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PENCEMARAN AIR DAN PENGELOLAANNYA Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012 Foto:smno.kampus.ub.nop2012.

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Presentation on theme: "PENCEMARAN AIR DAN PENGELOLAANNYA Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012 Foto:smno.kampus.ub.nop2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 PENCEMARAN AIR DAN PENGELOLAANNYA Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012 Foto:smno.kampus.ub.nop2012

2 PENCEMARAN AIR Menunjukkan degradasi kualitas air. –Umumnya berkaitan dengan penggunaan air –Seberapa jauh kualitas air menyimpang dari baku mutunya –Dampaknya terhadap kesehatan masyarakat –Dampak ekologisnya Diunduh dari: … Pencemaran air adalah suatu perubahan keadaan di suatu tempat penampungan air seperti danau, sungai, lautan dan air tanah akibat aktivitas manusia. Danau, sungai, lautan dan air tanah adalah bagian penting dalam siklus kehidupan manusia dan merupakan salah satu bagian dari siklus hidrologi. Selain mengalirkan air juga mengalirkan sedimen dan polutan. Berbagai macam fungsinya sangat membantu kehidupan manusia. Pemanfaatan terbesar danau, sungai, lautan dan air tanah adalah untuk irigasi pertanian, bahan baku air minum, sebagai saluran pembuangan air hujan dan air limbah, bahkan sebenarnya berpotensi sebagai objek wisata. Walaupun fenomena alam seperti gunung berapi, badai, gempa bumi dll juga mengakibatkan perubahan yang besar terhadap kualitas air, hal ini tidak dianggap sebagai pencemaran.

3 PENCEMARAN AIR Bahan pencemar air meliputi –Logam-logam berat –Sedimen –Isotop radioaktif –Panas –Bakteri Coliform tinja –Phosphorus –Nitrogen –Sodium, dan unsur-unsur hara lainnya –Bacteri dan virus patogen. Diunduh dari: quality-of-water-that-is-injurious-&catid=79:water-pollution&Itemid=422 … The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution are generally divided into two categories. The first is point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. The second category is non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas are examples of non-point-source pollution. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients and biodegradable organics, and bacterial and viral pathogens.

4 PENCEMARAN AIR Masalah utama pencemaran air adalah kurang jernih, air minum yang bebas penyakit. –Outbreaks of waterborne disease affects several billion people worldwide –E.g. cholera Kualitas air menentukan potensial penggunaannya. Semua segmen masyarakat berkontribusi terhadap pencemaran air. Diunduh dari: quality-of-water-that-is-injurious-&catid=79:water-pollution&Itemid=422 … Water pollution can threaten human health when pollutants enter the body via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. Priority pollutants, including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain (in a process called biomagnification), and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Finally, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids, if present, will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream.

5 Diunduh dari: … SUMBER DAN PROSES PENCEMARAN AIR

6 PENCEMARAN AIR Increasing population often results in the introduction of more pollutants. –As well as demands on finite water resources –~36 million people in US supplied w/ water from systems that violated federal standards. EPA sets thresholds and limits on some but not all pollutants –700 identified drinking water contaminants Diunduh dari: water-water-pollution.html … Water Contamination – Drinking Water – Water Pollution Posted on November 8, 2010 by roosja The list of types of contaminants you want to remove from municipal tap water: 1. Organic compounds (Pesticides, Herbicides, Pharmaceuticals, Fuels, etc.) 2. Toxic metals (Lead, Mercury, Aluminum, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, etc.) 3. Bacterial and viruses (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.) 4. Radioactive substances (Radon and Uranium, etc.) 5. Additives (Chlorine and Chloramines, Fluoride, etc.)

7 Diunduh dari: … BAKU MUTU KUALITAS AIR DI US

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9 OKSIGEN TERLARUT = Dissolved Oxygen Bacteria in stream decompose dead organic matter carrying, this decay use oxygen. –Larger amount of bacterial activity = little oxygen in the water available to fish and other organisms –Can be reduced to levels so low that they may die. Air sungai yang DO nya rendah dianggap tercemar bagi organisme yang memerlukan DO tinggi. Diunduh dari: Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Dissolved oxygen is another important water quality factor for fish and many aquatic invertebrates. DO is the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. Even though the chemical formula for water is H20, fish and other aquatic organisms can’t remove the oxygen molecules. They depend on oxygen dissolved in the water for respiration. They extract the oxygen dissolved in the water through their gills or across their skin. Temperature, water velocity, wind, water depth and plant growth influence DO in water. Temperature has great influence on the amount of DO. Warmer water contains less oxygen than colder water. The number of organisms using oxygen can also influence the amount of dissolved oxygen present. If more oxygen is used (respiration) than is being put in, dissolved oxygen levels decrease. The dissolved oxygen needs for many aquatic insects and fish differ, but some ranges overlap. Fish such as blacknosed dace, brook and brown trout, and certain stoneflies have similar oxygen needs. That’s one of the reasons they are found together in the same community. The same holds true for smallmouth bass, certain shiners and hellgrammites. Their dissolved oxygen needs and tolerances overlap. Channel catfish and carp can tolerate DO as low as 2 mg/l. Generally, dissolved oxygen levels in aquatic habitats must be greater than 6.5 mg/l for fish and aquatic organisms to survive.

10 Diunduh dari: affects-water-quality.htm … How exactly does dissolved oxygen affect water quality? A high DO level in a community water supply is good because it makes drinking water taste better. However, high DO levels speed up corrosion in water pipes. For this reason, industries use water with the least possible amount of dissolved oxygen. Water used in very low pressure boilers have no more than 2.0 ppm of DO, but most boiler plant operators try to keep oxygen levels to ppm or less. Dissolved oxygen (DO) refers to the amount of oxygen dissolved in water and is particularly important in limnology (aquatic ecology). Oxygen comprises approximately 21% of the total gas in the atmosphere; however, it is much less available in water. The amount of oxygen water can hold depends upon temperature (more oxygen can be dissolved in colder water), pressure (more oxygen can be dissolved in water at greater pressure), and salinity (more oxygen can be dissolved in water of lower salinity). Many lakes and ponds have anoxic (oxygen deficient) bottom layers in the summer because of decomposition processes depleting the oxygen. The amount of dissolved oxygen often determines the number and types of organisms living in that body of water. For example, fish like trout are sensitive to low DO levels (less than eight parts per million) and cannot survive in warm, slow-moving streams or rivers. Decay of organic material in water caused by either chemical processes or microbial action on untreated sewage or dead vegetation can severely reduce dissolved oxygen concentration. This is the most common cause of fish kills, especially in summer months when warm water holds less oxygen anyway. Dissolved oxygen (DO) refers to the volume of oxygen that is contained in water. Oxygen enters the water as rooted aquatic plants and algae undergo photosynthesis, and as oxygen is transferred across the air-water interface. The amount of oxygen that can be held by the water depends on the water temperature, salinity, and pressure. Gas solubility increases with decreasing temperature (colder water holds more oxygen). Gas solubility increases with decreasing salinity (freshwater holds more oxygen than does saltwater). Both the partial pressure and the degree of saturation of oxygen will change with altitude. Finally, gas solubility decreases as pressure decreases.

11 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Amount of oxygen required for biochemical decomposition is BOD. BOD is commonly used in water quality management. –Measures the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they break down organic matter. –Routinely measured as part of water quality at waste water treatment plants. Diunduh dari: … Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organics in one liter of water were oxidized by bacteria and protozoa (ReVelle and ReVelle, 1988). The first step in measuring BOD is to obtain equal volumes of water from the area to be tested and dilute each specimen with a known volume of distilled water which has been thoroughly shaken to insure oxygen saturation. After this, an oxygen meter is used to determine the concentration of oxygen within one of the vials. The remaining vial is than sealed and placed in darkness and tested five days later. BOD is then determined by subtracting the second meter reading from the first. The range of possible readings can vary considerably: water from an exceptionally clear lake might show a BOD of less than 2 ml/L of water. Raw sewage may give readings in the hundreds and food processing wastes may be in the thousands. Generally, when BOD levels are high, there is a decline in DO levels. This is because the demand for oxygen by the bacteria is high and they are taking that oxygen from the oxygen dissolved in the water. If there is no organic waste present in the water, there won't be as many bacteria present to decompose it and thus the BOD will tend to be lower and the DO level will tend to be higher.

12 KEBUTUHAN OKSIGEN BIOKIMIA Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Dead organic matter, which produces BOD –Added to stream and river from natural sources, agricultural runoff and urban sewage US EPA defines the threshold for water pollution alert as –Dissolved oxygen content of less than 5 mg/l of water Diunduh dari: … Biochemical oxygen demand represents the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic conditions at a specified temperature. Biochemical oxygen demand curves: (A) typical carbonaceous-demand curve showing the oxidation of organic matter, and (B) typical carbonaceous- plus nitrogeneous-demand curve showing the oxidation of ammonia and nitrite. (Modified from Sawyer and McCarty, 1978.)

13 Diunduh dari: … BOD - AIR LIMBAH Biological characteristics of the wastewater refer to the amount of readily biodegradable organic matter contained in the wastewater. The organic matter is a concern, not because it is toxic, but because naturally occurring microorganisms in the environment consume the organic matter as a food source, consuming dissolved oxygen from the water as they grow. When there is ample food available, the biomass grows at a high rate and consumes all available oxygen from the water, killing all aquatic life that depends on the oxygen. It is precisely this oxygen consumption process that is used to estimate the amount of available organic matter in a wastewater via the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) test. BOD concentration is used as a surrogate measurement of the biodegradable organic content of wastewater. Total BOD is composed of carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD. Carbonaceous BOD (C- BOD) results from aerobic microorganisms metabolizing organic matter and oxygen to form CO 2, new cells, and ammonia. Nitrogenous BOD (N-BOD) results from aerobic microorganisms oxidizing ammonia to nitrate, forming new cells in the process. The combined processes constitute the total biochemical oxygen demand resulting from microorganisms consuming the organic matter and the dissolved oxygen contained in the wastewater.

14 KEBUTUHAN OKSIGEN BIOKIMIA Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Diunduh dari: … Mathematical modeling of the BOD process enables investigators to determine the ultimate carbonaceous BOD based on the results of the five-day BOD results. The carbonaceous BOD modeling equation is: y = L 0 (1 - e -kt ) where: y = BOD at time, t; L 0 = ultimate carbonaceous BOD; k = BOD rate coefficient (varies from 0.23 to 0.70 day -1 at 20°C); t = time (days) The rate coefficient, k, must be experimentally determined for a particular wastewater (an average value for municipal wastewaters is 0.39 day -1 ). When k is known, the equation can be used to determine the ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the BOD at any time based on the standard five-day BOD test results. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Equations BOD = biochemical oxygen demand; L = ultimate biological demand; k = deoxygenation rate constant; t = time; D1 = initial diluted seeded wastewater dissolved oxygen; D2 = final diluted seeded wastewater dissolved oxygen; B1 = initial diluted seed sample DO; B2 = final diluted seed sample DO; f = seed volume ratio; P = wastewater decimal fraction

15 Diunduh dari: …

16 Waterborne Diseases Primary waterborne pollution problem –Effects vary from an upset stomach to death –In the early 1990s cholera caused widespread suffering and death in SA NA is not immune to outbreaks of waterborne disease. Diunduh dari: … Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected. Various forms of waterborne diarrheal disease probably are the most prominent examples, and affect mainly children in developing countries; according to the World Health Organization, such disease account for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and cause about 1.8 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene. The term "waterborne disease" is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections might be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, had got into water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors. (Diunduh dari:

17 Diunduh dari: %20Asia%20Issa.pdf … WATER RELATED DISEASES 1.WHO recognizes that access to adequate water supplies is a fundamental human right. 2.Water Water-related diseases are a human tragedy, killing millions of people each year (account for 80% of all deaths in developing countries). Water Water-related Diseases Can be Classified into : Water-borne diseases. Water-based diseases. Water-related vector diseases. Water-scarce ( also called water-washed ) diseases.

18 Diunduh dari: %20Asia%20Issa.pdf … Classification of Water related Diseases Water- Causes of waterborne diseases 1.Lack of proper sanitation ( sewage treatment is inadequate. Instead, human wastes disposed in open canals). 2.Using contaminated sewage for fertilizers. 3.Agricultural chemicals, pesticides,and industrial wastes. Prevention of waterborne diseases 1.Improving public sanitation. 2.Providing a clean water supply

19 Bacteri Coli dari Tinja Difficult to monitor disease carrying organisms –Instead we use fecal coliform bacteria as a standard measure and indicator of disease –Indicates that fecal matter is present Normal constituent of human and animal intestines US EPA places thresholds on levels –200 cells/ 100 ml air untuk keperluan renang –Tidak mengandung bacteri, untuk air minum Diunduh dari: … A fecal coliform (sometimes faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Fecal coliforms are capable of growth in the presence of bile salts or similar surface agents, are oxidase negative, and produce acid and gas from lactose within 48 hours at 44 ± 0.5°C. (Doyle, M. P., and M. C. Erickson "Closing the door on the fecal coliform assay.“ Microbe 1: ). Coliform bacteria include genera that originate in feces (e.g. Escherichia) as well as genera not of fecal origin (e.g. Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter). The assay is intended to be an indicator of fecal contamination; more specifically of E. coli which is an indicator microorganism for other pathogens that may be present in feces. Presence of fecal coliforms in water may not be directly harmful, and does not necessarily indicate the presence of feces. In general, increased levels of fecal coliforms provide a warning of failure in water treatment, a break in the integrity of the distribution system, possible contamination with pathogens. When levels are high there may be an elevated risk of waterborne gastroenteritis. Tests for the bacteria are cheap, reliable and rapid (1-day incubation). Diunduh dari:

20 Diunduh dari: … FAECAL COLIFORMS Faecal coliforms are a subset of the coliform group. Although faecal coliforms are predominantly found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals, they constitute a mixed group of organisms and some of the bacteria in this group can be derived from other environmental sources. They may also multiply in water on occasions to give a false impression of faecal contamination. Source:

21 Escherichia coli (E. coli) –Dapat menyebabkan sakit dan kematian manusia –Memakan bahan pangan dan minuman yang terkontaminasi Adanya bacteri coliform tinja juga mengindikasikan adanya: - Virus seperti hepatitis Diunduh dari: … Bacteri Coli dari Tinja Food-Borne Origins of Escherichia coli Causing Extraintestinal Infections Patricia M. Griffin, Section Editor Amee R. Manges and James R. Johnson Clin Infect Dis. (2012) doi: /cid/cis502 First published online: May 21, 2012 Most human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections, including those involving antimicrobial resistant strains, are caused by the members of a limited number of distinctive E. coli lineages, termed extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), that have a special ability to cause disease at extraintestinal sites when they exit their usual reservoir in the host's intestinal tract. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of the ExPEC strains encountered in humans with urinary tract infection, sepsis, and other extraintestinal infections, especially the most extensively antimicrobial-resistant strains, may have a food animal source, and may be transmitted to humans via the food supply. This review summarizes the evidence that food-borne organisms are a significant cause of extraintestinal E. coli infections in humans.

22 Diunduh dari: … Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli James P. Nataro and James B. Kaper Clin. Microbiol. Rev. January 1998 vol. 11 no Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens.

23 UNSUR HARA = Nutrients Two important nutrients that cause water pollution are phosphorous and nitrogen –Keduanya berasal dari sumber-sumber landuse –Kandungan tertinggi ditemukan di lahan pertanian Diunduh dari: … The essential nutrients causing eutrophication are nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium and phosphorus in the form of phosphate. In addition, inputs of bio­available organic phosphorus and nitrogen can cause eutrophication, as bacteria can mineralise the organic phosphorus to phosphate and the organic nitrogen to ammonium, which is further oxidised to nitrite and nitrate. Marine waters receive dissolved and particulate nutrients and organic matter from land via rivers and direct discharges, from the atmosphere and from adjacent seas. The most important sources are: 1.agriculture, 2.discharges from urban wastewater treatment plants, and 3.separate discharges from industries, the first being the most important diffuse source.

24 Diunduh dari: … EUTROPHICATION A major problem with the use of fertilisers occurs when they are washed off the land by rainwater into rivers and lakes. The increase of nitrate or phosphate in the water encourages the growth of algae. The algae form a bloom over the water surface. This prevents sunlight reaching other water plants, which then die. Bacteria break down the dead plants and as they respire these bacteria use up the oxygen in the water causing most other living organisms to die. Nitrates or phosphates from fertilisers can cause eutrophication in water

25 EUTROPHICATION Proses yang mengakibatkan tubuh perairan mengandung unsur hara sangat tinggi. –Cause a large growth in aquatic plants and photosynthetic bacteria and algae. –The bacteria and algae then die –As they decompose BOD increases –Kandungan oksigen cukup rendah, sehingga ikan dan jasad lainnya dapat mati. Diunduh dari: Eutrophication refers to an excessive amount of nutrients in a body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (mainly phosphorous in freshwater and nitrogen in saltwater) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply, which causes the death of animals.

26 Diunduh dari: … EFEK-EFEK EUTROFIKASI Tingginya kandungan unsur hara dalam perairan memacu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tumbuhan air dan dekomposisi biomasanya (terutama algae dan plankton) dapat mengakibatkan: o Penurunan kualitas air o Kerusakan ekosistem alami E.g. lack of oxygen for shellfish and marine life (causing a drop in their population). This happens because of algal shading, which is an effect of eutrophication that prevents marine plants from receiving enough sunlight to photosynthesize. The amount of dissolved oxygen thus decreases and many marine animals cannot survive (which is what is happening in the Barnegat Bay Watershed in the USA and the Baltic sea) o decrease in the recreational and aesthetic value of water bodies o health problems when it occurs in drinking water reserves o Degradasi terumbu karang: 1.coral reefs are important as they provide habitats for marine life (which much of the ecosystem depends on) and protect the shore from erosion by storm waves 2.however, they are the most nutrient-sensitive of all habitats, requiring the lowest external inputs to trigger eutrophication 3.Hal ini dapat mengakibatkan kematian trumbu karang dan dengan demikian membahayakan kehidupan karang laut

27 Diunduh dari: SIKLUS NITROGEN DAN EUTROFIKASI Many lakes around the world have been effected by discharges of nutrients directly into them. In severe cases this can lead to the process of eutrophication. Inputs of nutrients from sources such excessive over use chemical fertilizers on agricultural land can lead to accelerated growth of algae creating massive blooms. Some of these blooms can be are toxic. More algae mean more decomposition as the increased numbers die off rapidly, this in turn uses up available oxygen within the water body and a reduction of both diversity and numbers of organisms up the food chain. The dense algal populations also reduce light penetration with other aquatic vegetation unable to compete for limiting light levels. A spiral of various positive feedback loops can then be forced into effect as increased competition for light reduces vegetation cover leading to less nutrients being removed by vegetation and so more nutrients being available to aglae. Loss of plant vegetation reduces cover for predatory fish which suffer from lack of oxygen in the water and so their numbers fall. Numbers of herbivorous fish may at first increase but soon reduce as vegetation disappears. And so on the spirals run.

28 EUTROFIKASI Danau Oligotrofik = Oligotrophic lake –Lake w/ relatively low concentration of chemical elements required by life –Clear water –Low abundance of life Danau Eutrofik = Eutrophic lake –Lake w/ high concentration of chemical elements –Often w/ mats of algae and murky water –Kahidupan melimpah. Diunduh dari: … LAKE TROPHIC STATES Scientists like to classify lakes and give names to the different lake types so they can be easily referred to. Trophic states are based on lake fertility. The root "trophy" means nutrients; therefore, lakes are classified based on the amount of available nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) for organisms. More fertile lakes have more nutrients and therefore more plants and algae. Most of the lakes in Minnesota were formed as the glaciers receded, carving out basins in the landscape. In these newly formed lakes, the edges and bottom are exposed rock, which doesn't erode very quickly, meaning there are not many nutrients available. As a lake ages, sediment from the watershed is washed in, filling in the bottom of the lake. This sediment is rich in nutrients, and therefore also increases the fertility of the lake.

29 Diunduh dari: DANAU OLIGO-TROFIK. OLIGOTROPHIC "Oligo" means very little; therefore, oligotrophic means very little nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen). Oligotrophic lakes are usually found in northern Minnesota and have deep clear water, rocky and sandy bottoms, and very little algae.Phosphorus The fish found in oligotrophic lakes like cold, high oxygenated water, examples include lake trout and whitefish (more information on fish).more information on fish.. In oligotrophic lakes, oxygen is found at high levels throughout the water column. Cold water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warm water, and the deep region of oligotrophic lakes stays very cold. In addition, low algal concentration allows deeper light penetration and less decomposition. When algae, zooplankton and fish die, they sink to the bottom and are decomposed by microbes and invertebrates. This decomposition process uses up oxygen. Since oligotrophic lakes are less fertile and have less algae and other organisms, there is less decomposition and the oxygen doesn't get used up.

30 Diunduh dari: … DANAU MESO-ROFIK. MESOTROPHIC "Meso" means middle or mid; therefore, mesotrophic means a medium amount of nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen). Mesotrophic lakes are usually found in central Minnesota and have clear water with some algal blooms in late summer.Phosphorus Mesotrophic lakes are great fishing lakes and are home to many sport fish such as walleye, perch, smallmouth bass, muskellunge and northern pike (more information on fish).more information on fish.. Mesotrophic lakes behave differently than oligotrophic lakes in that they stratify, meaning they separate into layers in the summer (more on lake stratification). The top layer of water becomes warm from the sun and contains algae. Since the by-product of photosynthesis is oxygen, oxygen concentration remains high at the surface of the lake. The bottom layer remains cooler and can become anoxic in mid- summer.more on lake stratification oxygen This change occurs because as all the algae and other organisms die and are decomposed at the bottom of the lake, oxygen gets used up. Since this bottom layer of water does not mix with the top layer of water in the summer, oxygen cannot be replenished. The implications of anoxia are that no fish or other organisms can live where there is no oxygen; therefore, in late summer, fish move shallower where there is still oxygen available.

31 Diunduh dari: … DANAU EUTROFIK EUTROPHIC "Eu" means true; therefore, eutrophic literally means true nutrients or truly nutrient rich (Phosphorus and Nitrogen). Eutrophic lakes are found in southern Minnesota where the soils are more fertile and where there is a lot of farmland. Eutrophic lakes are shallow and have murky water and mucky, soft bottoms. They also have a lot of plants and algae (more information on eutrophication). In less eutrophic lakes, common fish include largemouth bass, northern pike, perch and panfish. As a lake becomes increasingly eutrophic, sport fish dwindle and carp abound (more information on fish).. Eutrophic lakes are very fertile from all the nutrients carried into the lake from the surrounding landscape. These nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) support high densities of algae, fish and other aquatic organisms. Since eutrophic lakes have so much biomass, there is a lot of decomposition occurring at the bottom. This decomposition uses up oxygen, causing the bottom of the lake to become anoxic in the summer. In very shallow lakes, the whole lake can become anoxic, causing a fish kill. Fish, invertebrates and other organisms need oxygen to survive.

32 Eutrophication Cultural eutrophication –Human processes that add nutrients to water Solution fairly straightforward –Ensuring that high concentrations do not enter water –Accomplished by use of phosphate-free detergents controlling nitrogen runoff disposing or reusing treated wastewater advanced water treatment methods Diunduh dari: … Eutrophication is best defined as the excessive addition of inorganic nutrients, organic matter, and silt to lakes that causes a corresponding increase in biological productivity. High concentrations of nutrients alone do not make a lake eutrophic—there must be a biological response as well. Nutrient concentrations, however, may be used as indicators for the potential of eutrophication. For example, phosphorus concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter are sufficient to cause excessive algal growth in some lakes, and therefore eutrophication.

33 Diunduh dari: … PROSES DEGRADASI EKOSISTEM SUNGAI

34 PENCEMARAN MINYAK = Oil Oil discharged into surface water has caused major pollution problems. Large spills make headlines but normal shipping activities probably release more oil over a period of years than is released by a single spill. Diunduh dari: … OIL SPILL An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Another significant route by which oil enters the marine environment is through natural oil seeps. (http://seeps.geol.ucsb.edu/)http://seeps.geol.ucsb.edu/ Oil spills can be controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment, and/or adsorption. Spills may take weeks, months or even years to clean up ("Hindsight and Foresight, 20 Years After the Exxon Valdez Spill". NOAA.) Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation), and the types of shorelines and beaches involved. (Lingering Lessons of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill) Methods for cleaning up include: (Oil spill cleanup technology. Patents and patent applications). Bioremediation: use of microorganisms or biological agents to break down or remove oil. Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleophilic, hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons.

35 Diunduh dari: … PENCEMARAN MINYAK Oil pollution 1.Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run- offs and dumping. 2.Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping. 3.An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place. 4.Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters. 5.Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants. Diunduh dari: Processes influencing weathering of oil in the sea.

36 Diunduh dari: expert.com/Files/0/articles/9443/BiodegradationofPetroleum.pdf … Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0–5 C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation Odd G. Brakstad and Kristin Bonaunet Biodegradation (2006) 17: 71–82 In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C10–C36 n- alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures £5 C, and psychrotrophic or psychrophilic bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing point.

37 Diunduh dari: … Mineralization of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and n-hexadecane from oil-coated Fluortex adsorbents seawater during biodegradation experiment at 0 and 5 C. Error bars represent standard deviations of results with triplicate samples.

38 PENCEMARAN MINYAK Avoiding spills and clean up methods include –Double hulled ships –Pump the oil out of the tanker as soon as it occurs –Collection of oil at sea –Cleaning birds and mammals –Spreading absorbent material on beaches Diunduh dari: … Utilizing Porous Materials for Oil Spill Cleanup Jenny Cai, Yegor Chekmarev, Jessica Luo, Chanelle Sears. July 22, 2010 The damage to the environment caused by an oil spill of any size demands immediate cleanup. This project studied the ability of dierent porous materials to absorb oil, particularly sol- gels, polypropylene, and cotton. Each material was placed in tap water, mineral or paran oil, and a water-oil mixture. After soaking for one day, the material's uptake of liquid was calculated. The reusability of the materials was also tested. Cotton and polypropylene bers proved to be the most absorbent, with cotton absorbing fteen to twenty times its own weight and polypropylene bers absorbing about three to ve times its own weight in oil and mixtures of oil and water. These materials also had the added benets of being inexpensive and reusable. Thus, using a combination of polypropylene bers and cotton in addition to current oil spill cleanup methods could greatly accelerate the cleanup initiative.

39 Diunduh dari: … PENCEMARAN MINYAK While the specifics of the cleaning process vary according to the type and location of the spill, groups such as the Office of Response and Restoration (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. share the same general plans of attack. The key methods for cleaning up oil spills are: 1.Booms-- Floating barriers placed around the oil or around whatever is leaking the oil. Booms contain the oil so skimmers can collect it. 2.Skimmers -- Boats, vacuum machines, and oil-absorbent plastic ropes that skim spilled oil from the water's surface after booms have corralled it. The skimmer collects oil into a container so it can be removed. 3.Chemical dispersants -- Materials that break down the oil into its chemical constituents. This helps disperse the oil and make it less harmful to wildlife and shorelines. 4.In-situ burning -- Igniting freshly spilled oil while it's still floating on the water. Booms, skimmers, and chemical dispersants are perhaps the most frequently used methods to clean up ocean oil spills. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages, and the effectiveness of any cleaning method depends on ocean currents and tides, as well as the weather. Some methods can be as harmful to the environment as the oil spill itself. National governments also regulate what chemicals can be used in the ocean. Oil spills in rivers pose slightly different problems, but similar methods are used as to clean them up. In rivers, there are often plants much closer to the water, and it's very difficult to remove oil from plants. Oiled vegetation can be flushed with water to remove the oil, but severely damaged plants will need to be destroyed and removed entirely.

40 SEDIMEN & PENCEMARAN PERAIRAN Sediment consisting of rock and mineral fragments –Ranging in size from gravel (>2mm) to finer sand, silt and clay to even finer particles –Cause sediment pollution –By volume and mass, greatest water pollutant Diunduh dari: &script=sci_abstract … CHIBA, WAC. et al. Seasonal study of contamination by metal in water and sediment in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. [online]. 2011, vol.71, n.4, pp ISSN The spatial and temporal occurrence of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni) in water and sediment samples was investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil (São Carlos, SP). All samples were analysed using the USEPA adapted metal method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that there are significant seasonal differences of metal distribution in the water data, but there are no differences to sediment. The basin studied has high levels of contamination by toxic metals in superficial water and sediment. The superficial water, in the rainy season, presented high levels of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd, while in the dry season it presented high levels of Zn and Ni. The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that the season has a huge influence on the levels, types and distribution of metals found in water. The source of contamination was probably diffuse, due to products such as batteries and fluorescent lamps, whose dump discharge can contaminate the bodies of water in the region in the rainy season. Due to fires from the harvest of sugar cane, high levels of Zn were found into the environment, in the dry season.

41 Diunduh dari: Journal of Chemical Ecology. Volume 36, Number 1 (2010), 46-58, DOI: /s Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring New Frontiers Robert S. Boyd Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. The latter are receiving increased attention, as these may have harmful ecological outcomes. For example, recent explorations of heavy metals in freshwater habitats reveal that they can modify chemical communication between individuals, resulting in “info-disruption” that can impact ecological relationships within and between species. Info-disruption can affect animal behavior and social structure, which in turn can modify both intraspecies and interspecies interactions. In terrestrial habitats, info-disruption by metals is not well studied, but recent demonstrations of chemical signaling between plants via both roots and volatile organic molecules provide potential opportunities for info-disruption. Metals in terrestrial habitats also can form elemental plant defenses, in which they can defend a plant against natural enemies. For example, hyperaccumulation of metals by terrestrial plants has been shown to provide defensive benefits, although in almost all known cases the metals are not anthropogenic pollutants but are naturally present in soils inhabited by these plants. Info-disruption among microbes is another arena in which metal pollutants may have ecological effects, as recent discoveries regarding quorum sensing in bacteria provide an avenue for metals to affect interactions among bacteria or between bacteria and other organisms. Metal pollutants also may influence immune responses of organisms, and thus affect pathogen/host relationships. Immunomodulation (modification of immune system function) has been tied to some metal pollutants, although specific metals may boost or reduce immune system function depending on dose. Finally, the study of metal pollutants is complicated by their frequent occurrence as mixtures, either with other metals or with organic pollutants. Most studies of metal pollutants focus on single metals and therefore oversimplify complex field conditions. Study of pollutant impacts on chemical ecology also are difficult due to the necessity of studying effects at varying ecological scales: “dynamic scaling” of chemical ecology studies is rarely done completely. It is clear that much remains to be learned about how heavy metal pollution impacts organisms, and that exciting new research frontiers are available for experimental exploration.

42 SEDIMEN & PENCEMARAN PERAIRAN Two fold problem –Results from erosion, which depletes a land resource (soil) at its site of origin –Reduces the quality of water resource it enters Land use changes result in erosion and sedimentation –Forested areas more stable –Agricultural practices can lead to large soil loss –Large quantities of sedimentation during construction phase of urbanization Diunduh dari: ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT POLLUTION BASED ON TRIANGULAR FUZZY NUMBER Zhou X.W., Wang L.P, Zheng B.H. Research Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing , China. Based on the characteristics of random and fuzziness, and the shortage and imprecision of datum information of water environmental system, environment background value of sediments and concentration of pollution is calculated by means of triangle fuzzy number and fuzzy risk assessment model of the potential ecological risk index is established. Using this method heavy metal pollution and ecological risk in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent waters were analyzed. The result shows that the environment of the foundation of the study area is subject to varying degrees of pollution. The pollution extents are correspondingly Cu, Hg, Zn, Pb, As, Cd. RI by that method and the Hakanson ecological risk method is in similar trend. RI of the estuary, turbidity maximum zone and Hangzhou bay is greater than that at outside of the estuary and sea area nearby Zhousan, and the potential ecological risk rate increases one. The assessment result is good in the validation based on the corresponding period macrobenthic community parameters.

43 Diunduh dari: Sediment pollution at the north end of Lake Tanganyika. Vandelannoote, Alain Bulletin des séances,Volume:48 Issue:4 page:515 – 527. Sediment pollution from accelerated erosion linked to basin deforestation is considered the most serious immediate environmental threat to Lake Tanganyika. Twenty-two rivers from the north-end of the lake (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo) were studied by the Regional Research Centre for Applied Hydrobiology (CRRHA) ( ). Only four of them had an average concentration of suspended solids lower than the European directive for fish waters. Concentrations were especially high in rivers close to Bujumbura. The annual sediment input of the Ruziziz to the lake was massive, but probably affects the lake's ecology less than inputs from smaller affluents. Sediment pollution is generally assumed to be the consequence of erosion due to deforestation and bad agricultural practices, but other origins such as municipal and industrial discharges, outlets of hydroelectric power stations and anarchistic gravel and sand exploitations in river beds, can be as pernicious as erosion.

44 DRAINASI ASAM TAMBANG Refers to water w/ a high concentration of sulfuric acid that drains from mines. –Coal mines often associated w/ pyrite (iron sulfide) –When it come into contact w/ oxygen and water it weathers –A product of weathering is sulfuric acid –Water runs through the mine tailings Diunduh dari: _a_review_JOHNSON_20.pdf … Acid mine drainage remediation options: a review D. Barrie Johnson, Kevin B. Hallberg Science of the Total Environment 338 (2005) 3– 14 Acid mine drainage (AMD) causes environmental pollution that affects many countries having historic or current mining industries. Preventing the formation or the migration of AMD from its source is generally considered to be the preferable option, although this is not feasible in many locations, and in such cases, it is necessary to collect, treat, and discharge mine water. There are various options available for remediating AMD, which may be divided into those that use either chemical or biological mechanisms to neutralise AMD and remove metals from solution. Both abiotic and biological systems include those that are classed as bactiveQ (i.e., require continuous inputs of resources to sustain the process) or bpassiveQ (i.e., require relatively little resource input once in operation). This review describes the current abiotic and bioremediative strategies that are currently used to mitigate AMD and compares the strengths and weaknesses of each. New and emerging technologies are also described. In addition, the factors that currently influence the selection of a remediation system, and how these criteria may change in the future, are discussed.

45 Diunduh dari: MINING AND WATER POLLUTION Water is essential to life on our planet. A prerequisite of sustainable development must be to ensure uncontaminated streams, rivers, lakes and oceans. There is growing public concern about the condition of fresh water in Canada. Mining affects fresh water through heavy use of water in processing ore, and through water pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments. Increasingly, human activities such as mining threaten the water sources on which we all depend. Water has been called “mining’s most common casualty” (James Lyon, interview, Mineral Policy Center, Washington DC). There is growing awareness of the environmental legacy of mining activities that have been undertaken with little concern for the environment. The price we have paid for our everyday use of minerals has sometimes been very high. Mining by its nature consumes, diverts and can seriously pollute water resources. Waste from the Mining Process Ore is mineralized rock containing a valued metal such as gold or copper, or other mineral substance such as coal. Open-pit mining involves the excavation of large quantities of waste rock (material not containing the target mineral) in order to extract the desired mineral ore. \ The ore is then crushed into finely ground tailings for processing with various chemicals and separating processes to extract the final product. In Canada on average for every tonne of copper extracted 99 tonnes of waste material (made up of soil, waste rock and the finely ground “tailings”) must also be removed.

46 DRAINASE ASAM TAMBANG If the acid-rich water runs into natural water source significant pollution and environmental damage may result. –Acidic water toxic to plants and animals of aquatic ecosystems –Can also seep in to pollute groundwater –Thousands of km of streams damaged –Abandoned mines also a continuing problem Diunduh dari: … A HYDROLOGICAL APPROACH TO CONTROL ACID MINE POLLUTION FOR LAKE HOPE Moid Uddin Ahmad Ground Water. Volume 8, Issue 6, pages 19–24, November 1970 Acid mine drainage is a serious problem in the Appalachian region. Coal mining has disturbed the natural ground flow system. The mines are continuously being flushed by this disturbed flow system and producing enormous quantity of sulphuric acid. A study of McDaniel Mine has revealed that the flow is lateral and clay layers under the coal do not allow it to leak into the underlying aquifer. A study of water well logs within 10 miles of Todd Mine revealed the existence of three separate aquifers. A pilot plan for Todd Mine is proposed to discharge the uncontaminated water from the upper aquifer to the lower aquifer under the concept of “weeping wells.” The acid discharge from the mine may be stopped. The extension of this scheme may solve the serious problem of pollution of Lake Hope. The concept may further be extended to other areas of the Appalachian region to control acid mine pollution.

47 Diunduh dari: … ABATEMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE POLLUTION TO UPPER THREE RUNS BY CAPPING AN ACID PRODUCING RECLAIMED SURFACE MINE WITH FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION FLY ASH. William W. Hellier Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Paper presented at the West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage task Force Symposium, sponsored by the West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force and West Virginia Mining and Reclamation Association, Morgantown WV, April 7-8, A watershed in north central Pennsylvania was being polluted by an acidic mine drainage discharge from a surface coal mining operation. To abate the pollution, application of a 0.91 in thick concrete mix based on fluidized bed combustion fly (FBC) ash was made to the reclaimed surface previous to spreading the topsoil and revegetating the mined area. The FBC ash concrete layer serves as an aquitard which prevents the vertical contribution of groundwater flow due to rainfall from reaching acid forming units in the backfilled mine. The horizontal components of groundwater flow to the site are negligible. Consequently, the formation of acid from the oxidation of pyrite, FeS 2, is inhibited, and the concentrations in the groundwater and the in the surface discharges of Fe, Mn, and Al, metals commonly associated with mine drainage are diminished substantially bellow levels present before the application of the fly ash layer. EPA priority pollutants Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn are not present at detection limits in the receiving stream, while only a trace of Se is present. Benthic macroinvertebrate populations have improved substantially since the fly ash application. This reclamation effort offers the promise of abating pollution in numerous surface mine discharges whose primary hydraulic contributor is vertical flow from. rainfall. It is expected that such discharges can be ameliorated to approach discharge limitations, or that their flow rate can be diminished sufficiently to facilitate abatement of pollution in the final discharges with passive treatment. Conclusions The fly ash cap at the McCloskey site has enhanced reclamation, abated water pollution, and allowed the population by fish of a stream which otherwise would support no fish. The fly ash cap at the McCloskey site has diverted the vertical contribution from rainfall out of the groundwater flow regime. The horizontal contribution to groundwater flow within the reclaimed spoils being negligible, the fly ash cap has substantially abated the formerly polluted post-mining discharge. The fly ash cap at the McCloskey site has not generated secondary problems in the form of EPA priority pollutants in the receiving stream.

48 Diunduh dari: ftp:// /m.bailey/Papers/effects%20of%20acid%20mine%20wastes.pdf … EFFECTS OF ACID MINE WASTES ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS* JOHN DAVID PARSONS Department of Botany, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Ill , U.S.A. The Cedar Creek Basin (39th N parallel 92nd W meridian) was studied for the period June 1952 through August 1954 to observe the effects of both continuous and periodic acid effluent flows on aquatic communities. The acid strip-mine effluent contained ferric and ferrous Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, AI, Mg, titratable acid, and elevated H ion concentration, and was toxic to many of the aquatic organisms. In the areas of Cedar Creek, subjected to continuous acid flow, planktonic and benthic species had become adapted to the severe conditions and varied in abundance and diversity. No fishes were observed in the continuous acid effluents area. Downstream, where periodic mineral acid conditions changed drastically during an excessive effluent flow, planktonic and benthic communities had high diversity but low density. The populations of fishes were variable in this stream reach. The chemical basis of water quality variability was shown to be time-related, and statistically related to the aquatic communities. Physical, chemical and biological conditions of acid lakes formed by surface mining were reviewed. In addition to apparent physical and chemical differences in lakes, due in part to variable solar absorbance due to suspended oxides of Fe, chemical variability related to organic composition was reviewed. It is quite probable that degradation of such lakes can be reversed. The mechanism in the streams would be similar to that in lakes in that the successful colonization of bottom habitat does not necessarily mean the re-establishment of the original species in complete life cycle (Harp and Campbell, 1967). Now three major parameters may be useful in establishing the influence of acid water, regardless of its origin, on aquatic ecosystems: (1) quantitative analysis of populations, (2) community structure, and (3) the establishment of a complete life cycle.

49 Diunduh dari: … Appl Microbiol February; 17(2): 297–302. MICROBIAL SULFATE REDUCTION AND ITS POTENTIAL UTILITY AS AN ACID MINE WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROCEDURE Jon H. Tuttle, Patrick R. Dugan, and Chester I. Randles The presence of high concentrations of sulfate, iron, and hydrogen (acid) ions in drainage from coal mines and other areas containing waste pyritic materials is a serious water pollution problem. Sulfate can be removed from solution by microbial reduction to sulfide and subsequent precipitation as FeS. A mixed culture of microorganisms degraded wood dust cellulose, and the degradation products served as carbon and energy sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Metabolism of carbon compounds resulted in a net pH increase in the system. Oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) and temperature and carbon supplements were studied in an effort to accelerate the sulfate reduction process, with the ultimate objective of utilizing the process as a pollution abatement procedure.

50 Diunduh dari: … J. Bacteriol February; 97(2): 594–602. Microbial Dissimilatory Sulfur Cycle in Acid Mine Water Jon H. Tuttle, Patrick R. Dugan, Carol B. Macmillan, and Chester I. Randles Ferric, sulfate, and hydrogen ions are produced from pyritic minerals associated with coal as a result of autotrophic bacterial metabolism. Water carrying these ions accumulated behind a porous dam composed of wood dust originating at a log-cutting mill. As water seeped through the porous dam, it was enriched in organic nutrients which then supported growth and metabolism of heterotrophic bacteria in the water downstream from the dam. The heterotrophic microflora within and below the sawdust dam included dissimilatory sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria which reduce sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced caused the chemical reduction of ferric to ferrous ion, and black FeS precipitate was deposited on the pond bottom. A net increase in the pH of the lower pond water was observed when compared to the upper pond water. Microbial activity in the wood dust was demonstrated, and a sequence of cellulose degradation processes was inferred on the basis of sugar accumulation in mixed cultures in the laboratory, ultimately yielding fermentation products which serve as nutrients for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Some of the microorganisms were isolated and characterized. The biochemical and growth characteristics of pure culture isolates were generally consistent with observed reactions in the acidic environment, with the exception of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Mixed cultures which contained sulfate-reducing bacteria reduced sulfate at pH 3.0 in the laboratory with sawdust as the only nutrient. Pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the mixed cultures did not reduce sulfate below pH 5.5.

51 Diunduh dari: … Characteristics of Acid Mine Drainage and Its Pollution Control Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE), th International Conference on June 2010 Haixia Wang Sch. of Resource & Environ., Univ. of Jinan, Jinan, China. Page(s): Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious pollution problem, which is considered as one of the worst environmental problem of mining activities owing to low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals and other toxic elements. So it is crucial to control and prevent AMD production. In this study, coal mine waste with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages containing high concentrations of SO 4 2-, Fe and Cr,Pb et al., so it is typical AMD. However, the column filled with coal waste and red mud leached the drainage with neutral pH value, and the concentration of Fe, SO 4 2-, and heavy metals are significantly reduced compared with control samples. The conclusion showed that red mud could have potentials to control AMD pollution and resulted in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

52 PENCEMARAN AIR PERMUKAAN Pollution of surface waters occurs when –Too much of an undesirable or harmful substance flows into a body of water –Exceeding the natural ability of that water body to remove the undesirable material dilute it to a harmless concentration or convert it to a harmless form Diunduh dari: Surface Water Contamination What kind of contamination is it? Surface water is usually rain water that collects in surface water bodies, like oceans, lakes, or streams. Another source of surface water is groundwater that discharges to the surface from springs. Surface water pollution occurs when hazardous substances come into contact and either dissolve or physically mix with the water. Because of the close relationship between sediments and surface water, contaminated sediments are often considered part of surface water contamination. Sediments include the sand and soils on the bottom of an ocean, lake, or stream.

53 Emitted from point or nonpoint source Point source are distinct and confined –Pipes from municipal or industrial sites that empty into a stream or river Nonpoint source are diffused and intermittent –Such as runoff. –Influenced by land use, climate, hydrology, topography, native vegetation, and geology. –Difficult to monitor and control Diunduh dari: PENCEMARAN AIR PERMUKAAN How did pollutant get the surface water? Surface water can become contaminated in many ways. Surface water can be contaminated when hazardous substances are discharged directly from an outfall pipe or channel or when they receive contaminated storm water runoff. Direct discharges can come from industrial sources or from certain older sewer systems that overflow during wet weather. Storm water runoff becomes contaminated when rain water comes into contact with contaminated soil and either dissolves the contamination or carries contaminated soil particles. Surface water can also be contaminated when contaminated groundwater reaches the surface through a spring, or when contaminants in the air are deposited on the surface water. Contaminated soil particles carried by storm water runoff or contaminants from the air can sink to the bottom of a surface water body, mix with the sediment, and remain.

54 Two approaches to dealing with surface water pollution are –1. To reduce the sources –2. To treat the water to remove pollutants or convert them to forms that can be disposed of safely. Diunduh dari: PENCEMARAN AIR PERMUKAAN How can we clean it up? The most effective approach for cleaning up contaminated surface water is to prevent further discharges from contaminated sources and enable natural biological, chemical, and physical processes to break down the existing contamination. In some surface water bodies where natural processes are not enough to break down the contaminants, other cleanup approaches such as mixing and aeration may be required to further promote natural cleanup. A significant source of surface water contamination may be contaminated sediments. Contaminated sediments generally contain persistent contaminants and are difficult to clean up. Three main approaches to cleaning up contaminated sediments are: 1) remove them by dredging; 2) place a cover over them to prevent contact with the surface water; or 3) allow natural processes to cover them or break them down over time. For contamination that does not mix with surface water and floats on the surface, such as that encountered during an oil spill, contamination can be removed by skimming it from the surface using a "boom."

55 Many large cities in the world not river that were almost destroyed by pollution. –Today there is a movement to restore urban rivers and adjacent lands to greenbelts, park, and environmentally sensitive developments. –Other approaches include nanotechnology and close loop local landscapes. Diunduh dari: PENCEMARAN AIR PERMUKAAN How to Reduce Water Pollution Conservation and Recycling 1.Conserve water. Turn off the tap when water isn't necessary and try to take shorter showers if possible. This not only helps prevent water shortages, but reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment. 2.Don't throw litter into sinks and toilets. Paints, oils and other similar items should be disposed of in the trash. 3.Help clean up litter in water-filled areas. This includes beaches, lakes, oceans. Make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. 4.Contain and compost yard waste. Yard waste that sits around can easily wash into storm drains when it rains. Even if the waste doesn't contain chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides, the introduction of large quantities of sticks, leaves, and grass clippings can overwhelm waterways with unhealthy quantities of nutrients. Compost yard wastes. Your compost should be contained in a bin or barrel to prevent the materials from being washed away. Some municipalities provide these for free or at low cost. Use a mulching mower instead of bagging grass clippings. Mulching mowers add a natural layer of compost to your lawn and you don't have to deal with disposal of grass clippings. Dispose of yard and grass clippings properly. If you don't compost or have yard wastes that you can't compost, contact your local waste management or environmental protection agency to determine how to dispose them.

56 Diunduh dari: How to Reduce Stormwater Runoff at Your Home Storm water runoff is precipitation that does not soak into the ground where it falls. This is one of the greatest threats to water quality in much of the industrialized world. When water runs off yards, streets, and parking lots into storm sewers or directly into waterways, it carries with it sediments that clog streams and reduce oxygen in the water, as well as chemicals that poison aquatic ecosystems and can render water supplies undrinkable. Runoff also contributes to flooding, and because it doesn't recharge groundwater supplies, it exacerbates water shortages in many areas. Minimize impervious surfaces on your property. In nature, most precipitation soaks into the ground where it falls. Plants absorb much of this through their roots, and some makes its way down to the water table, being purified as it gradually percolates through the soil. The "built environment," however, is characterized by impervious surfaces (surfaces that don't absorb water), so that a large portion of rainfall or snow melt becomes storm water runoff. Reducing the amount of impervious surface on your property therefore reduces the amount of runoff. Replace concrete or asphalt slabs with pavers. We can use paving stones or bricks for patios, walkways, and driveways. Water can seep down into the spaces between the individual pavers, thus reducing the amount of runoff. If an area must be paved, use porous asphalt or permeable concrete, which will allow at least some water to soak into the ground. Keep in mind that the effectiveness of these materials is limited because water tends to run off them before it can permeate them, especially if there's any slope. It's also important to make sure there is a percolation field of permeable ground beneath the pavement.

57 Diunduh dari: Use the water that drains off your roof. A 1,000 square foot roof can produce more than 600 gallons of runoff for every 1" of rain that falls on it. If your downspouts are connected directly to a storm drain, disconnecting them is the single most important step you can take to reduce runoff. Instead of allowing water to go directly into the sewer or to run into the street, direct your downspouts toward a vegetated area, such as your garden or lawn. Use extensions to ensure the water comes out at least 5 feet away from your foundation. Alternatively, install rain barrels or cisterns to collect the water so you can reduce the risk of soggy yards or basement flooding and save some rain for a sunny day. If you don't have any way to make good use of the stored water, consider Dutch drains, gravel-filled barrels with holes at the bottom which slow the flow of water to allow the ground to absorb it all.

58 Diunduh dari: PLANT TREES AND PRESERVE EXISTING ONES. Trees' immense root systems effectively absorb water over a large area. In addition, the canopy of a tree slows the fall of rainwater so that the ground is capable of absorbing larger amounts than it otherwise would be. Plant native trees or trees which take in a lot of water and are well adapted to your environment, and take care of your existing trees. For new home constructions, leave trees in place if possible. CREATE A RAIN GARDEN A rain garden is a garden, planted in a slight depression in the ground, that collects water and allows it to gradually permeate into the soil. Rain gardens come in many sizes and are typically planted at the base of a slope or even at the outlet to a downspout--anywhere where water naturally flows or can be directed. Water-loving plants and a base of permeable soil enhanced with fertile loam and a topcoat of mulch allow the rain garden to quickly absorb even large amounts of water, usually in just a few hours. REPLACE LAWN AREAS WITH NATIVE PLANTS. Lawns aren't particularly effective at absorbing and retaining water, especially during heavy rains. This is a problem not only because more natural precipitation runs off them, but also because they may require a lot of irrigation, which in turn can create even more runoff. Native plants, such as shrubs and wildflowers, tend to develop more extensive root systems that take in and hold water much better than lawns. As an added bonus, they require less maintenance than a lawn does. If you do decide to keep your lawn, though, water it efficiently to conserve water and reduce runoff. INSTALL BERMS AND VEGETATED SWALES. A berm is a slightly raised area, while a swale is ditch with a mild slope. Berms can be used to slow runoff on steep slopes, and swales planted with grass or other plants can direct water to a rain garden. Swales can also direct water toward a storm drain or street: since they significantly reduce the amount of runoff, very little water that enters a vegetated swale will actually make it to the street or drain.

59 PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH (Groundwater ) Many people in the world depend on ground- water for drinking –Long believed to be pure and safe to drink –Can be contaminated from a number of sources –May become worse as human population pressures increase Diunduh dari: Groundwater Contamination What kind of contamination is it? Groundwater is rain water or water from surface water bodies, like lakes or streams, that soaks into the soil and bedrock and is stored underground in the tiny spaces between rocks and particles of soil. Groundwater pollution occurs when hazardous substances come into contact and dissolve in the water that has soaked into the soil. How did it get there? Groundwater can become contaminated in many ways. If rain water or surface water comes into contact with contaminated soil while seeping into the ground, it can become polluted and can carry the pollution from the soil to the groundwater. Groundwater can also become contaminated when liquid hazardous substances themselves soak down through the soil or rock into the groundwater. Some liquid hazardous substances do not mix with the groundwater but remain pooled within the soil or bedrock. These pooled substances can act as long-term sources of groundwater contamination as the groundwater flows through the soil or rock and comes into contact with them.

60 The hazard presented by a particular groundwater pollutant depends on: –Concentration or toxicity of the pollutant –Degree or exposure of people or other organisms to the pollutant Diunduh dari: PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH (Groundwater ) How does it hurt animals, plants or humans? Contaminated groundwater can hurt animals, plants, or humans only if it is first removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. In many parts of the world, groundwater is pumped out of the ground so it can be used as a source of water for drinking, bathing, other household uses, agriculture, and industry. In addition, groundwater can reach the surface through natural pathways such as springs. Contaminated groundwater can affect the quality of drinking and other types of water supplies when it reaches the surface. Contaminated groundwater can affect the health of animals and humans when they drink or bathe in water contaminated by the groundwater or when they eat organisms that have themselves been affected by groundwater contamination.

61 PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH Pollution leaking from buried gasoline tanks from service stations –Wide spread problem –Many thousands of old tanks removed and surrounding groundwater and soil treated Disposal of soil, vapor extraction of water and use of microorganisms (bioremediation) Diunduh dari: How can we clean it up? Different approaches are used to clean up contaminated groundwater. Sometimes polluted groundwater is pumped from the soil or bedrock, treated to remove the contamination, and then pumped back into the ground. If contaminants are released into the groundwater slowly, large amounts of groundwater need to be pumped to remove a relatively small amount of contamination. In this case groundwater contamination is addressed by containing the contamination in a limited area to keep it from harming animals and plants. Still other types of contamination can be left in the ground without active pumping and treatment. In these cases, contaminants are reduced to non-toxic concentrations by natural biological, chemical, and physical processes before the contamination reaches the surface.

62 Diunduh dari: …

63

64 Pollution from A WASTES DISPOSAL SITE emphasizes some important points about groundwater pollutants: –Some pollutants, such as gasoline, are lighter than water and thus float on the groundwater. –Some pollutants have multiple phases: liquid, vapor, and dissolved. –Some pollutants are heavier than water and sink or move downward through groundwater. Diunduh dari: … PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH How we Contaminate Groundwater Any addition of undesirable substances to groundwater caused by human activities is considered to be contamination. It has often been assumed that contaminants left on or under the ground will stay there. This has been shown to be wishful thinking. Groundwater often spreads the effects of dumps and spills far beyond the site of the original contamination. Groundwater contamination is extremely difficult, and sometimes impossible, to clean up.

65 –The method used to treat must take into account the physical and chemical properties of the pollutant and how these interact with water. –Emphasis should be on preventing pollutants from entering groundwater in the first place. Diunduh dari: … PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH.How to Recharge Ground Water and Prevent Contamination? The entire Earth is facing a several threats, like change in climate pattern, less rainfall, extreme heat and so on. We also suffer from different types of infectious diseases, hunger, thirst, and so on due to global warming. Due toover growth of population we are experiencing shortage and scarcity of water,electricity, food etc. Due to industrial growth we are facing the problem ofpollution of vital elements of the earth, depletion of ground water, ecologicalimbalance, endangering of species, and environmental degradation.

66 Pollution in groundwater differs from surface water pollution in several ways –Groundwater lacks oxygen but may provide environment for anaerobic bacteria –Channels through which groundwater moves often small and variable Rate of movement is low and opportunity for dispersion and dilution limited Diunduh dari: … PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH How is an Aquifer Contaminated? In general, any activity which creates a pathway that speeds the rate at which water can move from the surface to the water table has an impact. In Figure 3, waste water leaking down the casing of a poorly constructed well bypasses the natural purification afforded by soil. Excessive addition of fertilizer, agrichemicals, and road de-icing chemicals over broad areas, coupled with the enhanced recharge from crops, golf courses and other irrigated land and along road ditches, are common reasons for contamination arising from non-point sources. Removal of soil in excavations and mining reduces the purification potential and also enhances recharge; in some cases, such as the Highway Pond gravel pits south of Pocatello, the water table is exposed and becomes directly vulnerable to the entry of contaminants.Figure 3

67 How To Avoid Groundwater Contamination Diunduh dari: contamination… Groundwater contamination occurs when natural or man-made substances permeate groundwater, making it unsuitable for use. Pollution can seep into groundwater by several routes. One example is through water from rain or lakes, which wash the soil soaked with toxic substances into groundwater. There are many causes of groundwater contamination. Examples are corrosion, improper waste disposal, improper management of feedlots, improper storage and use of hazardous materials, accidental chemical spills, leaky landfill covers, and poorly installed septic systems. When water gets contaminated, people and all other living things that drink water pumped out of the ground are severely affected. Groundwater today is still used for various purposes, from drinking, bathing, domestic, and commercial to industrial use. People, animals and other living organisms can get seriously ill or die from drinking or using contaminated groundwater. In order to prevent this type of pollution, everyone should feel responsible and take action. WASTES MANAGEMENT Start practicing waste reduction and proper waste disposal at home. Before you expect your neighbors and the authorities to perform measures in preventing ground water contamination, the effort should start within your home. Involve the whole family in being aware of the products you purchase and use. For instance, instead of buying products with disposable packages, go for the ones you can recycle, return or reuse. You can also purchase items in bulk to avoid too much packaging to dispose of. When it comes to food, only prepare what you need, avoid preparing too much. Practice composting food wastes like vegetables and fruits. When you shop, carefully read the labels. Choose non-toxic, alternative or biodegradable household products. If you are using pesticides in your garden, select the least toxic alternatives. As much as possible, avoid using arsenic, toxic chemicals. If you must use them, read instructions and apply them only as suggested. Instead of dumping old appliances, furnishings and other goods, you can choose to apply a makeover, launch a garage sale or donate your stuff. Vehicles are also sources of pollution. Have your car properly maintained so you save the environment and you save money as well.

68 Diunduh dari: … HOW TO AVOID GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION Poorly installed septic systems are one of the causes of groundwater pollution. Have your septic tank inspected, and conduct regular maintenance. Do not throw any household chemicals into the tank, and avoid using harmful chemicals for cleaning. DIUNDUH DARI:

69 Diunduh dari: HOW TO AVOID GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION Agricultural practices should employ crop and soil management. This includes enhancing organic matter, proper planting, good drainage and irrigation systems, and utilizing appropriate equipment for ploughing and harvesting. As for using fertilizers and pesticides, avoid spraying in close proximity to open water. Only use certified pesticides, and apply them as instructed by the manufacturer. Industrial, commercial and all other businesses in various industries should employ measures in preventing pollution and make environmental efforts to help save land and water. Institutions that have biological wastes should also apply decontamination prior to disposing of wastes. DIUNDUH DARI: Practice waste reduction. Make a list of current waste generated and ask, for each item, “Is there a way I can avoid producing this waste?” Try to reduce the toxicity and amount of waste generated. Remember that unused raw materials, inefficient production processes, and poor maintenance practices cost extra money as well as increase the amount of waste requiring disposing. Do not dispose of items that contain hazardous materials, such as PCB, mercury and lead, in trash that will be buried in a sanitary landfill or that will be incinerated. Recycle used fluorescent and high intensity lamps, small batteries, capacitors containing PCB, mercury thermometers, and other lab instruments or handle them as hazardous waste.

70 Diunduh dari: … GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION ROUTES

71 Diunduh dari: … DAMPAK PENCEMARAN AIR TERHADAP KESEHATAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF WATER POLLUTION It is a well-known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth, yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. Freshwater resources all over the world are threatened not only by over exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. The main source of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agricultural fields. Industrial growth, urbanization and the increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on freshwater bodies. It is a generally accepted fact that the developed countries suffer from problems of chemical discharge into the water sources mainly groundwater, while developing countries face problems of agricultural run-off in water sources. Polluted water like chemicals in drinking water causes problem to health and leads to water-borne diseases which can be prevented by taking measures can be taken even at the household level.

72 Diunduh dari: … Groundwater and its contamination Many areas of groundwater and surface water are now contaminated with heavy metals, POPs (persistent organic pollutants), and nutrients that have an adverse affect on health. Water-borne diseases and water-caused health problems are mostly due to inadequate and incompetent management of water resources. Safe water for all can only be assured when access, sustainability, and equity can be guaranteed. Access can be defined as the number of people who are guaranteed safe drinking water and sufficient quantities of it. There has to be an effort to sustain it, and there has to be a fair and equal distribution of water to all segments of the society. Urban areas generally have a higher coverage of safe water than the rural areas. Even within an area there is variation: areas that can pay for the services have access to safe water whereas areas that cannot pay for the services have to make do with water from hand pumps and other sources. In the urban areas water gets contaminated in many different ways, some of the most common reasons being leaky water pipe joints in areas where the water pipe and sewage line pass close together. Sometimes the water gets polluted at source due to various reasons and mainly due to inflow of sewage into the source. Ground water can be contaminated through various sources and some of these are mentioned below. Pesticides. Run-off from farms, backyards, and golf courses contain pesticides such as DDT that in turn contaminate the water. Leechate from landfill sites is another major contaminating source. Its effects on the ecosystems and health are endocrine and reproductive damage in wildlife. Groundwater is susceptible to contamination, as pesticides are mobile in the soil. It is a matter of concern as these chemicals are persistent in the soil and water.

73 Diunduh dari: … GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION Sewage. Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage is a major source of groundwater and surface water pollution in the developing countries. The organic material that is discharged with municipal waste into the watercourses uses substantial oxygen for biological degradation thereby upsetting the ecological balance of rivers and lakes. Sewage also carries microbial pathogens that are the cause of the spread of disease. Nutrients. Domestic waste water, agricultural run-off, and industrial effluents contain phosphorus and nitrogen, fertilizer run-off, manure from livestock operations, which increase the level of nutrients in water bodies and can cause eutrophication in the lakes and rivers and continue on to the coastal areas. The nitrates come mainly from the fertilizer that is added to the fields. Excessive use of fertilizers cause nitrate contamination of groundwater, with the result that nitrate levels in drinking water is far above the safety levels recommended. Good agricultural practices can help in reducing the amount of nitrates in the soil and thereby lower its content in the water. Synthetic organics. Many of the synthetic compounds in use today are found in the aquatic environment and accumulate in the food chain. POPs or Persistent organic pollutants, represent the most harmful element for the ecosystem and for human health, for example, industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides. These chemicals can accumulate in fish and cause serious damage to human health. Where pesticides are used on a large-scale, groundwater gets contaminated and this leads to the chemical contamination of drinking water. Acidification. Acidification of surface water, mainly lakes and reservoirs, is one of the major environmental impacts of transport over long distance of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from power plants, other heavy industry such as steel plants, and motor vehicles. This problem is more severe in the US and in parts of Europe.

74 Diunduh dari: CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER Chemicals in water can be both naturally occurring or introduced by human interference and can have serious health effects. Fluoride. Fluoride in the water is essential for protection against dental caries and weakening of the bones, but higher levels can have an adverse effect on health. In India, high fluoride content is found naturally in the waters in Rajasthan. Arsenic. Arsenic occurs naturally or is possibly aggrevated by over powering aquifers and by phosphorus from fertilizers. High concentrations of arsenic in water can have an adverse effect on health.A few years back, high concentrations of this element was found in drinking water in six districts in West Bengal. A majority of people in the area was found suffering from arsenic skin lesions. It was felt that arsenic contamination in the groundwater was due to natural causes. The government is trying to provide an alternative drinking water source and a method through which the arsenic content from water can be removed. Lead. Pipes, fittings, solder, and the service connections of some household plumbing systems contain lead that contaminates the drinking water source. Recreational use of water. Untreated sewage, industrial effluents, and agricultural waste are often discharged into the water bodies such as the lakes, coastal areas and rivers endangering their use for recreational purposes such as swimming and canoeing. Petrochemicals. Petrochemicals contaminate the groundwater from underground petroleum storage tanks. Other heavy metals. These contaminants come from mining waste and tailings, landfills, or hazardous waste dumps. Chlorinated solvents. Metal and plastic effluents, fabric cleaning, electronic and aircraft manufacturing are often discharged and contaminate groundwater.

75 Diunduh dari: DISEASE Water-borne diseases are infectious diseases spread primarily through contaminated water. Though these diseases are spread either directly or through flies or filth, water is the chief medium for spread of these diseases and hence they are termed as water-borne diseases. Most intestinal (enteric) diseases are infectious and are transmitted through faecal waste. Pathogens – which include virus, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms – are disease-producing agents found in the faeces of infected persons. These diseases are more prevalent in areas with poor sanitary conditions. These pathogens travel through water sources and interfuses directly through persons handling food and water. Since these diseases are highly infectious, extreme care and hygiene should be maintained by people looking after an infected patient. Hepatitis, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid are the more common water-borne diseases that affect large populations in the tropical regions. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land or are added due to human activity dissolve in the water, thereby contaminating it and leading to various diseases. Pesticides. The organophosphates and the carbonates present in pesticides affect and damage the nervous system and can cause cancer. Some of the pesticides contain carcinogens that exceed recommended levels. They contain chlorides that cause reproductive and endocrinal damage. Lead. Lead is hazardous to health as it accumulates in the body and affects the central nervous system. Children and pregnant women are most at risk. Fluoride. Excess fluorides can cause yellowing of the teeth and damage to the spinal cord and other crippling diseases. Nitrates. Drinking water that gets contaminated with nitrates can prove fatal especially to infants that drink formula milk as it restricts the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain causing the ‘blue baby’ syndrome. It is also linked to digestive tract cancers. It causes algae to bloom resulting in eutrophication in surface water. Petrochemicals. Benzene and other petrochemicals can cause cancer even at low exposure levels. Chlorinated solvents. These are linked to reproduction disorders and to some cancers. Arsenic. Arsenic poisoning through water can cause liver and nervous system damage, vascular diseases and also skin cancer. Other heavy metals. –Heavy metals cause damage to the nervous system and the kidney, and other metabolic disruptions. Salts. It makes the fresh water unusable for drinking and irrigation purposes. Exposure to polluted water can cause diarrhoea, skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other diseases, depending on the pollutant that is in the water body. Stagnant water and other untreated water provide a habitat for the mosquito and a host of other parasites and insects that cause a large number of diseases especially in the tropical regions. Among these, malaria is undoubtedly the most widely distributed and causes most damage to human health.

76 Diunduh dari: Preventive measures Water-borne epidemics and health hazards in the aquatic environment are mainly due to improper management of water resources. Proper management of water resources has become the need of the hour as this would ultimately lead to a cleaner and healthier environment. In order to prevent the spread of water-borne infectious diseases, people should take adequate precautions. The city water supply should be properly checked and necessary steps taken to disinfect it. Water pipes should be regularly checked for leaks and cracks. At home, the water should be boiled, filtered, or other methods and necessary steps taken to ensure that it is free from infection. CauseWater-borne diseases Bacterial infectionsTyphoid Cholera Paratyphoid fever Bacillary dysentery Viral infectionsInfectious Hepatitis (jaundice) Poliomyelitis Protozoal infectionsAmoebic dysentery

77 Diunduh dari: MINAMATA: Environmental contamination with methyl mercury In Minamata, Japan, inorganic mercury was used in the industrial production of acetaldehyde. It was discharged into the nearby bay as waste water and was ingested by organisms in the bottom sediments. Fish and other creatures in the sea were soon contaminated and eventually residents of this area who consumed the fish suffered from MeHg (methyl mercury) intoxication, later known as the Minamata disease. The disease was first detected in 1956 but the mercury emissions continued until But even after the emission of mercury stopped, the bottom sediment of the polluted water contained high levels of this mercury. Various measures were taken to deal with this disease. Environmental pollution control, which included cessation of the mercury process; industrial effluent control, environmental restoration of the bay; and restrictions on the intake of fish from the bay. This apart research and investigative activities were promoted assiduously, and compensation and help was offered by the Japanese Government to all those affected by the disease. The Minamata disease proved a turning point, towards progress in environment protection measures. This experience clearly showed that health and environment considerations must be integrated into the process of economic and industrial development from an early stage.

78 PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH Water used for industrial and municipal purposes is often degraded during use –Addition of suspended solids, salts, nutrients, bacteria, and oxygen demanding material. –Water must be treated before released Wastewater treatment –$20 billion a year industry –Conventional methods; septic tanks and centralized treatment Diunduh dari: … SEWAGE TREATMENT, OR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT : Any of the mechanical or chemical processes used to modify the quality of wastewater in order to make it more compatible or acceptable to humans Physical, chemical, and biological processes used to remove pollutants from wastewater before discharging it into a water body Chemical, biological, and mechanical procedures applied to an industrial or municipal discharge or to any other sources of contaminated water to remove, reduce, or neutralize contaminants Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.

79 SISTEM PEMBUANGAN AIR LIMBAH DENGAN SEPTIC-TANK Common in many rural areas and outlying areas of cities. Basic parts of a septic-tank disposal system –Sewer line from house to underground tank –Tank separates solids from liquids Digest and store solids Liquid sent to absorption field –By the time water reaches any fresh water should be safe. Diunduh dari: Septic Systems Explained A septic system is a highly efficient, self-contained, underground wastewater treatment system. A septic system consists of two main parts-a septic tank and a drainfield. The septic tank is a watertight box, usually made of concrete or fiberglass, with an inlet and outlet pipe. Wastewater flows from the home to the septic tank through the sewer pipe. The septic tank treats the wastewater naturally by holding it in the tank long enough for solids and liquids to separate. The wastewater forms three layers inside the tank. Solids lighter than water (such as greases and oils) float to the top forming a layer of scum. Solids heavier than water settle at the bottom of the tank forming a layer of sludge. This leaves a middle layer of partially clarified wastewater.

80 Diunduh dari: … SISTEM PEMBUANGAN AIR LIMBAH DENGAN SEPTIC-TANK

81 Absorption fields may fail for several reasons. –Failure to pump out tank when full of solids –Poor soil drainage which allows the effluent to raise to surface in wet weather. Diunduh dari: SISTEM PEMBUANGAN AIR LIMBAH DENGAN SEPTIC-TANK “Water-quality analyses indicate that septage from septic tanks is the primary source of the high-nitrate concentrations measured in the Warren groundwater basin.” - USGS; Water-Resources Investigations Report ; Evaluation of the Source and Transport of High Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water, Warren Sub basin, California.

82 UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH Diunduh dari: … BIOSOLIDS Biosolids are produced primarily from the treatment of sewage. Sewage consists of used water from household activities such as washing dishes and clothes, taking a shower, flushing the toilet and even cleaning your teeth. Industry also discharges into the sewerage system. This discharge is usually regulated and limits are set so that any potentially dangerous compounds are not allowed in the sewer at levels that might cause harm to the environment or people. During sewage treatment, microorganisms digest (eat) the sewage, completely breaking down the original organic solids that have been discharged into the sewerage system. This leaves a low solids effluent and a solids component known as biosolids. The water content of the solids is then reduced, usually by passing through mechanical processes. The resultant product is biosolids. Biosolids comprise dead micro-organisms, a small portion of active microorganisms, and any inert solids such as sand which have come down the sewer. The final quality of the biosolids produced depends on the quality of the sewage entering the treatment plant and the treatment process. Five typical production systems for biosolids with possible alterative productions pathways

83 Methods usually divided into three categories: –Primary treatment –Secondary treatment –Advanced wastewater treatment Primary and secondary required by law. Diunduh dari: UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH Wastewaters Management Settlement Overview

84 Diunduh dari: … UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH

85 PENGOLAHAN PRIMER Incoming raw sewage enters plant Passes through series of screens –Remove large floating organic material Next enters a grit chamber –Sand, small stones and grit removed Then enters sedimentation tank –Particulate matter settles out to form a sludge Sludge is removed and transported to a digester Primary treatment removes ~35% of BOD Diunduh dari: PRIMARY TREATMENT. In primary treatment, floating and suspended solids are settled and removed from sewage. Flow from the sewers enters a screen/bar rack to remove large, floating material such as rags and sticks. It then flows through a grit chamber where heavier inorganics such as sand and small stones are removed. Grit removal is usually followed by a sedimentation tank/ clarifiers where inorganic and organic suspended solids are settled out. To kill pathogenic bacteria, the final effluent from the treatment process is disinfected prior to discharge to a receiving water. Chlorine, in the form of a sodium hypochlorite solution, is normally used for disinfection. Since more chlorine is needed to provide adequate bacteria kills than would be safe for aquatic life in the stream, excess chlorine is removed by dechlorination. Alternate disinfection methods, such as ozone or ultraviolet light, are utilized by some treatment plants. Sludge that settles to the bottom of the clarifier is pumped out and dewatered for use as fertilizer, disposed of in a landfill, or incinerated. Sludge that is free of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants is called Biosolids and can be safely and beneficially recycled as fertilizer, for example. Read more: Wastewater Treatment - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, history, types, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, toxic, world, human, power, sources, disposal

86 Most common treatment, activated sludge. Wastewater from primary sedimentation tank enters the tank Then enters the final sedimentation tank –Sludge settles out –Some activated sludge used again in aeration Most of the sledge transported to digester Wastewater from final tank is disinfected w/ chlorine and discharged Diunduh dari: PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER SECONDARY TREATMENT. Primary treatment provided a good start, but, with the exception of some ocean outfalls, it is inadequate to protect water quality as required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). With secondary treatment, the bacteria in sewage is used to further purify the sewage. Secondary treatment, a biological process, removes 85 percent or more of the organic matter in sewage compared with primary treatment, which removes about 50 percent. The basic processes are variations of what is called the "activated sludge" process or "trickling filters," which provide a mechanism for bacteria, with air added for oxygen, to come in contact with the wastewater to purify it. In the activated sludge process, flow from the sewer or primary clarifiers goes into an aeration tank, where compressed air is mixed with sludge that is recycled from secondary clarifiers which follow the aeration tanks. The recycled, or activated, sludge provides bacteria to consume the "food" provided by the new wastewater in the aeration tank, thus purifying it. In a trickling filter the flow trickles over a bed of stones or synthetic media on which the purifying organisms grow and contact the wastewater, removing contaminants in the process. The flow, along with excess organisms that build up on the stones or media during the purification, then goes to a secondary clarifier. Air flows up through the media in the filters, to provide necessary oxygen for the bacteria organisms. Clarified effluent flows to the receiving water, typically a river or bog, after disinfection. Excess sludge is produced by the process and after collection from the bottom of the secondary clarifiers it is dewatered, sometimes after mixing with primary sludge, for use as fertilizer, disposed of in a landfill, or incinerated. Read more: Wastewater Treatment - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, history, types, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, toxic, world, human, power, sources, disposal

87 Secondary treatment removes ~90% of BOD Sludge from the digester is dried and disposed of in a landfill or applied to improve soil. Diunduh dari: PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER Advanced secondary treatment - membrane bio-reactor (MBR) technology Secondary treatment is the process where soluble and fine suspended dissolved materials not already removed at primary treatment are removed. As an alternative to conventional secondary processes (knows as conventional activated sludge), the Brightwater project uses Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR process includes: Fine screens which remove remaining debris and inorganic material larger than 2 mm from the wastewater Aeration basins that promote the growth of microorganisms that consume organic matter, thereby creating wastewater that has less organic matter that can decompose Membrane tanks, which separate the liquids from the solids

88 Diunduh dari: … PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER

89 PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH - LANJUT Additional pollutants can be removed by adding more treatment steps. –Sand filters, carbon filters and chemicals applied to assist removal process. Treated water can then be used for agricultural or municipal irrigation Diunduh dari: Water Treatment Sand Filter The Rapid Sand Filter (RSF) water treatment equipment differs from the Slow Sand Filter water treatment equipment in a variety of ways, the most important of which are the much greater water treatment filtration rate and the ability to clean automatically using back washing. The mechanism of particle removal also differs. Rapid sand Water treatment filter does not use biological filtration and depends primarily on mechanical straining, sedimentation, impaction, interception, adhesion and physical adsorption. In Rapid sand water filter the complete filtration cycle (filtration and back washing) occurs sequentially. Types of Rapid Sand Filter There are a number of different types of Rapid sand filters depending upon bed depth (e.g., shallow, conventional and deep bed) and the type of filtering medium used (mono-, dual-, and multimedia). A further classification can be made based on the driving force as gravity Water Filters or pressure Water filters. Typically sand is used as the filtering material in single medium filters. The principal filtration methods now used with reference to the rate of flow through gravity filters may be classified as 1.constant-rate of filtration with fixed head, 2.constant -rate filtration with variable head, 3.and variable- declining-rate filtration.

90 PENGOLAHAN KHLORIN Chlorine is very effective in killing the pathogens that historically caused outbreaks –Chlorine treatment byproducts may pose hazard to fish and cancer risk to humans. Diunduh dari: Chlorine Disinfection by Matt Curtis & Erik Johnston The following is a schematic of a wastewater treatment plant (Drawing by Erik Johnston). The final stage of the wastewater treatment process is chlorination, which is used to disinfect the wastewater before it is returned to a river or body of water. Disinfection is necessary to kill any pathogens that may have survived the treatment process and could cause harm to humans or aquatic wildlife. In this stage of the treatment process, chlorine is typically fed into the wastewater stream as it flows to the chlorine contact basin. The chlorine contact basin is a baffled basin which allows the chlorine additional time to react with the wastewater to kill the pathogens.

91 Land Application of Wastewater Land application of wastewater was practiced for hundreds of years before the development of treatment plants. –Now the process is sanitized through reduction of BOD and use of chlorination. Diunduh dari: _Sewage_and_Wastewater.html… The Use of Reed Beds for the Treatment of Sewage & Wastewater from Domestic Households In the example shown in figure, household wastewater is collected via a sanitary drainage system (i.e. pipes under the house) and discharged into a collection tank (greywater or septic tank) that acts as a primary treatment chamber for the settling of solids, flotation of oils and greases, and the anaerobic breakdown of pollutants. All collection tanks (greywater or septic) must be fitted with effluent filters (Section 5.2) to improve the quality of the effluent leaving the tank. The On-site Wastewater Treatment Train (AWTS = Aerated Wastewater Treatment System; ETA = Evapotranspiration-Absorption)

92 The Waste Renovation and Conservation Cycle Major steps in the cycle: –1. Return of treated wastewater to crops via a sprinkler or other irrigation system. –2. Renovation, or natural purification by slow percolation of the wastewater into the soil, to eventually recharge the groundwater resource with clean water. –3. Reuse of the treated water, which is pumped out of the ground for municipal, industrial, institutional, or agricultural purposes. Diunduh dari: Winery Wastewater Management & Recycling Recognising that winery wastewater management and recycling are important issues in the grape and wine industry, GWRDC has commissioned research and communications projects to develop, synthesise and share knowledge about better wastewater management, water reuse and recycling. There is information available on winery wastewater treatment, recycling the treated water in vineyards, using other sources of recycled water and other forms of discharge.

93 Diunduh dari: … PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH – DAUR ULANG

94 The Waste Renovation and Conservation Cycle Technology for wastewater treatment is rapidly evolving. –Resource recovery wastewater treatment plant –Refers to the production of resources such as methane and ornamental plants. The process –1. The wastewater is run through filters to remove large objects. Diunduh dari: Industrial wastewater treatment Heavy metal wastewater recycling--Ion exchange resin handing technology Usage: 1.Noble metal recycling: gold, silver, palladium and platinum. 2.Heavy metal recycling: nickel, copper, zinc, lead, chromium acid. 3.Water resource recycling.

95 The Waste Renovation and Conservation Cycle The water undergoes anaerobic processing. –Produces methane The nutrient rich water flows over an incline surface containing plants Diunduh dari: BIOSOLIDS Biosolids are treated sewage sludges. Sewage sludge are the solids collected from the wastewater treatment process which have not undergone further treatment. Biosolids are a product of the sewage sludge once it has undergone further treatment to significantly reduce disease causing pathogens and volatile organic matter, producing a stabilised product suitable for beneficial use. Biosolids normally contain between 15% and 90% solids. Biosolids are carefully treated and monitored and they must be used in accordance with regulatory requirements.. Biosolids are mainly a mix of water and organic materials that are a by-product of the sewage treatment processes. Most wastewater comes from household kitchens, laundries and bathrooms. Biosolids may contain: Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur and Micronutrients, such as copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, boron, molybdenum and manganese. Biosolids may also contain traces of synthetic organic compounds and metals, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and selenium. Processes in a typical wastewater (sewage) treatment plant which produce wastewater sludge for processing into biosolids

96 Diunduh dari: drink/beverages/recycled-drinking-water/page/the%20recycling%20process.aspx … The recycling process Water recycling is the process of taking effluent (wastewater and sewage) and treating it to a level that’s appropriate for its intended use. For potable (drinkable) use, the recycled water has to be treated to a sufficiently high level that it’s suitable for human consumption. The indirect potable reuse process being implemented in southeast Queensland, trialled in Perth and under discussion in Goulburn adds another step: highly treated recycled water is mixed with other water supplies above or below ground before it arrives at your tap Effluent gets treated at existing wastewater treatment plants, before it reaches the recycling plant. The recycled water is then mixed with the natural water supply and undergoes existing drinking water treatment before arriving again at your tap. There’s a difference between this kind of planned reuse — with advanced water treatment and risk management — and incidental reuse. In some river systems, towns upstream discharge their treated sewage into the river and towns further downstream draw water from the same river. For example, people living in towns that draw water from the Murrumbidgee below Canberra, and then down the Murray to Adelaide, are already partly using reuse water.

97 The Waste Renovation and Conservation Cycle Technology must overcome several problems before it is likely to be used widely. –There has been a tremendous investment in traditional wastewater treatment plants. –Economic incentive to provide for new technologies are not sufficient. –There are not sufficient personal trained to design and operate new types of plants. Diunduh dari: Also known as Reclamation or Reuse, water recycling is an umbrella term encompassing the process of treating wastewater, storing, distributing, and using the recycled water. “Recycled water means water which, as a result of treatment of waste, is suitable for a direct beneficial use or a controlled use that would not otherwise occur and is therefore considered a valuable resource.”

98 Wastewater and Wetlands Wastewater is being applied successfully to natural and constructed wetlands. Effective in treating the following water quality problems: –Municipal wastewater from primary or secondary treatment plants (BOD, pathogens, phosphorus, nitrate, suspended solids, metals). Diunduh dari: … Constructed wetlands management (constructed shallow basin for treatment of contaminated waters by wetland vegetation ).

99 Diunduh dari: … CONSTRUCTED WETLAND A constructed wetland or wetpark is an artificial wetland, marsh or swamp created as a new or restored habitat for native and migratory wildlife, for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater, stormwater runoff, or sewage treatment, for land reclamation after mining, refineries, or other ecological disturbances such as required mitigation for natural wetlands lost to a development. Natural wetlands act as a biofilter, removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water, and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features. The three types, using reed beds (constructed wetlands but using principally reed plants), are used. All these systems are used commercially, usually together with septic tanks as primary treatment, Imhoff tanks or screeners in order to separate the solids from the liquid effluent). Some designs however are being used to act as primary treatment as well. An other way is the combination Constructed wetland- Composting toilet. System types are: Surface flow (SF) Constructed Wetland (or reed bed) Sub Surface Flow (SSF) Constructed Wetland (or reed bed) Vertical Flow (VF) Constructed Wetland (or reed bed) Surface-flow wetlands Surface-flow wetlands move effluent above the soil in a planted marsh or swamp, and thus can be supported by a wider variety of soil types including bay mud and other silty clays.silty Plantings of reedbeds are popular in European constructed wetlands, and plants such as cattails (Typha spp.), sedges, Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Pontederia spp. are used worldwide (although Typha and Phragmites are highly invasive). Recent research in use of constructed wetlands for subarctic regions has shown that buckbeans (Menyanthes trifoliata) and pendant grass (Arctophila fulva) are also useful for metals uptakeTyphaEichhornia crassipesPontederiaMenyanthes trifoliataArctophila fulva

100 Diunduh dari: … CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Constructed wetlands are wetlands that are specially built for the purpose of wastewater treatment and are utilized in place of naturally occurring wetlands. They provide a greater degree of wastewater treatment than natural wetlands, as their hydraulic loadings can be managed as required. Because these wetlands are constructed specifically for wastewater treatment, they should not be included in the jurisdictional group, which avoids the regulatory and environmental entanglement associated with natural wetlands. This is in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The treatment process can be either aerobic or anaerobic, depending on whether the wetlands are constructed with an exposed water surface or one with subsurface flow. These wetlands can also be used to remove nitrogen, which is usually not removed during the standard wastewater treatment process. Nitrogen removal is accomplished by the growth of cattails and reeds, which utilize the highly nutrient wastewater and consequently remove nitrogen in the process. Sometimes the cattails and reeds must be harvested to complete the removal process. Read more: Wastewater Treatment - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, history, types, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, toxic, world, human, power, sources, disposal FREE WATER SURFACE (FWS): they are areas of open water and are similar in appearance to natural wetlands.

101 Diunduh dari: … SETTLING POND A settling pond, usually man-made, collects and slows water flow so that suspended solids (sediments) have time to precipitate or settle out of the water. Some applications of settling ponds include capturing runoff from farms (agricultural waste), construction projects (soil sediment) and mines (sediment and toxic waste). Settling ponds eventually fill and must be dredged to remain in operation. Polluted water from abandoned mines is diverted to settling ponds to remove solids such as iron oxide. When dredged, these sediments must be treated as contaminated waste. Pilot projects are underway to recapture iron oxide for use in paint pigments. Read more: Wastewater Treatment - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, history, types, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, toxic, world, human, power, sources, disposal HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW (HSSF): they typically employ a gravel bed planted with wetland plants; the water, kept below the surface of the bed, flows horizontally from the inlet to the outlet.

102 Wastewater and Wetlands –Stormwater runoff (metals, nitrate, BOD, pesticides, oils). –Industrial wastewater (metals, acids, oils, solvents). –Agricultural wastewater and runoff (BOD, nitrate, pesticides, suspended solids). –Mining waters (metals, acidic water, sulfates). –Groundwater seeping from landfills (BOD, metals, oils, pesticides). Diunduh dari: … VERTICAL FLOW (VF): water is distributed across the surface of a sand or gravel bed planted with wetland plants; the water is treated as it percolates through the plant root zone.

103 Diunduh dari: … Emerging phytotechnologies for remediation of heavy meal contaminated/ polluted soil and water M.N.V. Prasad Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences University of Hyderabad Hyderabad AP, India Pollutants that originate mainly from non-point sources are difficult to control. Constructed wetlands are designed to intercept and remove a wide range of contaminants from wastewater. These wetlands can save time and money by using natural mechanisms to treat non-point source pollution before it reaches lakes, rivers, and oceans. Conventional wastewater treatment plants can effectively remove non-point source pollution, but are expensive to build and operate on. Therefore, local wastewater treatment plants are desirable to reuse water. The most important role of plants in wetlands is that they increase the residence time of water, which means that they reduce the velocity and thereby increase the sedimentation of particles and associated pollutants. Thus, they are indirectly involved in water cleaning. Plants also add oxygen, providing a physical site of microbial attachment to the roots generating positive conditions for microbes and bioremediation. For efficient removal of pollutants, a high biomass per volume of water of the submerged plants is necessary. Uptake of metals in emergent plants only accounts for 5% or less of the total removal capacity in wetlands.

104 Diunduh dari: centralised-wastewater-treatments/v … VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND A vertical flow constructed wetland (vertical flow CW) is a planted filter bed for secondary or tertiary treatment of wastewater (e.g. greywater or blackwater). Pre- treated wastewater (e.g. from a septic tank or an Imhoff tank) is distributed over the whole filter surface and flows vertically through the filter. The water is treated by a combination of biological and physical processes. On the bottom of the filter, there is a drainage system which collects the treated wastewater. A vertical flow constructed wetland needs a specific filter surface of 1 to 4 m2 per population equivalent (HOFFMANN et al. 2010), depending on the climate. Normally, sand and gravel is used to construct the filter body. The filtered water of a well functioning constructed wetland can be used for irrigation, aquaculture, groundwater recharge or is discharged in surface water. To design a vertical flow constructed wetland, expert knowledge is recommended. They are relatively inexpensive to build where land is affordable and can be maintained by the local community.

105 Diunduh dari: Water Reuse - for efficient water resource management WATER REUSE IN HOMES Why reuse water? Because you should make full use of it, especially when there is global water shortages. Here are some tips on saving and reuse water at home: 1.Turn off the tap when not in use. Regularly check taps and pipes for leaks and repair any leaks detected. 2.Never pour water away when there may be another use for it. 3.Washing machine rinse water, especially the last few batches of rinse water can be used for toilet flushing, and floor cleaning. 4.Reuse water from washing of fruits and vegetables, and dish/cup washing final rinse water to water plants. 5.Install water-efficient taps and showerheads to cut water usage. 6.Take shorter showers and turn off the shower while lathering and washing your hair. 7.Use a tumbler of water to rinse your mouth instead of leaving the tap running while you brush your teeth. 8.Use a pail of water to wash your car rather than a hose. 9.Rinsh dishes in a plugged sink rather than under running water. 10.Do not use running water to defrost frozen food.

106 PENGGUNAAN KEMBALI AIR Water reuse can be inadvertent, indirect or direct. Inadvertent –Results when water is withdrawn, treated, used, treated, and returned to the environment. –Followed by furtherer withdrawal and use. –Common for people who live along large rivers. Diunduh dari: How Do People Reuse Water? Water is considered a renewable resource, not because we are able to make more, but because in most cases we can clean it for reuse. Depending on how the contaminated water is processed, it might not be pure enough for drinking, but there are several other ways in which it is reused. Heating and Cooling Not all recycled water is purified for consumption as drinking water. Some used water is reused in heating or cooling systems. It is loaded into pipes that run through refrigeration or heating units, which causes the temperature of the water to be lowered or raised as needed. The water flowing through these pipes doesn't have to be pure since it is not consumed or even exposed to individuals. The piped water is sent through systems such as radiators or industrial cooling units. Construction Water is used as part of the building process to hose down equipment and streets during construction, and it is a required ingredient for mixing cement. This water doesn't have to be as pure as drinking water. Some construction sites use grey water that has been minimally filtered to remove soaps or oils, or they use recycled water that underwent a minor cleaning process. Reusing water for this purpose keeps recycling plants from wasting energy to clean water that is not required to be up to drinking standards. Irrigation Grey water is water that is disposed of down sinks or showers and has not come into contact with biological waste. It is often rerouted and used as irrigation on landscaping or crops. Since grey water is not contaminated with waste matter, it is fairly harmless even though it is not drinkable. It is sent through a very basic filtration process or not cleaned at all, and then sprayed to irrigate vegetation and crops.

107 Risks associated with inadvertent reuse: 1. Inadequate treatment facilities may deliver contaminated or poor-quality water to downstream users. 2. Environmental health hazards of treated water remain uncertain. 3. Every year, new potentially hazardous chemicals are introduced into the environment. Ingested in low concentrations over many years, effects on humans difficult to evaluate. Diunduh dari: PENGGUNAAN KEMBALI AIR "Water recycling and reuse" is defined as the planned and deliberate use of treated wastewater for some beneficial purpose, such as industrial process, cooling, recreation, horticulture, flushing in building and commercial centre etc.

108 Indirect water reuse –A planned endeavor. –Several thousand cubic meters of treated water per day applied to surface recharge areas. –Eventually enters the groundwater. Diunduh dari: PENGGUNAAN KEMBALI AIR Constructed wetlands are man-made systems designed to emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve the treatment capacities, they can be defined as engineered water saturated areas in which the natural removal for the water pollutants is reproduced, enhanced and controlled in order to optimize the purification performances.. FREE WATER SURFACE (FWS): they are areas of open water and are similar in appearance to natural wetlands.

109 Direct water reuse –Refers to use of treated wastewater that is piped directly from a treatment plant to the next user. Diunduh dari: PENGGUNAAN KEMBALI AIR On-site differentiable wastewater treatment system The image of new water sanitation system is shown in figure. This is the system for Sahel region in Africa. In this system, separation of wastewater into three streams is essential. Feces and organic garbage is treated by non- flushing composting toilet. Urine is separated and treated and nutrients in urine are recovered. The graywater is treated and reused.

110 Source: Graywater - An Option For Household Water Reuse Diunduh dari: 9EFD37E624BE0EE6&elementID=1B58D8BA-8AED-46AC-B9B5D9681A846D1F…Graywater - An Option For Household Water Reuse Greywater and/or Dual Plumbing System Installation Tips A few states have implemented standards and laws that allow for the installation and use on residential on-site greywater systems. The definition of greywater may differ from state to state, but greywater is usually defined as "untreated used household water that does not contain human wastes".. Examples of greywater include: wash or rinse water from a sink, shower, bathtub, or other household fixture, excluding a toilet. Some definitions of greywater exclude wastewater from sinks, dishwashers, or clothes washers because this water may have come into contact with human wastes such as a soiled diaper. In areas where greywater systems are permitted, water that does not contain human wastes or pose a health hazard may be reused for toilet flushing and outdoor irrigation of non-food plants. Greywater and dual plumbing systems, where permitted, are an option for reducing water use. Check the local regulations in your area before designing a greywater reuse system. Also be aware that as efficiency improves in indoor fixtures and appliances there will be less water available for greywater reuse. Greywater systems can be cost effective in homes with large indoor water demands, but may be of little benefit for most single-family homeowners. Greywater systems generally consist of a three-way diverter valve, a treatment assembly such as a sand filter, a holding tank, a bilge pump, and an irrigation or leaching system. The holding tank cools the water and temporarily holds it back from the drain hose. Systems can either be custom designed and built, or purchased as a package. Techniques include recessed or raised planter soil boxes, water injection without erosion, gravity or pressure leach chamber, and irrigated greenhouses. Some system components can retrofit existing irrigation systems.

111 Diunduh dari: and.html… HOW TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER AND PREVENT CONTAMINATION?. The entire Earth is facing a several threats, like change in climate pattern, less rainfall, extreme heat and so on. We also suffer from different types of infectious diseases, hunger, thirst, and so on due to global warming. Due toover growth of population we are experiencing shortage and scarcity of water,electricity, food etc. Due to industrial growth we are facing the problem ofpollution of vital elements of the earth, depletion of ground water, ecologicalimbalance, endangering of species, and environmental degradation. There is an ecological threat in the ground water being contaminated due toindustrial and population growth. So, to overcome the threat we have toidentify certain toxic eating bacteria, synthesise it and should be introducedinto the Ground water resources. Pseudomonas bacteria also help in removing thecontamination of Ground Water. Contamination of ground water is not the onlyproblem we are facing today, but we are experiencing crucial shortage. To overcome this scarcityof water we have to devise various low cost methods to recharge groundwater.Artificial recharge is the process by which the ground water reservoir iseffected through increased infiltration of water by artificial structures andinnovative methods. Rainfallis the main source of ground water recharge. Other sources include rechargefrom rivers, streams, irrigation water etc. Rainfall is limited for a fixedduration, natural recharge of ground water is restricted to a particular periodonly. Large volume of rainfall flows into the sea and is evaporated. Since wecannot depend on rains to recharge ground water we have to adapt artifcialmethods that are low in cost, and easy to use.

112 Diunduh dari: … GREY WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM Municipal and industrialwaste water should be treated chemically to remove contaminants and pollutantsand then introduced into the ground water resources.

113 Diunduh dari: RAIN WATER HARVESTING METHOD Rainwater harvesting is another method to replenish ground water. But this methos can be used only during the rains. In urban and rural areas, the roof top rainwater can be conserved and used for recharge of ground water. This approach requires connecting the outlet pipe from the rooftop to divert the water to existing wells/ tubewells/ borewells or specially designed wells.

114 Diunduh dari: RECHARGE BY DUGWELL METHOD:. There are thousands of dug wells, which have either gone dry, or the water levels have declined considerably. These dug wells can be used as structures to recharge the ground water reservoir. Storm water, tank water, canal water etc. can be diverted into these structures to directly recharge the dried aquifer.

115 Diunduh dari: ARTIFICAL RECHARGE THROUGH INJECTION WELL METHOD Injection wells are structures similar to a tube well but with the purpose of augmenting the ground water storage of a confined aquifer by pumping in treated surface water under pressure. In this method, water is led directly into the depleted aquifers. This method is effective because the recharge of ground water is instantaneous and there is no loss of water due to evaporation. In both the above methods purity of ground water is assured.

116 Diunduh dari: and.html… ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE THROUGH UNUSED DRAINAGE CANALS The unused drainage canals can be transformed into temporary reservoirs. The network of surface drains that controls floods and waterlogging during monsoon can be modified effectively to collect excess rain water during monsoon season. This indigenous method can replenish the declining ground water table. Excess water not needed for irrigation can be diverted into these unused canals, where ‘check structures’ slow it for recharge.

117 Diunduh dari: MODIFICATION OF IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER: Paddy rice irrigation aids recharge of ground water.Paddy rice requires continuous supply of water through canal irrigation. The canals used for irrigation of paddy crops should be made in earthen material to aid recharge of water. For paddy rice, around 60% of the irrigation water is used by the plants; the remaining 40% filters through the soil to recharge the aquifer below. Similarly, cultivation of sugar cane crops helps in recharging and replenishing ground water.

118 Diunduh dari: CLAY POT OR PITCHER IRRIGATION TECHNIQUE TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER:. Ground Water meets nearly 55% of agricultural requirements.That means farmers exploit ground water to the maximum extent. By proper irrigation techniques we have to irrigate the crops and adapt methods in such a way that we conserve water and recharge ground water. If methods like pitcher irrigation, are adapted, they deliver water to the underground directly to the roots of the plant. There is no water wasted through evaporation or run off. In this system of pot irrigation, earthern pots filled with water and closed with a lid are burried deep into the soil next to the plants or trees. Water seeps slowly through the sides of the pots, and into the soil, providing water to the roots of the plants, exactly where it is needed. Water only moves underground from the pot to the area around the plant roots, so there is no water loss due to evaporation. It is important to cover the top of the pot to stop the water from evaporating and to prevent mosquitoes from breeding. By this method ground water is recharged, replenished and conserved.

119 Diunduh dari: and.html… RAIN GARDEN TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER: Rain garden is designed to hold rain water runoff from roof tops, drive ways, patios, or lawns. It contains native shrubs, perennials, plants etc. Every time it rains, water runs off impermeable surfaces, such as roofs or driveways,collecting pollutants like particles of dirt, fertilizer, chemicals, oil, garbage, and bacteria along the way. The pollutant-laden water enters storm drains untreated and flows directly to nearby streams and ponds. Rain gardens collect rainwater runoff, allowing the water to be filtered by the vegetation and percolate into the soil recharging groundwater aquifers. This process filter out pollutants. The advantages of rain Garden are: Improve the water quality by filtering pollutants. Pleasing appearance to the building. Preserves native vegetation. Provides strom water and flood control. Attracts bees, birds, insects. Maintenance is easy. Helps in ground water recharge.

120 Diunduh dari: PHYTOREMEDIATION TO RECHARGE GROUND WATER: In addition to all other above methods planting and cultivation of woody trees help in replenishing ground water conservation because the roots help in percolation of rain water deep into the soil and keep the water table steady. Cultivation of trees not only enriches the quality of water but also raises the ground water table. They also remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy contaminants present in the soil and in the ground water. They clean up contaminated soil, sludge and ground water. This method of cleaning up ground water pollution and maintaining the water table and soil contaminants using different species of plants and trees is a low cost, environmentally friendly and effective for a wide range of chemicals such as pesticides, solvents,crude oil, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and metals etc.

121 Diunduh dari: SAVE GROUND WATER TO SAVE LIFE ON EARTH!!!. Ground water resources should be recharged artificially, but innovatively. People should be trained in these methods to protect Mother Nature’s precious gift. People should be properly educated in methods of harnessing, conserving, cleaning ground water resources. Laboratories for testing quality of water should be commissioned in every cities and villages to moniter ground water resources and supply. This helps in maintaining the health of the community.Water is Elixir of Life. If the resources of water is not preserved properly and comes under threat, then the entire planet and its biodiversity will be threatened.


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