Presentation on theme: "Indus Valley. The Indus and Ganges Rivers formed a fertile plain where this civilization emerged. But flooding was unpredictable & the river changed."— Presentation transcript:
The Indus and Ganges Rivers formed a fertile plain where this civilization emerged. But flooding was unpredictable & the river changed course.
Monsoons Seasonal Winds October – May dry winds from the desert June – September wet rains from the Arabian Sea
Indus Valley started about BC along the the Indus River. Biggest city -Mohenjo-Daro, in present day Pakistan, Had cities and settlements all along the river.
Harappa 3000 – 1500 BC Among the earliest cities Language has not been translated
Rainey season was inconsistent
Like Egypt, mountains to the north made a natural protective barrier(the Himalayas)
The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization was first recorded in the 1800's by the British.
It was a very advanced civilization with planned, bricked walled homes (some up to three stories), bathrooms with drainage system, and other advances. “The Great Bath” of Mohenjo-Daro…the 1 st public bath area in the ancient world.
Harappa main drain area Archeologists know they created well planned out cities on a grid system, very sophisticated with plumbing and sewage systems
Private bath of a home that drains down into street drain area and flowed to a sewer drain for the city Mohenjo-Daro sewer lines
Seals found in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Writing system is called Sanskrit. It is not completely understood.
· They advanced an education system for their sons led by a Guru (teacher) and continued a make a dominant culture. · Due to the physical diversity of the Indian subcontinent, many forms of economic activities took place; mostly farming (in spite of the monsoons), herding, and trading.
There doesn’t seem to be any proof of warfare-not really much found, So it seems conflict was limited Instead it seems a lot of trade with other civilizations happened instead based on things that have been found at both sites of Mesopotamia and the Indus River areas.
Found in Harpa What are they? 1 guess: weights used for controlling trade and collecting taxes.
2 major Religions develop in this area Hinduism Buddhism
The nomadic Aryan tribes seemed to start migrating in 2000BC. Their arrival to the Indus River Valley coincides with the fall of the civilization so they get blamed for the decline.
Religious beginnings Indus River meditation, karma, equality Aryans sacrifice to Gods, priests, rebirth, caste system, scripture (Vedas) Hinduism
The caste system (supposedly brought in by the Aryans)…is a rigid system of five social categories based on economic & social position
Modern day untouchables in India
Aryan and Harappan cultures began to learn from each other. Aryans learned farming and specializing in crafts. Harappans learned Aryan songs about how the world works.
The songs were were supposedly collected into a book called the Vedas also known as the "Books of Knowledge" in the Hindu faith. The Vedas books were the first building blocks of Hinduism and it told Hindus how to live. It said also that the world is run by many gods and goddesses.
Begins as a philosophy in Northern India about 624BC. Buddhism also comes from India
leaves his palace goes into the wilderness to meditate Finds enlightened while sitting under a tree (peace to all things) Becomes known as the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama 29 yr old Prince
By this time, India is a series of kingdoms
By 250 BC, the area has been united by the Mauryan
Converted from Brutal warrior to Buddhism Even outlawed hunting and violent sports Still remembered as one of the greatest Indian leaders ever. Asoka Credited with the spread of Buddhism
So, in closing, what happened to the Indus River Valley civilization in 1500 BC? Why did it seem to go away? Or did it? 1)Could the river have changed course, 2) Maybe the land was worn out? 3) Or near the end at 1500 BC was there a sudden catastrophe? 38 bodies were found in the ruins that were not buried. So they might have abandoned their city after a natural disaster or from attack from human enemies ??? Or …About the same time, the Aryans from the north of Hindu Kush mountain swept into the valley area.
Today’s Indian physicality is much like how the ancient Aryans were described.
What are the physical characteristics of the Indus River Valley? How did the physical characteristics of place affect the human characteristics that developed? How did natural barriers affect the development of the region and its geographic patterns? Think about and discuss...
Review your notes Complete the left-side column Insert headings: ex – geography, religion mark important points ex. Isolated, one/two religions Draw conclusions religious caste system controls social structure