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Remediation of Tetrachloroethylene DNAPL Contaminated Soils on Parris Island, South Carolina Randall Martin SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation.

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Presentation on theme: "Remediation of Tetrachloroethylene DNAPL Contaminated Soils on Parris Island, South Carolina Randall Martin SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Remediation of Tetrachloroethylene DNAPL Contaminated Soils on Parris Island, South Carolina Randall Martin SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation

2 Introduction What is Tetrachloroethylene- DNAPL Contaminated Site Previous Remediation Pilot Studies Suggested Remediation Technique Conclusion Parris Island, South Carolina (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)Vroblesky et.al., 2009

3 Tetrachloroethylene Known as PCE Chemical Formula C 2 Cl 4 Drying cleaning and degreasing Medical concerns Liver failure Renal Cancer Lympathic and hematopoitic cancer Ocular deterioration Drinking water 3 PPB (FL) Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid DNAPL Immobile Concentrated Spread Elusive Tetrachloroethylene, (Source: Wikimedia)Wikimedia

4 Parris Island History Purchased Navy Base Marines 1915 – Recruit Training Geology Barrier-island sand, silt, clay, organic layer Surficial Aquifer Hawthorne formation and Floridan aquifer Land use Buildings Ranges and training areas Population Military Civilian

5 Contaminated Site Site-45 Contamination 1994, dry cleaning facility Unknown Volume Krug et.al. (2010) – kg Concerns Areas of exposure Source of drinking water Class GB groundwater < PPM TDS MCL organic/inorganic contaminants Site 45, (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)Vroblesky et.al., 2009

6 Spread of Contaminants Orientation Northern plume Facility relocation Investigation and second plume Movement Storm sewers Sanitary sewers Tidal Influence Sewer system around Site 45, (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)Vroblesky et.al., 2009

7 Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2011Vroblesky et.al., 2011

8 DNAPL Remediation Strategies Natural Attenuation Bioaugmentation Biostimulation Pump and treat In situ chemical oxidation Excavation Steam injection Pyrolysis Combustion Emulsion injection Air sparging Flushing Thermal volatilization

9 Pump and Treat Initial Remediation 1998 Lateral spread Reduce concentration Intercept down gradient million gallons Discontinued 2000 Remove NAPL FIRST! Tailings McKinney & Lin (1996) Time vs. cost, 7 years Fewer larger flow rate wells Source: Mercer et.al., 1990Mercer et.al., 1990

10 Pilot Studies Emulsified Zero Valent Nanoscale Iron Aids in reduction Nanoscale potential DNAPL movement Emulsion=electron source Dehalocodcoides Dehalobacter Secondary contamination Results Su et.al. Direct injection & pneumatic injection DI – 85% reduction in PCE, mass flux Movement of contaminant Reduction in concentrations Ignorance of DNAPL Additional treatments Area of EZVI pilot study, (Source: Su et.al. (2012))Su et.al. (2012)

11 Steam and Air Co-Injection Process Co-injection of air Efficiencies Mobilize DNAPL Oxidation of solvents Permeability Volatilization of CVOC Health and Life Illustration of remediation process, (Source: Kaslusky & Udell, 2002)Kaslusky & Udell, 2002

12 Bioremediation Bioaugmentation Not necessary Dechlorinating microbes Biostimulation Organic layer Ethanol/vegetable oil Anaerobic conditions Mobilization of DNAPL Reduction in concentrations of CVOCs at 26 different sites (Source: McGuire et.al., 2006)McGuire et.al., 2006

13 Comparison Initial Remediation and Pilot Study Pump and treat Time frame Decades Emulsified nanoscale zero valent iron Indefinite quantities required Preferential flow Surface breakthrough Suggested Remedial Strategy Steam and air co-injection Time frame Application Mechanism of remediation Bioremediation Microbes presents Indestructability

14 Conclusions Steam and air co-injection Reduce environmental impact Increase rate of DNAPL removal Minimal process residue Bioremediation Natural presence Minimally affected by injections Low environmental impact

15 Visual Aid References Kaslusky, S. F., & Udell, K. S. (2002). A Theoretical Model of Air and Steam Co-Injection to Prevent the Downward Migration of DNAPLs During Steam-Enhanced Extraction. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 55(3), doi: /S (01) McGuire, T. M., McDade, J. M., & Newell, C. J. (2006). Performance of DNAPL Source Depletion Technologies at 59 Chlorinated Solvent‐Impacted Sites. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, 26(1), doi: /j x Mercer, J., D. Skipp, AND D. Griffin. Basic of Pump-and-Treat Groundwater Remediation Technology. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/8-90/003. Su, C., Puls, R. W., Krug, T. A., Watling, M. T., O'Hara, S.,K., Quinn, J. W., & Ruiz, N. E. (2012). A Two and Half- Year-Performance Evaluation of a Field Test on Treatment of Source Zone Tetrachloroethene and its Chlorinated Daughter Products Using Emulsified Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles. Water Research, 46(16), doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /j.watres Vroblesky, D. A., Geological Survey (U.S.), United States, Southeast, & Naval Facilities Engineering Command. (2009). Source, Transport, and Fate of Groundwater Contamination at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. (). Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Vroblesky, D. A., Petkewich, M. D., Lowery, M. A., & Landmeyer, J. E. (2011). Sewers as a Source and Sink of Chlorinated‐Solvent Groundwater Contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, 31(4), doi: /j x

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