 Election Warren G. Harding elected president Wouldn't rock the boatSaid America needed normalcy
24Harding Struggles for Peace Problems arose concerning arms control, war debts, & the reconstruction of war torn countries after WWIPresident Harding hosted Washington Naval ConferenceInvited major powers,Russia wasn’t invited due to communist governmentSec. of State Charles Evans Hughes proposed disarmament & others agreed
25Harding Struggles for Peace 1928 – Fifteen countries signed the Kellog-Briand Pact- Nations denounced war as national policy- Pact was ineffective since it didn’t provide for means of enforcement
26High Tariffs and Reparations Britain & France owed the U.S. $10 billion in war debtsCould pay money by selling goods to the U.S. or by collecting reparations from GermanyFordney-McCumber Tariff raised taxes on U.S. imports to 60%- Britain, France couldn’t sell enough goods to repay U.S.Germany defaulted on its reparation payments
27High Tariffs and Reparations Dawes Plan - U.S. investors lent reparations money to Germany- Britain, France repaid U.S.Dawes Plan caused resentment on all sides- Britain & France didn’t think the U.S. paid its fair share for WWI- U.S. thought Britain & France were financially irresponsible
28Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Harding favored a limited government role in business,& social reformHe believed that government was getting the way of people's lives and businessesCreated Bureau of the Budget to help the government more efficientlyHad capable men in cabinetSecretary of State Charles Evans Hughes went on to become chief justice of Supreme Court ,Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover had done great job distributing foods & refugees in WWISecretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon cut taxes & reduced national debt
29Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Harding also appointed the Ohio gang – His corrupt friends who caused him embarrassment- Were unqualified- They stole money from the governmentOhio Gang hurt Harding's presidency
30The Teapot Dome Scandal Teapot Dome scandal— naval oil reserves were used for personal gainGovernment had set aside oil-rich public at Teapot Dome Wyoming & Elk Hills California for use by the U.S. NavyInterior Secretary Albert B. Fall leased land to private companies-He received over $ 400,000 in loans, bonds, & cash
31The Teapot Dome Scandal Fall became the first person to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet post- Fined $100,000 & spent a year in prisonHarding tried to help his image by going on a speaking tour in the west- Had heart attack & Died on August 2, 1923VP Calvin Coolidge assumed presidency- Restores faith in government1924 – Coolidge was elected president
32VocabularyWarren G Harding- Took over as President after Wilson, only stayed in office three years before passing away.
33The Business of America Consumer goods fuel the business boom of the 1920s as America’s standard of living soars.The Business of America
34American Industries Flourish Calvin Coolidge wanted to minimize government interference in business“ the chief business of the American people is business”He favored policies that would keep taxes down & business profits up , & give businesses more credit to expandCoolidge’s approach worked in the 1920s- Lower income taxes gave people more money to spend- Wages rose and new technology increased productivity
35The Impact of the Automobile Henry Ford made cars affordable- Used assembly lineModel T hit the market (cost $825)By 1920's - Model T came off the line every 10 secondsCars changed life - paved roads, gas stations, motels, shopping centers
40Which of these BEST describes how Henry Ford kept his manufacturing costs low by building more than twenty plants in Europe during the 1920s?A. Ford used cheap foreign labor.B. Ford reduced transportation costs.C. Ford avoided tariffs in the United StatesD. Ford reduced the raw materials used in production.
41The Impact of the Automobile Route 66 from Chicago to California1920s – 1st Automatic traffic signals used in Detroit1927 – Holland Tunnel opened to connect New York City & New Jersey (1st underwater tunnel specifically designed for cars)Gave mobility to rural families, women, & young people
42The Impact of the Automobile Enabled workers to live farther from jobs- Led to urban sprawl (spread of cities)Auto industry became economic base for some citiesBoosted oil industryLate 1920s - 1 car for every 5 Americans1927 – The Model A replaced the Model TEnabled customers to order a variety of colorsTraveled faster & smoother
43The Young Airplane Industry Airplane industry started as mail service for U.S. Post OfficeWeather forecasting began- Planes carried radios& navigation tools1926 – Henry Ford built trimotor plane
44The Young Airplane Industry Charles Lindbergh & Amelia Earhart flights helped promote airlinesCharles Lindbergh became the 1st person to fly nonstop across the AtlanticAmelia Earhart became 1st women to fly nonstop across the Atlantic
45The Young Airplane Industry Lockheed Company produced popular transport plane of the decade (Vega)Nations 1st commercial airline formed (Pan American Airlines)- Brought cities closer together- Began transatlantic commercial flights
46America’s Standard of Living Soars 1920s were prosperous times for America1920 to 1929 – Average annual income rose over 35%, from $522 to $705People tired of sacrificingReady to spend moneyNew inventions- Refrigerator- Vacuum cleaner- Electric stove- Wrist watch
47Electrical Conveniences Prosperity was a result of cheap power1920's - electricity and petroleum become widely availableWidespread electricity made possible by Samual Insull- He formed GE Company with Thomas EdisonElectricity along with petroleum helped to transform the nationFactories used electricity to run machines
48Electrical Conveniences Development of alternating current made it possible to distribute electricity over longer distances- Gave electricity to suburbsBy end of 1920s, more homes begin to have electrical appliancesAppliances made housework easier & freed women for other activities- Refrigerators , cooking ranges, & toastersAppliances coincided with trend of women working outside home
49The Dawn of Modern Advertising Advertising agencies began hiring psychologists to learn to appeal to public (Social engineers)Made brand names familiar nationwidePushed luxuries as necessities
50The Dawn of Modern Advertising Results were impressive- “Say it with Flowers” slogan doubled florists business between & 1924- “Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet” caused people to choose cigarettes over candy– Listerine advertisements warned about the disastrous effects of halitosis
51The Dawn of Modern Advertising Businesspeople began working with service groups (Rotary, Kiwanis, & lions)- Raised money for charities & boosted the image of the businessman- promoted selves as benefactors of society
52A Superficial Prosperity Most Americans believed prosperity would last forever- Productivity increased, & businesses expanding- Several mergers in auto industry, steel, electrical equipment, utilities- Chain stores developed- National banks were allowed to create branchesNot everyone became wealthyIron, railroad industries weren’t prosperousIncome gap between workers & managers grew% of Americans lived in poverty
53Two Major Groups Suffered in the 1920s Farmers - food prices fell after World War I- New machines increased productions- Many farmers couldn't afford new machines- Drought and insects also damaged crops- Government refused to help farmersLabor - violent strikes following WWI led to anti- union feelings across the country- Court rulings caused the unions to lose power
54Buying Goods on CreditBusinesses began provided easy credit to lure customers- “a dollar down and a dollar forever”Installment plan - pay for goods over extended period with interestBanks provided money at low interest ratesSome economists & business owners thought installment buying was becoming excessive- Thought it was a sign of fundamental weakness behind superficial prosperityMost focused their attention on the present & didn’t worry about the future- Thought prosperity would last forever
55As car production became more efficient, cars became more affordable for American families. One result of this increase in automobile ownership wasA. greater population density in central cities.B. growth of suburban areas around urban centers.C. increased production of coal in the United States.D. increased dependence on railroads for the transport of goods.
56EOCT REVIEW Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. 3. Who was Henry Ford?4. What was mass production?5. How did Ford change industry and production?
57VocabularyConsumerism -The practice of people buying and using products.
58Americans experience cultural conflicts as customs and values change in the 1920s. Changing Ways of Life
59Rural and Urban Differences 1922–1929, nearly 2 million people left farms & towns each yearLargest cities were New York, Chicago, Philadelphia- 65 other cities with 100,000 people or moreIn 1920s - people caught between rural & urban cultures- close ties, hard work, strict morals of small towns- anonymous crowds, moneymaking, pleasure seeking of cities
60The Prohibition Experiment th Amendment launched Prohibition Era- supported by religious groups in rural South & West- Said alcohol made workers inefficient & increased violenceProhibition -production, sale, transportation of alcohol illegalGovernment didn’t budget enough money to enforce the lawPeople found ways to get around prohibition
61The Prohibition Experiment Speakeasies (hidden saloons, nightclubs) become fashionablePeople built their own stills to distill liquor (Bathtub Gin)- Prescriptions for alcohol & sacramental wine skyrocketed (legal)Bootleggers - smuggled alcohol from surrounding countries
64Organized CrimeProhibition contributed to organized crime in major cities- Wanted to make money off illegal liquorUnderground gangs battled for control of the booze racket1923 – Al Capone emerged as leader of organized crimeControlled Chicago liquor business by killing competitorsBy mid-1920s - only 19% of population supported Prohibition1933 – 21st Amendment repealed 18th Amendment
65A. the President vetoed the Amendment. Twenty-first Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution was repealed becauseA. the President vetoed the Amendment.B. women demanded the right to suffrage.C. the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional.D. Congress and the states agreed to repeal it.
66VocabularyEighteenth Amendment - This Amendment outlawed the unlawful consumption, production, and sale of alcohol.
67American women pursue new lifestyles and assume new jobs and different roles in society during the 1920s. The Twenties Woman
68Young Women Change the Rules Flapper - emancipated young woman, adopts new fashions & attitudes- Wore short bright colored dresses (1inch above the knees)- Skinned tone stockings- Cut their hair in boyish bobs & dyed it jet black- Went to events without chaperones
69Young Women Change the Rules Many young women want equal status with men & became assertiveMiddle-class men & women began to see marriage as equal partnership- housework, child-rearing still woman’s job
70The Double StandardElders disapproved of new behavior and its promotion by periodicals& adsCasual dating began to replace formal courtshipWomen subjected to double standard (less sexual freedom than men)- must observe stricter standards of behaviorWomen were torn between old & new standards
71Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work Employers replaced female workers with men after WWIFemale college graduates became teachers, nurses, & librariansMany women became clerical workers as demand roseSome became sales clerks, or factory workersFew became managers& were always paid less than men
72The Changing FamilyBirthrate dropped partly due to more birth-control information- Margaret Sanger was arrested for passing out birth control information- She said that women couldn’t be free until they could choose- Most people considered birth control immoral– New York Supreme Court said it was legal for doctors to give out birth control informationManufactured products & public services gave homemakers freedom
73The Changing FamilyHousewives could focus more on families & pastimes rather than houseworkMarriages increasingly based on romantic love & companionshipChildren spent most of day at school & organized activities- Adolescents resisted parental control (Peer pressure)Parents began relying on manuals of childcare & opinions of expertsWorking-class & college- educated women juggled family & work
74VocabularyNineteenth Amendment - This amendment stated that voting could not be restricted based on gender.
75Education and Popular Culture The mass media, movies, and spectator sports play important roles in creating the popular culture of the 1920s—a culture that many artists and writers criticizeEducation and Popular Culture
76Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture High school population increased dramatically in 1920s due to:- prosperity- higher standards for industry jobsPre-1920s - High school for college-bound students1920s - High schools began offering vocational trainingPublic schools prepared immigrant children who spoke no EnglishSchool taxes increased as school costs rose sharplySchool cost doubled between 1913 & 1920 Then doubled again by 1926
77Expanding News Coverage Mass media shaped mass culture& took advantage of increased literacyBy hundreds of local newspapers were replaced by national chainsGave readers more expansive coverage form the big cities1920s - mass-circulation magazines thrivedReader’s Digest foundedTime founded
78Radio Comes of AgeRadio was most powerful communications medium of 1920sConnected the whole countryNetworks provided shared national experience- Enabled people to hear the news as it happened
79America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams 1920s - Many people had extra money& leisure time to enjoy itCrowds attended sporting events
80America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams Athletes were glorified by mass mediaBabe RuthAndrew Rube Foster – Founded the Negro National LeagueGertrude Ederle – 1st women to swim the English ChannelHelen Wills – Pro tennis star
81Entertainment and the Arts Silent movies were already a national pastime1927 – The Jazz Singer was released- 1st major movie with sound1928 – Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie was released- 1st animated movie with soundIntroduction of sound led millions to attend every week “talkies”
82Entertainment andPlaywrights & composers broke away from European traditionsGeorge Gershwin merged traditional elements with jazz to create American musicPainters portrayed American realities & dreams- Georgia O’Keeffe painted intensely colored canvases of New York
83Writers of the 1920sSinclair Lewis was first American to win Nobel Prize for literature- Criticizes Americans conformity & materialismF. Scott Fitzgerald revealed negative side of era’s gaiety & freedomWriters soured by American culture & war settled in Europe- Saw little hope in the future- called Lost GenerationExpatriate Ernest Hemingway introduced simple & tough, American style- Criticized glorification of war
84EOCT REVIEW Describe the impact of radio and the movies. 6. How did radios affect Americans?7. How did movies affect Americans?
85The Harlem Renaissance African-American ideas, politics, art, literature, and music flourish in Harlem and elsewhere in the United States.The Harlem Renaissance
86African-American Voices in the 1920s 1910– Great Migration of thousands of African Americans- moved from South to Northern citiesBy over 40% of African Americans live in citiesRacial tensions escalated in North-Summer1919 – About 25 urban race riots took placeAfrican-Americans continue to migrate in the 1920s
87African-American Goals National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded (NAACP)- protested racial violence- W.E.B. Du Bois led parade of 10,000 men in New York to protest violenceNAACP leader James Weldon Johnson fought for civil rights legislation- NAACP antilynching campaign led to drop in number of lynchings
88The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York Many African Americans migrated to Harlem- Neighborhood on the Upper West Side of New York’s Manhattan Island1920s – Harlem became world’s largest black urban area- People from U.S. & CaribbeanHarlem Renaissance - A literary & artistic movement celebrating African- American culture- Expressed pride in African-American experience
89The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York Claude McKay’s poems urged blacks to resist prejudice & discrimination- Also expressed the pain of living of life in the ghettos & the strain of being black in a world dominated by whitesLangston Hughes’s poems described difficult lives of working class- many written in jazz, blues tempoZora Neale Hurston showed folkways, values of poor, Southern blacks
90African-American Performers Influence& popularity of Harlem Renaissance reached beyond black audienceMusical comedy Shuffle Along launched movement- Was popular with white audiencesAfrican-American performers won large followingsPaul Robeson - Became a major dramatic actor in London & New York
91African Americans and Jazz Jazz born in early 20th century New OrleansSpread across U.S.Became the most popular form of music for dancingTrumpeter Louis Armstrong made personal expression key part of jazz- Most influential musician in jazz history
92African Americans and Jazz Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington - jazz pianist, orchestra leader- one of America’s greatest composersCab Calloway & Armstrong popularize scat- improvised jazz singing using sounds instead of wordsBessie Smith - blues singer, perhaps best vocalist of decade– She became the highest paid black artist in the world
93EOCT REVIEWDescribe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the origins of jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan Alley.8. What was the Harlem Renaissance?9. How did the following people / places / events influence the renaissance?- Louis Armstrong- Jazz- Langston Hughes- Irving Berlin- Tin Pan Alley
94The Great Depression Begins An economic crisis grips the nation during the Great Depression. President Herbert Hoover’s conservative response to the nation’s problems costs him many supporters.The Great Depression Begins
95Initial ProsperityUnder President Warren G. Harding, the Post WWI US economy remained relatively strong.Calvin Coolidge took over after Harding died of a Heart Attack.Coolidge supported big business and believed strongly in the laissez-faire economic system.“The business of the American people is business”For most of the 1920’s it appeared that Coolidge was right, the government should not interfere.The stock market began to do very well, with prices reaching new highs and continuing to climb.
96Initial ProsperityMany people began to buy on speculation, or bought on the margin (investors purchase stock for only a portion of what they cost, and borrow the rest of the money).Technology also helped produce the booming economy.Ford’s assembly line and the automobile.The mechanized assembly line led to lower prices and to this concept known as consumerism, the practice of people buying and consuming products.The problem with this was that most people were buying on credit (borrowed money), and later would be unable to repay what they owed.
97Economic Troubles on the Horizon Problems began threatening economic prosperity by the end of the 1920sFarm debt - many farmers were forced to sell in the 1920'sConsumer debt - many people were buying goods on creditMore goods then buyers - prices rose faster than wagesDeclining Trade 's U.S. raised tariffs other countries raised tariffs to retaliateImportant industries struggledIncome disparity - Consumers & farmers went steadily deeper into debt
98Industries in TroubleKey industries like railroads, textiles, steel barely made profitReplaced by other forms of transportationsMining, lumbering expanded during were no longer in high demandCoal especially hard-hit due to availability of new energy sources- Hydroelectricity, fuel oil, & natural gasBoom industries - automobiles, construction, consumer goods weakenedHousing starts declined- Affected many related industries
99Farm Troubles International demand for U.S. grain declined after war - prices dropped by 40% or moreFarmers boosted production to sell more- Caused prices to drop furtherFarm income declined & farmers defaulted on loansRural banks failedCongress attempted to pass the McNary- Haugen bill to help farmers- Price-supports - government bought surplus crops at guarantees prices- President Coolidge vetoed price-support bill
100Consumers Problems 1920s - rich got richer & poor got poorer Prices rose faster that wages70% of families earned less than minimum for decent standard of living- $2500 annuallyMost couldn’t afford flood of products factories produceMany people had been purchasing goods on credit (buy now, pay later)Businesses gave easy credit & consumers piled up large debtsConsumers had trouble paying off debt & cut back on spending
101The Election of 1928Democrat Alfred E. Smith - four times governor of New YorkRepublican Herbert Hoover has served as secretary of commerce under Warren Harding & Calvin CoolidgeU.S. had experienced prosperity under Republicans in 1920sHoover won an overwhelming victory
103Dreams of Riches in the Stock Market Late 1920s – Some economist warning of weaknesses in the economy- Most Americans ignored themPeople began investing in stock market- Looked like an easy way to make moneyDow Jones Industrial Average was used as barometer of the market’s health- Measure based on the stock of 30 representative large firms trading on the New
104Dreams of Riches in the Stock Market York Stock exchange tracks state of stock market1920s - stock prices rose steadily “Bull Market”People rushed to buy stocks & bonds to make a quick profit- Many engaged in speculation - buy on chance of a quick profit- Began Buying on margin - pay small percent of price, borrow rest
105The Stock Market Crashes September stock prices peaked & then fellMany investors lost confidence & began sellingOctober 24, Market took plunge & many panicked investors unloaded their shares
106The Stock Market Crashes October 29, Stock market crashed (Black Tuesday)- Shareholders sold frantically- Millions of shares had no buyers- People who bought on credit were left with huge debts- Others lose most of their savings
107Financial CollapseGreat Depression - economy plummeted & unemployment skyrocketed- lasted from 1929–1940After crash, people panicked & withdraw money from banksBanks that invested in stocks failed& people lost their money1929 to gross national product was cut nearly in half- 90,000 businesses went bankrupt% of workers were unemployedThose with jobs received cuts in hours & pay
108Worldwide Shock WavesGreat Depression limited U.S. ability to import European goodsHawley-Smoot Tariff Act set highest protective tariff ever in U.S.Other countries couldn’t earn American currency to buy U.S. goods- Many countries retaliated by raising their own tariffsInternational trade dropped & unemployment soared around world
109Causes of the Great Depression Factors leading to Great Depression:Declining Trade - Tariffs & war debts cut down the foreign markets for American goodsFarm problems - Many farmers were forced to sellEasy credit – Borrowed money to invest in marketIncome disparityFederal government kept interest rates low & encouraged borrowing
110Which of these contributed to the Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression? A. stock market speculationB. the effects of World War IIC. success of the U.S. farm economyD. foreign boycotts of U.S. products
111EOCT REVIEWSSUSH17: The student will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression.Describe the causes, including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock market speculation that led to the stock market crash of and the Great Depression.10. Describe the following causes of the Great Depression- Overproduction- Under consumption- Speculation- The Crash of 1929
112VocabularySpeculation - Making high risk investments in hopes of high return.Overproduction - When markets have more of a product than consumers want.Under-consumption - When consumers are reluctant to buy all that has been produced.Buying on the margin - Investors purchase stocks for only a portion of what they cost, then borrow the difference and paid interest on the loan.Stock market crash of This was called black Tuesday, and is seen as the signifying event that started the Great DepressionGreat Depression -From 1929 until WWII-severe downward economic trend resulting in low production of goods and high unemployment
113Hardship and Suffering during the Depression During the Great Depression Americans do what they have to do to survive.Hardship and Suffering during the Depression
114The Depression Devastates People’s Lives People lost jobs & were evicted from homesHad to live in parks or sewer pipesShantytowns - settlements consisting of shacks, arose in citiesPeople dug through garbage & begged-
115The Depression Devastates People’s Lives Soup kitchens offered free or low-cost food- Bread lines - people lined up for food from charities & public agenciesAfrican Americans & Latinos had higher unemployment & lower payMinorities were also targets of violence (Lynching or deportation)
116The Depression in Rural Areas Most farmers could grow food for their familiesAbout 400,000 farms were lost through foreclosure- Many became tenant farmers
117The Dust BowlFarmers in Great Plains exhausted land through overproduction1930s - drought & windstorms scattered for hundreds of milesDust Bowl - area from North Dakota to Texas that was hardest hitMany farm families migrated to Pacific Coast states (Route 66)- California towns became overcrowded- Many people who moved west were from Oklahoma (Okies)
122EOCT REVIEWExplain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl.11. How did drought affect the depression?12. How did the Dust Bowl effect the depression?
123Effects on the American Family Family was source of strength for most AmericansBelieved in traditional values and emphasized the importance of family unityMany families entertained themselves with board games & radio- Monopoly was invented in 1933Some families broke apart under strain of making ends meet
124Men in the StreetsMany men used to working & supporting families had difficulty copingCouldn’t find jobsManny stopped tryingSome men vena bonded their families- About 300,000 hoboes wandered country on railroad box carsNo federal system of direct relief - cash or food from government
125Women Struggle to Survive Women worked hard to help their families survive the adversityHomemakers budgeted carefully, canned food, & sewed clothesWomen worked outside home & were resented by unemployed menEarly 1930s – Some cities refused to hire married schoolteachersMany women suffered in silence & were ashamed to stand in bread lines
126Children Suffer Hardships Poor diets & health care led to serious health problems in childrenLack of tax revenue led to shortened school year & school closingsTeenagers left home & rode trains in search of work & adventure- Many died or were beaten
127Social and Psychological Effects 1928 to 1932 – suicide rate rose over 30%Admissions to state mental hospitals tripledPeople gave up health care, collegePut off marriage & childrenStigma of poverty didn’t disappear & financial security became goalMany people showed great kindness to strangers- Gave food, clothing & a place to stayPeople developed habit of saving and thriftiness
128EOCT REVIEWExplain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in developments such as Hoovervilles.13. How did unemployment affect Americans during this time?14. What were Hoovervilles?
129VocabularySoup kitchens\Bread lines - These provided food for the poor in order to have anything to eat.Hoovervilles - Shanty towns that developed in parks around major cities during the Great Depression.Dust Bowl – Soil in the Midwestern United States dried up and was swept away by high winds in the early 1930’s
130Hoover Struggles with the Depression President Hoover’s conservative response to the Great Depression draws criticism from many Americans.Hoover Struggles with the Depression
131Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation President Herbert Hoover told Americans the economy was soundMany experts believed depressions were normal part of business cycle- Believed that it was best to do nothing & let the economy fox itselfHoover believed government should foster cooperation between competing groups
132Hoover Tries to Reassure the Nation Many believed that people should succeed through their own effortsPeople should take care of own families & not depend on governmentHoover opposed any form of federal welfare or direct relief to the needy- Believed that hand-outs would weaken people’s self respect & moral fiber- Said that charities & local organizations should help the less fortunate
133Hoover Takes Cautious Steps Hoover called meeting of business, banking, labor leaders to solve problems- Asked them to work to together to solve the problemsCreated organization to help private charities raise money for poorHoover’s authorized the construction of the Boulder Dam on Colorado River w- later renamed Hoover Dam- Provided electricity, flood control, water to states on river basin
136Democrats Win in 1930 Congressional Elections People began blaming Hoover & Republicans for the economic problemsDemocrats won House of RepresentativesRepublican Senate majority down to 1 votePeople Grew frustrated with the DepressionFarmers try to create food shortages to raise pricesBurned fields rather than sell crops at a lossSome declared a farm holidayPeople began calling shantytowns “Hoovervilles”
138Hoover Takes ActionHoover softened his stance on no government intervention in the economyHoover negotiates agreements among private entitiesBacks Federal Farm Board (organization of farm cooperatives)- buy crops, keep off market until prices riseGot large banks to establish National Credit Corporation- Loaned money to smaller banks to prevent bankruptcy
139Hoover Takes ActionLate Hoover persuaded Congress to pass measures reform banking, provide mortgage relief, & funnel federal money into business investment- Federal Home Loan Bank Act lowered mortgage rates
140Hoover Takes ActionReconstruction Finance Corporation – Authorized emergency funds for businesses- Hoover believed that the money would tickle down to average citizens through job growth & higher wages- Critics said people couldn’t wait for the money to trickle downHoover’s measures didn’t improve economy before presidential election
141Gassing the Bonus Army1932 – Incident with World War I veterans further damaged Hoover’s image & public morale1924 – Congress agreed to pay a bonus to WWK vets who had not been adequately compensated for wartime service- Bonus was to be paid in in the form of cash & a life insurance policy
142Gassing the Bonus ArmyBonus Army – WWI veterans went to D.C. in 1932 to support Patman Bill:- called for immediate payment of bonus to WWI vets ($500 per soldier)Hoover opposed billBelieved they were communistsHe respected their right to protest (Provided food & supplies for shantytown)June 17, Senate voted down Patman Bill
144Gassing the Bonus Army Most veterans left Washington About 2,000 stayed to speak to HooverHoover fears violence& called on U.S. Army to disband Bonus Army- Led by General Douglass Macarthur & Major Dwight EisenhowerInfantry tear gassed over 1,000 people, including childrenMany people were injured (11 month old baby died)Public was stunned & outraged by government’s actions
147VocabularyHerbert Hoover - President of the United States that was elected in Most people blamed him for the Great Depression
148President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal programs stimulate the economy and the arts. The New Deal leaves a lasting, yet controversial mark on American government.The New Deal
149Election of 1932Democrats nominate NY governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt- reform-minded;projected friendliness & confidenceDemocrats overwhelmingly won presidency, Senate, & HouseRoosevelt had to wait 4 months to take over
151Election of 193220th Amendment wasn’t rarified until 1933 (Move inauguration to January)FDR worked with advisors known as “Brain Trust,” to formulate policies to alleviate problemsNew Deal – FDR’s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression focused on 3 Rs- Relief for needy- Economic recovery- Financial reform
152The Hundred DaysMarch 9 to June 16, FDR took office & launched Hundred DaysCongress passed over 15 major New Deal laws that expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy
153Bank HolidayMarch 5, 1933 – one day after taking office FDR declared a bank holiday & closed all banks to prevent further withdrawalsEmergency Banking Relief Act - Permitted Treasury Dept. to inspect banks- Sound banks were allowed to reopen- Banks that needed help received loans- Insolvent ones remained closed (unable to pay bills)Bank Holiday revived public confidence in banks- Believed that the banks remained open were in good shape
154An Important Fireside Chat FDR gave fireside chats - radio talks explaining New Deal measuresMarch 12, 1933 – FDR gave 1st fireside chat the day before the banks reopened after holiday- Discussed need for public support of government, banks
155Regulating Banking and Finance Congress took another step to reorganize the banking systemGlass-Steagall Act - Established Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- insured individual bank accounts up to $5000- Regulates banking practices ( forced them to act cautiously with money)
156An obvious defect in the United States' banking system that was exposed during the Great Depression wasA. excessive government regulation of banks.B. the federal government's ownership of banks.C. an excessive amount of currency in circulation.D. the lack of protection for funds deposited by individuals in banks.
157Regulating Banking and Finance Federal Securities Act – Required companies must give all information on stocksSecurities and Exchange Commission (SEC) created to regulate stock marketFDR got law allowing production of some alcoholic beverages21st Amendment repealed prohibition by end of 1933
158Helping the American People Roosevelt administration implemented programs aimed at helping farmers & other workers to stimulate economyAgricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised food prices by lowering supply- Government paid farmers not to plant crops
159Helping the American People Tennessee Valley Authority - Created jobs renovating & building dams- Also provided flood control & hydroelectric power to region
160Helping the American People Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) - public works jobs for young men 18 to 25- Built road, planted trees & helped in soils erosion & flood control projects- Men sent $25 out of $30 home to family each month
163EOCT REVIEWSSUSH18: The student will describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the depression and compare the ways governmental programs aided those in need.Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort to control the environment.15. What was the TVA? What was it created to do?
164NIRANational Industrial Recovery Act - established codes of fair practice for industriesCreated National Recovery Administration (NRA)- NRA sets standards, prices, limits productionPublic Works Administration (PWA) was established as part of the NIRA– It provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools & other community buildings
165Food, Clothing, and Shelter Home Owners Loan Corporation gave loans to prevent foreclosuresFederal Housing Administration gives loans for mortgages & repairs (FHA)Federal Emergency Relief Administration— direct relief to needy
166The New Deal Comes Under Attack Deficit spending - spending more money than government takes in- funded New DealOpposition rose when the New Deal didn’t stop the DepressionLiberals didn’t think New Deal did enough to help poor, & fix economyConservatives believed Roosevelt used the New Deal to control business & socialize economy
167The Supreme Court Reacts Supreme Court struck down NIRA & AAA as unconstitutionalFDR proposed “Court-packing bill”- Change the Supreme Court from 9 to 15 justices- Would enable FDR to appoint 6 new justicesCongress & press protestedStarting in justices retire & FDR appointed seven new ones
168Huey Long Attacked the New Deal Governor of Louisiana "King Fish"Built schools and hospitalsRuled Louisiana like a dictatorWanted to be presidentDecided to challenge FDROffered new deal "Share our wealth"- Called for every family to get yearly income money to buy food and housing- Taxed the rich heavilyMade enemies in his attempt to become president- Shot and killed in 1935
169What is the point of this cartoon from 1934? A. FDR's New Deal programs are unsuccessful.B. The New Deal programs are purely the creation of FDR.C. FDR has unwisely created the "Alphabet Soup" programs.D. FDR must end his "Alphabet Soup" programs immediately.
170VocabularyFranklin Delano Roosevelt - Elected President in 1932 by an overwhelming majority. He was the first President to use the radio effectively. Implemented the New Deal.New Deal - Legislation and programs implemented during the Great Depression to provide economic relief and recovery.First Hundred Days - This was the time period from the inauguration in March through the following June in which many New Deal programs were implemented.Civilian Conservation Corps - This program launched a number of public works such as the construction of dams, highways, and bridges.
171Vocabulary ContinuedAgricultural Adjustment Act - This act approved government loans for farmers and paid farmers not to grow certain crops in order to increase the price of agricultural products.Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation - This act insured bank deposits of up to $100,000 in case of bank failure. It served to prevent people from withdrawing their money out of panic.National Industrial Recovery Act - This act sought to bolster industrial prices and prevent US business failures.
172Vocabulary ContinuedPublic Works Administration - This provided employment for unmarried men who worked in the national parks, and eventually for women as well.Tennessee Valley Authority - This program concentrated on building hydroelectric dams in the Southeastern part of the United States, providing electricity and jobs in the Southeast.Court-packing scheme - Roosevelt proposed this idea when the Supreme Court continued to strike down his new Deal legislation.Huey P. Long - . A Senator and former governor of Louisiana, he was a critic of Roosevelt and supported the redistribution of wealth in the United States. He was assassinated for his “Communist” views.
173The Second New Deal Takes Hold The Second New Deal includes new programs to extend federal aid and stimulate the nation’s economy.The Second New Deal Takes Hold
174The Second Hundred Days By 1935, economic recovery not as great as FDR had expected- Unemployment remained high- Work programs & productions still behind 1920s levelsFDR launched second phaseProvided more relief for farmers, workers
175Eleanor RooseveltFirst Lady Eleanor Roosevelt a social reformer prodded presidentWas the first activist First Lady.Eleanor pushed to reform state government in New York, and the living conditions in major cities.She was a major supporter of women’s rights and minority rights. She even pushed her husband to include women in many of the New Deal programs.
176Eleanor RooseveltEleanor did one other major thing, she helped hide the fact that Polio had rendered FDR disable to move around.Eleanor traveled many times to visit many groups in place of FDR- She traveled the country observing the social conditions & reminding FDR about the suffering- She also pushed for him to appoint women to government positions
177Election of 1936Democrats won presidency & large majorities in both housesFirst time most African Americans voted DemocraticFirst time labor unions supported presidential candidateElection was a vote of confidence in FDR & the New Deal
178Helping FarmersSoil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act replaced AAA- Rewarded farmers for practicing soil conservationNew Agricultural Adjustment Act avoided unconstitutional provisionResettlement Administration gave loans to small farmers to buy landFarm Security Administration - loaned to tenant farmers to buy landFSA hires photographers to shoot pictures of rural towns & farms
180Roosevelt Extends Relief 2nd New Deal established a series of programs to help youths, professionals & other workersWorks Progress Administration (WPA) created many jobs for unskilled workers- WPA workers build airports, roads, public buildings- Women workers sewed clothes for the needy- WPA employed professional writers, artists, performers
182Roosevelt Extends Relief National Youth Administration (NYA) - provided education, jobs, counseling & recreation to young people- Gave aid to students in exchange for part- time work
183Improving Labor and Other Reforms Wagner Act - replaced NIRA- Protected right to join unions & collective bargaining- Prohibited unfair labor practices (threatening workers or firing union members)- Established National Labor Relations Board that heard testimony about labor practices- Held elections to determine if workers wanted unionsFair Labor Standards Act sets maximum hours & minimum wage- 44 hrs per week decreasing to 40 in two years & 25 cents per hr.
184Social Security ActSocial Security Act created Social Security systemProvided insurance for retirees 65 or olderUnemployment compensationAid to disabled & families with children
185Expanding and Regulating Utilities Rural Electrification Administration (REA) brought electricity to farms- Rose from 12.6 % in 1935 to 48% in to 90% in 1949Public Utility Holding Company Act aims to stop financial corruption
186The cartoon from 1933 is expressing the belief that A. FDR's programs are straying too far from American ideals.B. the New Deal is succeeding in ending the Great Depression.C. the New Deal was a failure in ending the Great Depression.D. FDR needs to try to use some of the ideas created by Karl Marx.
187EOCT REVIEWExplain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism.16. What was the purpose of the Wagner Act?17. What is industrial unionism?Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal.18. What is the Social Security Act?19. What was the second New Deal?Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and women’s activism.20. Who was Eleanor Roosevelt?21. What did she do as a women’s activist?
188VocabularySecond New Deal – Series of programs implemented in the United States after 1934 to continue bringing the United States out of the great depression.Eleanor Roosevelt - She was one of the only first ladies to take an impactful stance in the United States. She helped push through changes for women andminorities in the United States.Social Security Act - This act established retirement income for all workers once they reached the age of It also provided some benefits for the unemployed and those with disabilities.
189Vocabulary ContinuedRevenue Act of This act raised taxes on those making above $50,000 a year as well as corporate and estate taxes. Named “soak the rich tax”.National Labor Relations Act - Set maximum hours & minimum wage- 44 hrs per week decreasing to 40 in two years & 25 cents per hr.Wagner Act - . This act was passed in 1935 and created a board to monitor unfair management practices such as firing workers who joined unions (it concentrated on protecting worker rights).
190New Deal policies and actions affect various social and ethnic groups. The New Deal Affects Many Groups
191The New Deal Brings New Opportunities for Women Several women were named to important government positionsFrances Perkins became first female cabinet member (Secretary of Labor)- FDR also appointed 2 women as diplomats & 1 as a federal judgeWomen still faced discrimination in workplace from male workersNational Recovery Administration (NRA) set some lower minimum wages for womenFederal work programs hired far fewer women than men
192African-American Activism FDR appointed more than 100 African Americans to governmentEducator Mary McLeod Bethune headed Division of Negro Affairs of NYAHelped organize “Black Cabinet”Group of influential African-American who advised FDR on racial issues
193The President Fails to Support Civil Rights FDR was afraid of upsetting white Southern Democratic votersRefused to approve anti-lynching law & end to poll taxNew Deal agencies discriminated against African Americans- pay them lower wages & favored whitesAfrican- Americans generally supported Roosevelt administration & New Deal- Saw them as the best hope for the future
194FDR Wins in 1936New Deal Coalition - different groups that support Democratic Party- Helped the democratic party dominate national politics throughout the 1930s & 1940sPolitical organizations in large Northern cities supported FDRUrban, religious, & ethnic groups also supported FDR- FDR appoints officials of urban-immigrant background
195Motion pictures, radio, art, and literature blossom during the New Deal. Culture in the 1930’s
196The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio About 65% of population went to movies once a week- Movies were still affordable- People watched them to escape real life- Grapes of Wrath- Gone With the Wind- The Wizard of OZ
197The Lure of Motion Pictures and Radio 90% of households had a radioFamilies listened together every dayDramas, variety shows played in evening- Soap operas for homemakers broadcast in middle of day- Children’s shows after school hours- Immediate news coverage became customary- Orson Welles - actor, director, producer, & writer
198The Arts in Depression America Federal Art Project paid artists to make art, & teach in schoolsAim to promote art appreciation & positive image of AmericaMurals typically portrayed dignity of ordinary people at workFederal Theater Project hired actors & artistsSinger, songwriter Woody Guthrie sung songs about the of plight of poor
199Diverse Writers Depict American Life Federal Writers’ Project supported many who become major writersRichard Wright - African-American author who wrote Native SonJohn Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath about Dust Bowl migrants
200The Impact of the New Deal . The New Deal affects American society not only in the 1930s but also in the decades that followThe Impact of the New Deal .
201The New Deal EndsBy 1937, economic improvement convinced many that Depression was endingCongress wanted to cut back programsBy New Deal was over
202Supporters and Critics of the New Deal Supporters Believed the New Deal helped country recover from economic difficultiesConservatives thought FDR made federal government too large- stifled free enterprise & individual initiativeLiberals thought New Deal didn’t do enough to socialize economy & end inequalities
203Effects of the New DealExpanded power of federal government & presidentSocial Security Act - Federal government takes responsibility for citizens’ welfare- Provided aid for aged, disabled & needyFDIC - still protects individual investors in case of bank failureSEC -still monitors stock market, enforces laws on stock, bond salesNew Deal laws set standards for wages & hours- banned child labor,- Permitted unions
204Effects of the New DealCivilian Conservation Corps (CCC ) - planted trees, built hiking trails, & fire lookout towersSoil Conservation Service taught farmers how to preserve soil- Contour plowing, terraces, & crop rotationTaylor Grazing Act- reduced grazing on public lands- Grazing had contributed to erosion that caused the dust bowlTennessee Valley Authority (TVA) -created electricity, & prevented floodsNew Deal reduced suffering & gave people hope- Provided jobs, food & moneyNew Deal didn't end depression WWII did
205Roosevelt and International Concerns In attempt to protect US businesses, Roosevelt raised tariffs on foreign imports.He felt this would push Americans to buy American products.Foreign nations responded in the same way, they imposed high tariffs on American made goods.Eventually this worldwide depression would be one of the major contributing factors to WWII.
206Designed to protect American jobs and farmers from foreign competition Designed to protect American jobs and farmers from foreign competition. · Raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. Resulted in retaliatory tariffs from foreign nations that dropped U.S. exports by as much as 50%. Is considered one of the major factors that worsened the effects of the Great Depression in the United States. These statements are referring toA. The Wagner Act.B. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act.C. The Bretton-Woods Tariff Act.D. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act.
207Roosevelt and International Concerns Roosevelt wanted to stay neutral in relations with countries in Europe.Several dictators had taken over in Europe, and Roosevelt wanted no part.Roosevelt and Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which stated we would not sale military supplies to countries in conflict in Europe.Eventually Roosevelt would realize it was inevitable that the US would enter into the conflict.
208Impact of WWIIWith war mobilization the U.S. industry began to boom again.With money being pumped back into industry, the economy began to rise once again.By the end of WWII the U.S. unemployment rate had dropped to an all time low of 1%.WWII would be the final factor to bring the United States out of the Great Depression.
209EOCT REVIEWIdentify the political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and international leadership; include the role of Huey Long, the “court packing bill,” and the Neutrality Act.22. Who was Huey Long?23. What was the Court Packing Bill?24. What was the Neutrality Act?
210VocabularyNeutrality Act -Act that prohibited the sale of weapons to warring nations and was mean to keep the US from forming alliances that might drag the US into war.