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Elements of Surveying (CEL271)

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Surveying (CEL271)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of Surveying (CEL271)
Gazala Habib Dept. of Civil Engg. Contact: Room No. 303, Block-4 Phone: 1192 (Office)

2 Books Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1
Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti Surveying and levelling by N. N Basak Plane surveying A M Chandra Surveying (Vol-1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K. Jain

3 Laboratory Lab timing for all group: 2-4 pm (Monday-Friday)
Room Number: Block IV, 335 Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)

4 Attendance policy All students must attend all classes. Attendance record will be maintained and will be periodically uploaded through the UG web-site. Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework, assignments and exams Laboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, viva If attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered. If a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For example, a student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be awarded A- grade.

5 Marks, Exam, Assignment Lectures Lab Minor 1 10 Viva Minor 2
Surprise quiz Major 30 Notebook 5 Surprise Quiz (any number) + Assignments + Homework Attendance >= 90% Attendance (>=90%) + class participation (>=80% of time) means out of 10 question asked in class at least 8 should be correct

6 Attendance Policy …Contd.
If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board. If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family emergency alternatives will be arranged. For example if a person misses minor-1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical certificate immediately after re-joining the class and the re-minor will be conducted last working day of next week after minor-1. If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I-grade or an extended-I grade. HOD will approve I-grade based on his/her assessment of the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended-I grade and in that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of the next semester.

7 Marks policy Full marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct answer. All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the students. Within 7-15 days after exam along with the model answer. The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The schedule will be group wise. Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of moderation. THEREFORE, NO INFORMATION WILL BE GIVEN ABOUT GRADING BEFORE THE MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING, AND NO CHANGES WILL BE DONE ONCE THE GRADE IS DISPLAYED AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERATION COMMITTEE’S SUGGESTIONS. [PLEASE DO NOT BEG TO CHANGE THE GRADE ONCE IT IS FINILIZED AFTER MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING]

8 Surveying What is surveying?
Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may then be represented in analog form as a contoured map, plan or chart, or in digital form as a three dimensional mathematical model stored in the computer.

9 Objective of course To understand the basic concept of surveying
Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real life You should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems in an optimal way You should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of error) to avoid them

10 Application of surveying in civil Engineering
The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements. Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects. Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are •  to fix the national and state boundaries; •  to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes; •  to establish control points •  to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and •  to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.

11 Instruments… Dumpy Level Digital level Levelling Staff Tilting Level
Telescope is fixed cannot be tilted or moved Telescope can be tilted slightly about its horizontal axis with the help of tilting screw. The line of collimation is made horizontal for each observation with the help of tilting screw Instrument can be levelled automatically within a certain tilt range Digital level

12 Levelling staff


14 Sewer Projects Firm under contract Preliminary studies
General layout map Buildings located on general layout Treatment site search Preliminary paper layout Make sure every building and potential building site can be served Manhole system placed on general layout

15 Sewer Projects Preliminary filed work Preliminary profiles
BM system established Manholes set Profiles run Basement elevations acquired Design mapping Final plans Treatment area Boundary survey Complete topo of area

16 Sewer Projects Design process Sewer line design
Preliminary profiles drawn Basement elevations plotted Manholes placed on profiles Slope between manholes computed Problem areas – alternate service routes selected Manholes set in field Profiles run Revert to 3A

17 Sewer Projects Treatment plant design Plans drafted Topo map prepared
Type system verified Treatment system sized based on existing and projected population System designed Plans drafted Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets

18 Sewer Projects Bidding procedure
Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross sections Quantities computed Specifications Written instructions on how every item to be built Include contract documents and bid proposal Bidding procedure Notice of bid advertised on local paper Pre-bid meeting

19 Sewer Projects Bidding Contract awarded
Each contractor submits sealed bid Bids opened and tabulated Engineer reviews proposals Engineer recommends which bid to accept Contract awarded

20 Sewer Projects Construction As Built Surveying
Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout Manholes referenced Staking methods Batter board method Laser method Measurement of quantities As Built

21 Water distribution systems
Put under contract – water district formed Preliminary studies General layout prepared Water district signs up users Water source located Waterlines placed on general layout Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo

22 Water distribution systems
Pump station and water storage sites Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased Boundary survey performed for each site Topo each site Field work Plan preparation Normally photogrammetrically Flight plan sent on general layout Take photos and post measure horizontal control Plan sheets marked on photos using template

23 Water distribution systems
Waterlines placed on plan sheets Crossings and easements Every location where waterline crosses paved road, railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to nearest stationing or milepost Crossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads, state DOT, township and county roads Easement descriptions prepared

24 Water distribution systems
Final design All waterlines and appurtenances on plans, easements, acquired and in docket form, rock excavation on plans Quantities computed System driven to make sure nothing missed Tanks and P.S. Designed and sized

25 Water distribution systems
Bidding Construction Water distribution system Waterline stakeout Each easement plotted on plans Crossings as permitted staked Quantities Tanks and PS Foundation staked Must be checked for plumb As built

26 Architectural Projects
Firm Under contract Preliminary fieldwork Boundary survey Description provided Fieldwork Monument search, traverse site Compute data and analysis Final stakeout Easement and encroachment search Plat of survey

27 Architectural Projects
Topo – grid method most common Grid pattern 25’ – 100’ BM – USGS Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access Utilities – nearest tied in Include all objects above, on or below, ground Prepare topo map Field check map

28 Architectural Projects
Construction Control If large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on control Mon. Stakeout Convert architects dimensions to engineering Layout clearing and excavation limits Layout underground piping

29 Architectural Projects
Layout footings and foundations Layout building corners and supports Locate roads and parking areas Locate lighting and other project extras As built

30 Structure and Terrain Movement
Used to monitor: Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z) Movement of bridges Movement of dams Landslides and earthquakes Amusement park rides

31 Structure and Terrain Movement
Description – error within system must be less than smallest movement to be observed 2 groups of monuments installed Reference or control monuments Deformation or movement monuments

32 Structure and Terrain Movement
Control – generally concrete pillars extending 3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach permanently attached Movement monuments – for earthquake or landslide may be similar deep monuments

33 Structure and Terrain Movement
Equipment: GPS Turned angles Angle/Distance Leveling

34 Classification of surveying: Based on function
Primary division based on shape of the earth Geodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km2 geodic surveying must be employed Plane survey Classification based on function of survey Control surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of widely spaced control points using geodic method. Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of land. City surveying: urban planning Topographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including natural and man made features Engineering survey: for laying out engineering projects. Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways, canals, pipelines etc. Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has n=been done.

35 Classification of surveying: Based on function
Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars. Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust for geological studies. Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquity Mine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide tunnelling and other operations associated with mining. Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite observations. Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.

36 Classification of surveying: Based on instruments
Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular measurements are taken Compass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic compass Plane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details on paper using a plane table Levelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level. Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are measured with the help of theodolite. Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly. Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph. EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.

37 Principles of surveying
Fixing the points in relation to points already fixed

38 Principle of surveying
Working from whole to part: to localize the errors and to control the accumulation of errors. Establish primary control points with high precision Establish secondary and tertiary control points within the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may be with less precision. This will help in localizing the error and to control the propagation of error.

39 Working from whole to part

40 Errors

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