Presentation on theme: "Danijela Banko, prof.. The amount of water per inhabitant places the Republic of Croatia among the best endowed countries in Europe The average volume."— Presentation transcript:
Danijela Banko, prof.
The amount of water per inhabitant places the Republic of Croatia among the best endowed countries in Europe The average volume of the country’s own and transit waters is 25,160 m 3 /cap/year The total length of all natural and artificial watercourses in the area of Croatia is 21,000 km
The river Danube, the largest and richest in water, flows through the eastern borderland of Croatia over a length of km. Other major rivers are the Sava (562 km) and the Drava (505 km). The rivers of the Adriatic catchment area are short, have rapids and canyons There are not many lakes in Croatia Two artificial storage lakes with a total volume of 1,050 million m 3 have been created as a part of hydropower plants
In spite of extensive research activity, the knowledge on the amount and the condition of underground water is inconclusive It can be concluded that Croatia is a country rich in water, especially considering the low population density and modest demand for industrial and agricultural water, which is well below average of developed countries.
Relatively high quality of both surface and ground water can certainly be considered a positive element, with most problems occurring during warm summer periods when the natural discharge is small, the groundwater level low and water demand increased due to the tourism and irrigation demands Central sewer systems are constructed only in large urban and industrial centres. Less then 35% of wastewater in Croatia is discharged into the sewer systems and less than 10% is treated in wastewater treatment plants
The climate changes initiated by global warming have the potential to cause major changes in hydrological processes and hence water availability In croatia, a large amount of water is wasted due to leakages in pipes, which leads to a revenue loss of up to EUR 286 million (0.9% of GDP) A possible decrease of runoff and its probable redistribution during the year will cause shortages in water supply in summer season
Such shortages are already being experienced, since Croatia is a tourist country with large agricultural production. Demand for water increases in Croatia during the summer and vegetation season (from April to September). Domestic demand increases during the dry summer tourist season.
In the region of Istria in the time before the modernization of the water supply network people used water tanks called – Šterna It’s a local, common or household well for collecting, storing rainwater Šterna was built in areas were groundwater suppies were not available These areas are mostly limestone, permeable soils.
First public Šterna were built in the early 19th century, buried in the ground and covered with specially placed stones Almost all towns in Istria had (still have) at least one water supply tank in its center, which was the source of life in the community. People used to gather around Šterna, discussing, dancing, trade fairs were organized around them… Today Šterna is a reminder of the past and traditional way of life and as such should be protected as a cultural and historical heritage.
only a few decades ago Šterna ensured to their owners source of life and were a sign of prosperity No one really knows how many Šterna are there in Istria. Nor how many of them still collect rainwater, how many are used as drinking water tanks People mostly use it today to water their gardens No one is obliged to control water tanks in private and in public, if the water is not used for drinking. After all, public drinking water containers in Istria (almost) do not exist.
People should avoid using drinking water for watering gardens, lawns, washing their terraces and the like negligent use of potable water; and use Šterna if they have it! Finally, Šterne will become more and more popular as a valuable source of high-quality natural resource, as sources of drinking water are more vulnerable!