● The key occupations have been selected from the EurOccupations extended list of occupations using several criteria: ● variation in skill level and ● ISCO major groups, ● variation in gender composition; ● the most frequent occupations (i.e., volume argument) and ‘ ● blurred’ occupations (e.g., managers, process operators, waiter).
List of occupations manufacturing Aircraft mechanic or service technician Metal molder or metal molding machine setter- operator Assembling helper Beverage production process operatorMetal production process operator Boring machine operatorPipe fitter CNC operatorPlant maintenance mechanic Confectionery makerPower production plant operator First line supervisor assembly line workersQuality assurance inspector First line supervisor manufacturing workersSewer, seamstress Lathe or turning machine tool setter-operatorSheet-metal worker Machine tool operatorWelder Meat processing machine operatorWood processing plant operator
Data collecting procedure Contact an expert Experts are expected to have knowledge about occupations or groups of occupations within the countries Email with a link to the chosen occupation- realted questionnaire Fullfiling the questionnaire www.euroccupations.org
Expert response rates for the cluster manufacturing BELGERUKFRAITANLPLSPTotal Aircraft mechanic or service technician 1135 Assembling helper Beverage production process operator 11 Boring machine operator CNC operator 123 Confectionery maker First line supervisor assembly line workers First line supervisor manufacturing workers Lathe or turning machine tool setter-operator Machine tool operator 112 Meat processing machine operator Metal molder or metal molding machine setter- operator Metal production process operator 112 Pipe fitter Plant maintenance mechanic Power production plant operator 123 Quality assurance inspector 11 Sewer, seamstress 516 Sheet-metal worker Welder 11 Wood processing plant operator 11
● channels, ● suggestions ● contacts ● methods ● techniques ● abracadabra and any other magic formula
Changes in occupations: ● increasing complexity in job content ● broader span of responsibility ● work with sophisticated equipment ● problem solving skills (without supervision)
Occupations with the largest job decline, 2006-16 (U.S. Department of Labor)
sewer ● do not formally supervise others or, if they do the number of supervisees is relatively small (1- 10 persons), ● their work involve coaching or training of less experienced co-workers on regular basis, ● some physical effort is generally required in this occupation,
● no, eventually some, mental effort is generally required in this occupation, ● sewers are involved in organisation of equipment and/ or material ● experts have not indicated any diploma, certification, or professional code requirements for this occupation sewer
● people working in this occupation have to update their knowledge and skills every year, ● the expert found of major importance : Initiating action, co-operating with colleagues, Applying know-how, professional expertise; problem solving, planning and organising, following instructions and procedures, dealing with contingencies; sewer
● people start working in this occupation via in- company dual-learning trajectories after completing formal education, ● different period is indicated to become competent in this occupation some experts put 1-3 months the others 6-12 months, sewer
● it is worth to stress that in some cases the opinions of the experts were quite opposite: i.e. “developing new procedures and working methods” was found to be of no, some and major importance for the occupation. sewer
Situation in manufacturing labour market ● productivity and output in manufacturing industries continue to grow ● manufacturing employment numbers drop in many countries ● shortage of high-skilled workers ● aging of manufacturing labour force (baby-bommers defined as population born between 1943 and1964 are about to leave the labour market)
Characteristics of manufacturing ● negative image in the eyes of younger workers ● no more perceived as a source of high-rewarded career ● other sectors provide attractive alternatives for talented young people, ● on one hand there is a shedding of workers in most parts of the world, n the other hand struggle to recruit skilled workers ● growth of service related occupations in manufacturing companies (sales, marketing, customer service, legal and financial service) ● short of talents
questions ● The trends are not universal for different countries. ● What are the driving forces for the changes in the different countries?
What we can expect in Europe? ● Increasing demand for highly and medium- skilled ● Losses offset by replacement demand
● If layoffs or reduced hiring are the order of the day, how relevant are concerns about talent shortages? Questions, problems to deal with…
● the demand for skills and formal qualifications is rising, but is true for all levels of occupations? ● Is it the demand reason for higher qualifications in lower level of occupations or overeducation? ● If the qualifications demanded by employers rise does it influence the national/sector/employment/educational regulatioins?
Questions, problems to deal with… ● Do job (occupations) titles give us any clue on educational/qualification requirements? ● What is the meaning of on-job experience?
● What sources of skills and knowledge are expected to succed in future? ● What are the expectations of changes in skill requirements? Questions, problems to deal with…