Presentation on theme: "Elements of Surveying (CEL271)"— Presentation transcript:
1Elements of Surveying (CEL271) Gazala HabibDept. of Civil Engg.Contact:Room No. 303, Block-4Phone: 1192 (Office)
2Books Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1 Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S BhavikattiSurveying and levelling by N. N BasakPlane surveying A M ChandraSurveying (Vol-1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K. Jain
3Laboratory Lab timing for all group: 2-4 pm (Monday-Friday) Room Number: Block IV, 335Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)
4Attendance policyAll students must attend all classes. Attendance record will be maintained and will be periodically uploaded through the UG web-site.Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework, assignments and examsLaboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, vivaIf attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered.If a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For example, a student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be awarded A- grade.
5Marks, Exam, Assignment Lectures Lab Minor 1 10 Viva Minor 2 Surprise quizMajor30Notebook5Surprise Quiz (any number) + Assignments + HomeworkAttendance >= 90%Attendance (>=90%) + class participation (>=80% of time) means out of 10 question asked in class at least 8 should be correct
6Attendance Policy …Contd. If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board.If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family emergency alternatives will be arranged. For example if a person misses minor-1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical certificate immediately after re-joining the class and the re-minor will be conducted last working day of next week after minor-1.If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I-grade or an extended-I grade. HOD will approve I-grade based on his/her assessment of the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended-I grade and in that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of the next semester.
7Marks policyFull marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct answer.All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the students. Within 7-15 days after exam along with the model answer.The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The schedule will be group wise.Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of moderation.THEREFORE, NO INFORMATION WILL BE GIVEN ABOUT GRADING BEFORE THE MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING, AND NO CHANGES WILL BE DONE ONCE THE GRADE IS DISPLAYED AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERATION COMMITTEE’S SUGGESTIONS. [PLEASE DO NOT BEG TO CHANGE THE GRADE ONCE IT IS FINILIZED AFTER MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING]
8Surveying What is surveying? Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may then be represented in analog form as a contoured map, plan or chart, or in digital form as a three dimensional mathematical model stored in the computer.
9Objective of course To understand the basic concept of surveying Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real lifeYou should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems in an optimal wayYou should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of error) to avoid them
10Application of surveying in civil Engineering The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements.Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are• to fix the national and state boundaries;• to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;• to establish control points• to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and• to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.
11Instruments… Dumpy Level Digital level Levelling Staff Tilting Level Telescope is fixed cannot be tiltedor movedTelescope can be tilted slightly about its horizontal axis with the help of tilting screw.The line of collimation is made horizontal for each observation with the help of tilting screwInstrument can be levelled automatically within a certain tilt rangeDigital level
14Sewer Projects Firm under contract Preliminary studies General layout mapBuildings located on general layoutTreatment site searchPreliminary paper layoutMake sure every building and potential building site can be servedManhole system placed on general layout
15Sewer Projects Preliminary filed work Preliminary profiles BM system establishedManholes setProfiles runBasement elevations acquiredDesign mappingFinal plansTreatment areaBoundary surveyComplete topo of area
16Sewer Projects Design process Sewer line design Preliminary profiles drawnBasement elevations plottedManholes placed on profilesSlope between manholes computedProblem areas – alternate service routes selectedManholes set in fieldProfiles runRevert to 3A
17Sewer Projects Treatment plant design Plans drafted Topo map prepared Type system verifiedTreatment system sized based on existing and projected populationSystem designedPlans draftedSewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets
18Sewer Projects Bidding procedure Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross sectionsQuantities computedSpecificationsWritten instructions on how every item to be builtInclude contract documents and bid proposalBidding procedureNotice of bid advertised on local paperPre-bid meeting
19Sewer Projects Bidding Contract awarded Each contractor submits sealed bidBids opened and tabulatedEngineer reviews proposalsEngineer recommends which bid to acceptContract awarded
20Sewer Projects Construction As Built Surveying Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeoutManholes referencedStaking methodsBatter board methodLaser methodMeasurement of quantitiesAs Built
21Water distribution systems Put under contract – water district formedPreliminary studiesGeneral layout preparedWater district signs up usersWater source locatedWaterlines placed on general layoutHydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo
22Water distribution systems Pump station and water storage sitesProperty acquired by perpetual easement or purchasedBoundary survey performed for each siteTopo each siteField workPlan preparationNormally photogrammetricallyFlight plan sent on general layoutTake photos and post measure horizontal controlPlan sheets marked on photos using template
23Water distribution systems Waterlines placed on plan sheetsCrossings and easementsEvery location where waterline crosses paved road, railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to nearest stationing or milepostCrossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads, state DOT, township and county roadsEasement descriptions prepared
24Water distribution systems Final designAll waterlines and appurtenances on plans, easements, acquired and in docket form, rock excavation on plansQuantities computedSystem driven to make sure nothing missedTanks and P.S.Designed and sized
25Water distribution systems BiddingConstructionWater distribution systemWaterline stakeoutEach easement plotted on plansCrossings as permitted stakedQuantitiesTanks and PSFoundation stakedMust be checked for plumbAs built
26Architectural Projects Firm Under contractPreliminary fieldworkBoundary surveyDescription providedFieldworkMonument search, traverse siteCompute data and analysisFinal stakeoutEasement and encroachment searchPlat of survey
27Architectural Projects Topo – grid method most commonGrid pattern 25’ – 100’BM – USGSEntire tract topo and adjacent areas to accessUtilities – nearest tied inInclude all objects above, on or below, groundPrepare topo mapField check map
28Architectural Projects ConstructionControlIf large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on control Mon.StakeoutConvert architects dimensions to engineeringLayout clearing and excavation limitsLayout underground piping
29Architectural Projects Layout footings and foundationsLayout building corners and supportsLocate roads and parking areasLocate lighting and other project extrasAs built
30Structure and Terrain Movement Used to monitor:Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)Movement of bridgesMovement of damsLandslides and earthquakesAmusement park rides
31Structure and Terrain Movement Description – error within system must be less than smallest movement to be observed2 groups of monuments installedReference or control monumentsDeformation or movement monuments
32Structure and Terrain Movement Control – generally concrete pillars extending 3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach permanently attachedMovement monuments – for earthquake or landslide may be similar deep monuments
33Structure and Terrain Movement Equipment:GPSTurned anglesAngle/DistanceLeveling
34Classification of surveying: Based on function Primary division based on shape of the earthGeodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km2 geodic surveying must be employedPlane surveyClassification based on function of surveyControl surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of widely spaced control points using geodic method.Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of land.City surveying: urban planningTopographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including natural and man made featuresEngineering survey: for laying out engineering projects.Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways, canals, pipelines etc.Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has n=been done.
35Classification of surveying: Based on function Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars.Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust for geological studies.Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquityMine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide tunnelling and other operations associated with mining.Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite observations.Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.
36Classification of surveying: Based on instruments Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular measurements are takenCompass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic compassPlane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details on paper using a plane tableLevelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level.Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are measured with the help of theodolite.Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly.Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph.EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.
37Principles of surveying Fixing the points in relation to points already fixed
38Principle of surveying Working from whole to part:to localize the errors andto control the accumulation of errors.Establish primary control points with high precisionEstablish secondary and tertiary control points within the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may be with less precision.This will help in localizing the error and to control the propagation of error.