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Water Works By: Tabitha Isham Mark Hartman Kim Bracher Kristine Newton.

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1 Water Works By: Tabitha Isham Mark Hartman Kim Bracher Kristine Newton

2 Agenda Global, National, and Local Statistics
Global Sanitation Problems Sewer and Wastewater Management Local Players and Roles Sustainability and Conservation Connections to our Education Wrap it up!

3 Global Outlook Available Fresh Water
Of all water on earth, 97.5% is salt water Of the remaining 2.5% of fresh water; 70% is frozen in the polar icecaps. 30% is mostly present as soil moisture or lies in underground aquifers. Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (or about 0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human uses. Food for thought: If all the earth's water fit in a gallon jug, available fresh water would equal just over a tablespoon.

4 Global Issues Approximately 60 to 70% of the rural population in the developing world have neither access to a safe and convenient source of water nor a satisfactory means of waste disposal. Presently, 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supply and 2.4 billion to improved sanitation. The number of people who are projected to lack access to improved water supply could increase to 2.3 billion by 2025.

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6 A Little Perspective The average American individual uses 100 to 176 gallons of water at home each day. The average African family uses about 5 gallons of water each day. 

7 How the general public sees our water system

8 National Outlook Estimates of water use in the United States indicate that about 408 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d) were withdrawn for all uses during 2000. Fresh ground-water withdrawals (83.3 Bgal/d) during 2000 were 14% higher than in 1985. Fresh surface-water withdrawals for 2000 were 262 Bgal/d, varying less than 2 percent since 1985.

9 Cont. Irrigation remained the largest use of freshwater in the United States and totaled 137 Bgal/d for 2000. Since 1950, irrigation has accounted for about 65% of total water withdrawals. Historically, more surface water than ground water has been used for irrigation. However, the percentage of total irrigation withdrawals from ground water has continued to increase, from 23 percent in 1950 to 42 percent in 2000.

10 National Comparisons 1950 Public-supply withdrawals were 14 Bgal/d. 62% of the population in the US obtained drinking water from public suppliers. Surface water provided 74% of US drinking water. 2000 Public-supply withdrawals were more than 43 Bgal/d. 85% of the population in the US obtained drinking water from public suppliers. Surface water provided 63% of US drinking water.

11 Extensive withdrawals of ground water leads to land subsidence:

12 Estimates in the blue table and red table (next slide) show total withdrawals increased steadily from 1950 to 1980, declined more than 9 percent from 1980 to 1985, and have varied less than 3 percent between the 5-year intervals since Total withdrawals peaked during 1980, although total U.S. population has increased steadily since Estimates of water use peaked during 1980 because of large industrial, irrigation, and thermoelectric-power withdrawals. Total withdrawals for 2000 were similar to the 1990 total withdrawals, although population had increased 13 percent since 1990.

13 Thermoelectric power has been the category with the largest water withdrawals since 1965, and for 2000 comprised 48 percent of total withdrawals. Withdrawals by thermoelectric-power plants increased from 40 Bgal/d during 1950 to 210 Bgal/d during 1980. Withdrawals for thermoelectric power declined and then stabilized since 1980; the total withdrawal of 195 Bgal/d for 2000 is the same as the total withdrawal for 1990. This is due to the more widespread use of closed loop systems of cooling, rather than the older once through system

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17 http://pangea. stanford

18 Lee County Water Consumption and Use
Every person uses 175 Gallons of Water Per Day. Twice the National Average ½ Water Used For Irrigation of Landscapes and Golf Course. SFWMD 2007

19 Lee County Water Supply
Rainfall= 90% Of Water Supply Transported through Watershed “Water Supply”

20 Septic Tank Design

21 What is a septic system? State of Florida refers to a septic system as an Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal System or OSTDS. In 1997 the US Environmental Protection Agency publicly recognized “onsite systems… as potentially viable, low-cost, long-term, decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment if they are planned, designed, installed, operated, and maintained properly.” Florida Department of Health’s Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs or

22 How does a septic tank work?
Septic tanks are near the house, below ground, in the front yard. They are concrete and act as a holding chamber for all liquid and solid waste. Once in the septic tank, solids sink to the bottom and the liquids drain into a series of perforated pipes about 2’ below the surface. Liquids seep into the soil where microbes digest the organic material and plants are able to absorb the nutrients.

23 Continued…. By this method, human waste is transformed into carbon dioxide, water and biomass of bacteria and plants. This is why you may notice grass is greener, grows taller or trees planted nearby grow better!

24 Oh, then what? Out of sight out of mind?
NO, eventually the tank gets full. Every 5+ years the homeowner will need to hire a contractor to come out and pump the septic tank. (the less paper you use and not flushing sanitary items will lengthen the time between pumping) Where does it go then? The solids pumped out go to a treatment plant.

25 Wastewater Treatment Plant in VA

26 Sewer Pipes (city option)
When you have an area with many homes clustered together it becomes a better option to service them with a main sewer line. Main sewer pipes run along the length of the road, with the individual home installing a lateral pipe to ‘plug into’ the main.

27 Sewer Line The lateral pipe takes the waste to the main line.
Gravity moves the solid waste from the house through the sewers to a sewage treatment plant. Pumping stations along the way ensure a steady flow. At the treatment plant the wastewater undergoes several processes before it can be returned to the water cycle.

28 City of Cape Coral Sewer Mains
The first step in the construction process is to remove the existing road surface. Next, the existing water table must be lowered to facilitate digging in the immediate area. A series of shallow well points will be installed and the water pumped to a nearby canal.

29 Continued… Barriers will be constructed to minimize the sound produced by the pumps, which will oftentimes be running around the clock. Gravity sewer lines and manholes are installed under the streets. They range in depth from 4 feet to almost 20 feet down. Since these lines are deeper, progress is slower and disruption is greater for sewer than for water and secondary water.

30 Process continued.. Safety standards require sloping these trenches. Trench boxes will be used for the deeper excavations, but in many cases the entire width of the road will be dug up The water and secondary water lines are then installed. These lines are much shallower and are installed in much narrower trenches along either side of the road.

31 Almost done! In some cases, the driveways will need to be cut in order to install these shallow lines. A narrow trench will be made and a temporary gravel repair will be provided at the end of the workday The final driveway repair will consist of removal and replacement of a minimum of 3 feet of driveway apron. Additional reinforcing steel will also be installed to beef up the corners. 

32 Viola! Finished Product
This is a picture of final restoration completed on the North Loop project For undeveloped lots, seeding and mulching are provided instead of sod.

33 The hook up after the lines are in, another homeowner expense.
After the actual construction of the utility lines is finished the post construction phase begins. This is a very important time for individual residents. Remember—the City lines stop at the right-of-way, therefore, owners are responsible for connecting their houses to the City’s line. Once our construction is complete, property owners will receive a notice that they should proceed with hooking up the City lines.

34 Permitting Required The first step is applying to the City Customer Service Division for permits for water and wastewater hook-ups and septic tank abandonment.

35 Process ends with City and County Inspection
Once permits are obtained, property owners may have a licensed plumber make the water and wastewater connection and the required septic system abandonment. When complete, your new connections must be inspected by the City, and Lee County must inspect your septic tank.

36 Looks and Sounds Great! Why doesn’t every area with housing do this up front, no septic tank?
Well, its expensive. Without a certain number of homes to share the assessments cost the city cannot afford to do the construction. However, once the home is built and financing is secured, the city forces the assessment. The Cape was broken down into areas, with each area waiting for a certain population before beginning the process. Some of the north cape is still not slated until 2017.

37 The benefits of Sewer main lines
“Flush toilets and sewers are generally the safest, most convenient, most easily maintained forms of provision in urban areas for homes, schools, workplaces, and public places. They provide public health advantages by reducing the risk of human contact with excreta and preventing groundwater contamination.”-- SOW

38 Something is better than nothing
Seeking to reach everyone with adequate provisions does not necessarily mean reaching everyone with the same form of provision. It is much better to have well-managed cheaper provisions in low-income areas than no provision at all---well-managed communal taps, for instance, rather than house connections. SOW The text notes that in many poorer urban areas where facilities are badly needed there is no local agency to provide the needed design, implementation, management, and financing of such a project.

39 Low end options A pit latrine may be an option for some areas where there people have to defecate in the open. It could be easily built and managed be a family without the aid of an external agency. (what goes into the pit doesn’t necessarily stay in the pit. The excreta can leak into the ground contaminating the water supply, but this is still a better cleaner option than going on the side of the road without toilet paper)

40 Different Sanitation Options and Costs based on U. N
Different Sanitation Options and Costs based on U.N. Development Program, Human Development Report 2006 Flush toilet connected to sewer or septic tank within each home, with piped water for washing “Improved” latrine (controls smell better) within each home Basic latrine Access to public toilet or latrine Open defecation $ $40-260 $10-50 12-40 $0

41 Reclaimed Water, a great conservation tool
Up to 50 percent of a community's drinking water is used for irrigation. Much of this irrigation water could be replaced with reclaimed water. Reclaimed water is a clear and odorless high-quality water source for industrial and irrigation needs.

42 Appropriate Uses It can be used for: Irrigation
Street-sweeping operations Power generation Decorative fountains Fire protection (purple fire hydrants) Dust control Aquifer recharge Cooling or makeup water for a variety of industrial processes Natural system restoration

43 Inappropriate uses it can’t be used for:
Body-contact recreation (including swimming pools) Cooking or drinking Irrigating vegetable and herb gardens (unless a drip or bubbler system is used)

44 The wastewater to reclaimed water process
Screens and other processes remove sand & debris Sedimentation removes large solids Microorganisms break down organic materials Clarifiers remove microorganisms and remaining solids Filtering makes water clear Disinfection, usually with chlorine, kills the remaining microorganisms

45 Benefits of using reclaimed water
Costs less than drinking water Reduces fertilizer use, as some nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous remain Reduces stress on drinking water supplies Reduces disposal into waterways, which can help reduce nutrient loads in bays and rivers

46 Growth of Reuse in Florida
1986 The reuse capacity of Florida's domestic wastewater treatment facilities was 362 million gallons per day (MGD). 2001 The reuse capacity of Florida’s domestic wastewater treatment facilities was 1,151 MGD.

47 Reclaimed water in use (2005)
Reclaimed water use in the District (for 2005) More than 45 percent (159 mgd) of wastewater in our area is reused. Six local power plants use reclaimed water as cooling water. Over 160 area golf courses irrigate with reclaimed water. Almost 9,000 acres of mostly citrus crops are irrigated with reclaimed water. About 78,000 residential customers in our area irrigate with reclaimed water. Statistics Reuse grant funding since 1987: $225 million Miles of reuse mains: 858 Capacity of funded projects: 219 mgd Daily use: 183 mgd Alternative water supply grant funding since 1996: $317 million

48 Reuse Trends in Florida
Approximately 584 million gallons per day MGD of reclaimed water were reused for beneficial purposes in 2001. Top 12 Reuse counties in Florida (2001): Collier #1 with 89% of wastewater reused or gallons/day/person Lee #7 with 88% of wastewater reused or gallons/day/person

49 Who is not on board with water reuse
Of the bottom 12 Reuse Counties in Florida: Miami-Dade is #1 with only 6% of their wastewater being reused. Broward is #5 with 5% reuse Miami-Dade and Broward Counties contain over 24% of Florida’s population and generate 33% of the state’s domestic wastewater. Yet they account for less than 4% of all reuse capacity in the state.

50 Still Living Without the Basics in the 21st Century
Today only .64% of U.S. households lack complete plumbing facilities. This is a monumental leap from 1950, when more than one-fourth of the nation, and more than half of all rural residents, lacked those facilities.

51 SWFWMD Study Study Evaluates Water Rates
Four Florida water management districts recently funded the largest study ever conducted of how water rates affect single-family residential water use. Participating utilities included: Cities: Lakeland, Melbourne, Ocoee, Palm Coast, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee and Tampa; Counties: Escambia, Hernando, Hillsborough, Indian River, Palm Beach, Sarasota and Seminole; Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department; Toho Water Authority.

52 As cost increases, use decreases

53 How can You get involved?
Become a member of a citizen advocacy group, write your senator, spread awareness, educate others….

54 CleanWaterAmerica.org Clean Water America (CWA) is the largest national coalition solely dedicated to advocating on behalf of a long-term and sustainable local-state-federal partnership to ensure clean and safe water. Thanks to the hard work of Clean Water America along with its hundreds of thousands of allies, the Water Quality Financing Act of 2007 (HR 720) has overwhelmingly passed the U.S. House of Representatives. We urge the U.S. Senate to, as quickly as possible, take up this legislation which is a critical step in improving and protecting America's water quality.

55 The Water Infrastructure Network
The Water Infrastructure Network (WIN) is a broad-based coalition of local elected officials, drinking water and wastewater service providers, state environmental and health administrators, engineers and environmentalists dedicated to preserving and protecting the health, environmental and economic gains that America's drinking water and wastewater infrastructure provides.

56 http://www.nacwa.org/ The National Association of Clean Water Agencies
NACWA represents the interests of over 300 public agencies and organizations that have made the pursuit of scientifically based, technically sound and cost effective laws and regulations their objective. NACWA members serve the majority of the sewered population in the United States and collectively treat and reclaim more than 18 billion gallons of wastewater daily. NACWA maintains a key role in the development of environmental legislation, and works closely with federal regulatory agencies in the implementation of environmental programs. ...Read more about NACWA

57 South Florida Water Management District
16 Counties Five Water Management Districts 6 Million Residents Oldest Regional Water Supplier Since 1949

58 SFWMD Governing Board Members
Eric Buermann (Chairman)- Miami-Dade County Michael Collins- St.Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach & Monroe Counties Shannon Estenoz- Broward County Nicolas J. Gutierrez- Miami-Dade County Melissa Meeker- St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Martin, Miami-Dade, Broward and Monroe Counties. Patrick Rooney- Palm Beach County Harkley Thorton- Glades, Highlands, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola & Polk Counties Malcolm Wade- Collier, Lee, Charlotte, Hendry, Glades, Osceola and Okeechobee Counties Charles Dauray- Lee, Collier, Hendry & Charlotte Counties

59 Charles Duaray Governing Board Member
Why Duaray Was Elected Controversy His Goals and Background Koreshan “I am not an environmentalist, I’m a conservationist, I have found that most environmentalists think man is the enemy of nature. A conservationist thinks man is an integral part of nature.” Duaray

60 South Florida Water Management District Funding
Received the GFOA’s Special Capital Recognition: proficient integration of capital information into an operating budget. SFWMD

61 Lee County Utilities Annual Budget for 2006: $100,273,484
Funding: Ad Valorum Taxes 2006: $298,104,264 (Solidwaste & User Fees)

62 Lee County Commissioners
Lee County has about 600,000 residents, living in 22 communities on 811 square miles. The county is run by this five-member board of commissioners, who are elected by all of the voters, but who represent specific districts. District 1 Bob Janes District 2 Brian Bigelow District 3 Ray Judah District 4 Tammy Hall District 5 Frank Mann

63 Everglades Problem Global Sustainability Restoration Plan: Funding
Watershed Lake Okeechobee Global Sustainability Restoration Plan: Funding State Funds: $84 Million since 1993 Save the Everglades Trust Fund $2 Billion SFWMD

64 South Florida Water Management District
16 Counties Five Water Management Districts 6 Million Residents Oldest Regional Water Supplier Since 1949

65 Current Problems Drought Rising Water Levels
Lake Okeechobee Low water Levels Currently Approximately 4’ Historical Low Water Cannot Flow Through Existing Structures in Watershed Rising Water Levels EPA Predicts Centimeters by 2025 Cause: Rise in Earths Temperature by .6° Development: Must Lower Emissions by 2025 Cut Sea Level Rise in Half Global Issue: Global Warming SFWMD Commondreams.com

66 Water Levels Do we want to continue development here?
EPA sea levels could rise centimeters by 2025. Florida's shoreline about 18,000 years ago Florida's shoreline today (in 2005) Florida's shoreline after about a 5 meter rise in sea level. Florida's shoreline after about a 50 meter rise in sea level.

67 What is Sustainable Development?
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Our Common Future

68 What we’re doing locally to maintain a sustainable environment.
Emergency Management Planning Creates solutions for emergencies such as hurricanes and droughts. Ex. This years droughts has created need for water restrictions and permits Limits water withdrawals by residents, businesses, agriculture, and utility plants. Environmental Monitoring Real-time data is combined with historical data to help SFWMD make informed water resource management decisions. Monitored information about how natural and man-made systems are working (or not working) is essential to short and long-term water resource management and restoration.

69 Cont… Environmental Resource Permits Simulation Modeling
Ensures the protection of the supply and quality of our water resources by regulating the management and storage of surface waters and the dredging or filling of wetlands. They also regulate ground and surface water withdrawals. Simulation Modeling measure the possible effects of a variety of impacts on various complex systems. With the use of the virtual world, SFWMD takes both current and historical data and applies it to environmental trends. What they see will help them make decisions that will hopefully reverse poor conditions and make good conditions even greater.

70 Water Regulations Basic Permitting Water Restrictions
“Protect the supply and the quality of water resources by regulating the management and storage of surface waters and the dredging of filling of wetlands with Environmental Resource Permits” -SFWMD Basic Permitting ROW: Protect SFWMD rights to use canal and levee rights of way “Works if the District”: Allows property owners to reduce nutirnet/pollution flows to conservation areas. Water Restrictions Lee County Phase II: Alternating watering days. No outdoor water use on Mon., Tues., Fri. SFWMD

71 Water Restriction Areas

72 Water Incentive Programs
Locals and Businesses Variable Water Prices As volume of use increases for residential use the cost goes up SFWMD- Requires reclaimed water use for irrigation Education- Pamphlets, booklets and advertisements Tillman 2007

73 How can we help? Support Local Non-Profit Organizations
Educate Low-Income Urbanized Areas How To: Create sanitized water supply Create Sewer Systems- Financial Support To Help: Create sewer systems Pay for Educational Services “The best system for providing water remains a city-wide piped network supplying as many households and other buildings as possible with in-house piped connections” State of the World

74 Simple Conservation Take shorter showers.
Turn of the water when brushing your teeth. Use less water when watering the grass. Wash full loads in the dish washer and washing machines. Repair old and leaky fixtures. Install low-flow toilets and showerheads.

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76 How Our Majors Affect Water Issues
Mark Hartman- Marine Science Kim Bracher- Psychology Tabitha Isham- Management Kristine Newton- Communications

77 Water Across the Globe “Presently, 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supply and 2.4 billion to improved sanitation.” We are fortunate to live in SW Florida

78 References http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/
State of the World, Our Urban Future (2007)

79 U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet "Water Q&A: Water Use at Home"
References Churchill, A. et al, "Rural Water Supply and Sanitation: Time for a Change," World Bank Discussion Papers 18, The World Bank, Washington DC. [cited in: Mancy, K., "A New Perspective on Rural Water Supply and Sanitation," Water Science and Technology, 27(9):1-5.] Perlman, Howard . "Public-supply water use." Water Science for Schools. 05 Apr U.S.G.S.. 5 Jul 2007 <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wups.html>. "Trends in Water Use, 1950—2000." Estimated Use of Water in the United States in U.S.G.S.. 5 Jul 2007 <http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-trends.html>. UN World Water Development Report - Water for People Water for Life. (March 2003) U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet "Water Q&A: Water Use at Home" Walker, Dave. "Water Cartoon." The Cartoon Blog. 26 Jun Jul 2007 <http://www.cartoonchurch.com/blog/2006/06/26/water-cartoon/>. "Water Data From the Worlds Water." The Worlds Water Pacific Institute. 5 Jul 2007 <http://www.worldwater.org/data.html>. World Commission on Water for the 21st Century, "The Poor Pay Much More for Water. . . Use Much Less -- Often Contaminated". World Resources Institute, and "A Guide to the Global Environment.”


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