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April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon University of Notre Dame CSOnet: A Metropolitan Scale Wireless Sensor-Actuator Network M.D. Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon University of Notre Dame CSOnet: A Metropolitan Scale Wireless Sensor-Actuator Network M.D. Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon University of Notre Dame CSOnet: A Metropolitan Scale Wireless Sensor-Actuator Network M.D. Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame L. Montestruque EmNet LLC, Granger, Indiana MODUS Workshop - St. Louis, Missouri - April 21, 2008.

2 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Outline Combined Sewer Overflow Problem Distributed in-line Storage Strategy CSOnet  Ad hoc wireless sensor actuator network  Notre Dame, EmNet LLC, Purdue, City of South Bend,Greeley-Hansen Indiana’s 21st Century Technology Fund System Architecture  Hardware/Middleware Components  Control Application Algorithms Current Status  Miami-Ireland Prototype (2005)  100+ sensor node deployment (2008)  Completion of actuator deployment (2009)

3 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Combined Sewer Overflow Events Dry Weather South Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant Combined Sewer Overflow St. Joseph River Overflow During Wet Weather Wet Weather Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events occur when a municipality dumps untreated water from combined storm and sanitary sewer flows into a river/stream. “Such ‘exceedances’ can pose risk to human health, threaten aquatic life and its habitat, and impair the use and enjoyment of the Nation’s waterways.” EPA fines for CSO events CSO Control Act - Fines are Significant Problem is Large-scale Over 772 cities nationwide EPA, “Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy,” April 19, (www.epa.gov) Interceptor Sewer

4 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Solution Strategies Sewer Separation Off-line Storage Tunnels Chicago’s TARP project Expansion of WWTP These strategies all require significant investment in new infrastructure

5 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame In-line Storage Take advantage of excess capacity in existing sewer system. Centralized Approach  Sensors measure storm inflow and forward to WWTP  WWTP forwards “control” decisions to valves CSOnet Decentralized Approach  Ad hoc sensor-actuator network  Local decision making St Joseph River CS Trunk Line WWTP Interceptor Sewer CSO Outfall CS Trunk Line Advantages of CSOnet  Reduced Cost  Scalable Performance  Fault Tolerance

6 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Ireland/Miami Network (Summer 2005) 7 Relay Rnodes (radios) 3 Instrumentation Inodes (sensors) 1 Gateway Gnode connect to the internet Automated valve Network is fully deployed and operational R R R R R RR I I I G V Prototype system controls retention basin based on flow measurements at CSO 22 diversion structure First month of service the system prevented 2 million gallon CSO discharge Continuous operation since summer Retention Basin Combined Sewer Trunk Line CSO 22 Diversion Point I R V G CSO22 Area Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

7 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame CSOnet System Components INode: sensor measurements, battery powered, can be placed in manhole. RNode: in charge of forwarding INode messages to other nodes, battery or solar powered. Current range: 1,000-2,500 ft, depending on line of sight clarity. GNode: can connect to ethernet based network or cellular network, access to wireless network, controls structures. Slide provided by ourtesy of EmNet LLC

8 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame CSOnet Inode Emplacement Manhole Cover Antenna Stoplight Pole Inode Sensor Deployment plate Rnode To next Rnode microprocessor Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

9 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Integration of processor, radio transceiver, and antenna into manhole cover  William Chappell - Purdue Ceramic modules Manhole is extremely corrosive environment Initial prototypes “rusted” away with a few months Smart Manhole Cover Slide provided by courtesy of Bill Chappell (Purdue)

10 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Chasqui Node Chasqui 1.0 Chasqui 1.1 Chasqui 2.0 Chasqui 2.0 with antenna Based on UCB Mica2 Module MaxStream Radio (115 kbps/900 MHz) Rugged Sensor-Actuator I/F Precision Real-time Clock (2ppm drift) Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

11 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame 11 Power Management Management of system duty cycle Management of system duty cycle  2 percent duty cycle - 5 minute period  During sleep cycle, microprocessor put into deep sleep mode. External timer is used to wake the system back up Requires tight “clock” synchronization Requires tight “clock” synchronization  Chasqui uses Dallas DS3231 RTC with 2 ppm drift.  Resync network clocks every six hours Chasqui service lifetime Chasqui service lifetime  2 years between service  3.6 volt - 19 amp-hour lithium source  Currently more cost effective to replace batteries than to use renewable power systems such as solar. ON ASLEEP ON

12 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame 12 Communication Physical layer Physical layer  Maxstream Radio  900 MHz, 1Watt, FHSS, 115kbps  range in urban environment GNODE serves as beacon GNODE serves as beacon  Routing tables built up using flooding protocol  Messages forwarded to GNODE  Multiple destinations High Reliability High Reliability  95% over 8 hops  Positive acknowledgements  Adaptive link switching GNODE connects to Internet GNODE connects to Internet  Wired ethernet  Cellular telephone

13 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Wireless Reprogramming “Stream” Reprogramming protocol developed by Dr Saurabh Bagchi (Purdue) Less overhead than Deluge Stream segments the program image into Stream-RS (Stream Reprogramming Support) and Stream-AS (Stream Application Support) Stream-RS  Core reprogramming component  Preinstalled, before deployment, in all nodes Stream-AS  A small subset of reprogramming component that is attached to the user application  Instead of wirelessly transferring through the network user application plus the entire reprogramming component, Stream transfers Stream-AS plus the user application Program memory Currently executing program Flash Stream-RS (Image-0) Stream-AS + User application (Image-1) Unused portion Slide provided by ourtesy of Saurabh Bagchi (Purdue)

14 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Actuators Cabinet or Traffic Signal GNode INode Sensor Stilling Well Manhole Cover Antenna Weir Sensor Stilling Well Larger Parallel Throttle Line Actuated Valve Combined Sewer Trunkline Interceptor Line Conduit Overflow Line Actuated Valve Pneumatic Bladder Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

15 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame St Joseph River CS Trunk Line WWTP CSO Diversion Structure Interceptor Sewer CSO Outfall Distributed Real-time Control Model Variables  w i = storm inflow  O i = overflow  u i = diverted flow  H i = water height (head)  Q I = pipe flow rate w1w1 w2w2 w i-1 wiwi w i+1 wNwN O1O1 O2O2 O i-1 OiOi O i+1 ONON u1u1 u2u2 u i-1 uiui u i+1 uNuN Q1Q1 Q i-1 QiQi QNQN H1H1 H2H2 H i-1 HiHi H i+1 HNHN H N+1 Maximize “diverted flow” Subject to:  Conservation of Mass  Conservation of Momentum  Admissible control  No flooding  WWTP capacity limit Optimal Control Problem            j j i ii iiii iiii N i T ii u uQ HH wu QkHH QQuH dttuc i 0 0 subject to )( max 

16 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Distributed Control Strategy Solution to Previous “optimal” control problem  Open valves until “flooding” constraint is active  Then reduce diverted inflow to prevent violation of flooding constraint  Distributed Implementation Local controller enforces flooding constraint  2-3 order dynamical model of each node  Local regulation only using pressure feedack is sufficient to ensure overall system stability HEIGHT TIME FLOODING CONSTRAINT ACTIVE INODE Pressure Sensor (water height) VALVE STORM FLOW OVERFLOW UPSTREAM TOTAL FLOW DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE

17 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Simulation Results 1. Two Week Storm (80%) (0.485” of rain in 11 hrs) 2. One Month Storm (90%) (0.799” of rain in 13 hrs) 3. One Year Storm (99%) (2.046” of rain in 19 hrs ) StormExisting System Overflow (ft3 x 10 6 ) Controlled System Overflow (ft3 x 10 6 ) Overflow Volume Decrease (ft3 x 10 6 ) Overflow Decrease (%) Storm % Storm % Storm % Table A. Scenario A—Moving Uniform Rainfall

18 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame 18 South Bend CSOnet PHASE 1: (summer 2008) Monitor 36 outfalls, 27 interceptor locations, 42 trunkline locations, and 5 basins Monitor 36 outfalls, 27 interceptor locations, 42 trunkline locations, and 5 basins PHASE 2: (summer 2009) Control at least 18 outfalls Control at least 18 outfalls Control storage in retention basins Control storage in retention basins Control remediation pumps wet weather discharges Control remediation pumps wet weather discharges Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

19 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame 19 CSOnet concept Internet CSOnet Sensor – I Node Data Acquisition Point - GNode Wastewater Treatment Plant City Engineer Slide provided by ourtesy of EmNet LLC

20 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame CSOnet Website Overflow Event Sensor Location Slide provided by courtesy of EmNet LLC

21 April 21, 2008 Michael Lemmon Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame Cyber-Physical Systems Cy-Phy Systems are “large-scale” systems integrating computation and networking to manage a “physical system” Scalability and Complexity  Performance spanning Multiple time/spatial scales  Testbed based on private, public, and academic sector collaborations MODULAR (compositional) design and analysis  But not achieved through a “separation of concerns” FEEDBACK will be an essential principle of CPS  powerful principle in cellular networks  Cy-Phy Systems are the signaling cascades of our civil society CSOnet is an example of a Cyber-Physical System used in the Management of Critical Infrastructure


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