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Water. Water Distribution Water use in the US in 2000.

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Presentation on theme: "Water. Water Distribution Water use in the US in 2000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water

2 Water Distribution

3 Water use in the US in 2000

4 The Water Cycle Transpiration (plants)

5 Parts of a River Collection TransportationDispersal

6 Dendritic

7 Dendritic Pic - Yemen Dendritic pattern Yemen

8 Radial

9 Rectangular Limestone Bedrock: Naturally fractures into squares & rectangles

10 Trellis Common in the Appalachians where rivers have cut through parallel ridgelines.

11 Drainage Basin

12 Drainage Basin II

13 Mississippi Basin

14 Delta Development Distributary Water coming down a river hits the ocean; gradient goes to zero Sediment is deposited; channel eventually fills River jump its banks and takes a new course Process repeats Very common in deltas

15 Delta Development II

16 Mississippi Distributaries Mississippi River Delta

17 Mature Deltas

18 Mississippi Delta Left to its own devices, the Mississippi would now be flowing down the Atchafalaya Basin. Oil refineries line the Mississippi

19 Atchafalaya Atchafalaya River Embankment Mississippi

20 New Orleans

21 Hurricane Threat -- very real

22 Eroding defenses

23 Rivers are complex systems influenced by number of things, which are: - discharge - velocity - gradient - sediment load - base level River Dynamics

24 Stream Discharge - amount of water passing by a given point during a specific time interval - measured in cubic meters/second

25 Discharge Station

26 Velocity

27 Meanders

28 Cut Bank

29 Meandering

30 Oxbow Lakes

31 Oxbows

32 Oxbows II NE/SD border

33 Slope

34 Sediment Load - fine particles are moved in suspension, never touching the ground (suspended load) - silt & clay giving the water a muddy look - coarse particles are moved by traction along the stream bed, jumping along (bed load) - move by saltation: short leaps as a strong current picks them up and moves them a short distance % of the total sediment load, on average. - abrasion between particles causing them to wear, smoothing them and forming round pebbles and stones. - also wears away the stream channel along the sides and bottom of the channel. - dissolved materials are carried along in solution (dissolved load) - invisible chemical ions

35

36 Mississippi Sediment

37 Base Level The lowest elevation (depth) to which a river can erode its bed.

38 Base Level II

39 Stream Maturity Youthful Mature Old Age

40 Old Age River

41 Flooded River Levees occur when active deposition takes place along the banks of an older river when it is in a flood. Each time this happens the banks get higher forming a natural levee -- a barrier to future flooding.

42 Natural Levee River channel Levees

43 Urban Runoff More pavement = dramatically increased runoff rates

44 Levee If the river doesn’t flood, sediment is deposited on the river bed; causes water level to rise

45 Concrete Paving Smooth bottom = less friction = fast-moving water = less sediment deposition

46 Levee Breech

47 Dams Siltation

48 Wastewater 15,000,000 people. All pavement. 50 inches of precipitation per year. Where does all the water go?

49 Urban sewer system Many urban sewer systems are outdated

50 Wilmington, Delaware Wilmington

51 Delaware Streams

52 Storm Sewer Runoff

53 Raw untreated sewage

54 “IOWA'S BEACHES WILL STAY OPEN THIS YEAR.EVEN IF THEY *ARE* POLLUTED WITH FECAL BACTERIA.THE IOWA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES SAYS THE BEACHES AT STATE PARKS ARE TOO POPULAR AND VALUABLE TO IOWANS TO CLOSE THEM WHEN THERE ISN'T CLEAR EVIDENCE OF A HEALTH RISK.LAST YEAR, EMERSON BAY IN LAKE OKOBOJI WAS ONE OF SEVERAL BEACHES CLOSED.THE D-N-R SAYS THIS YEAR THE STATE WILL POST WARNING SIGNS INSTEAD.WORKERS WILL BASE THEIR FINDINGS ONLY ON TESTS FOR FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA.LAST YEAR, THE STATE CONSIDERED THREE DIFFERENT BACTERIAS.THE D-N-R SAYS IT CONSULTED HEALTH OFFICIALS BEFORE DECIDING THAT USING THREE WAS CONFUSING AND CUMBERSOME.” KMEG News: Storm Lake, IA

55 Alesund, Norway

56 Wastewater Treatment

57 Toxic Runoff

58 Acid Drainage Summitville, CO: All aquatic life absent for 17 miles away from mine.

59 How bad is it?


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