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5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Marathon Site Marathon Battery Cold Spring, NY CERCLA Cleanup Project Goals Project Description Competitive.

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Presentation on theme: "5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Marathon Site Marathon Battery Cold Spring, NY CERCLA Cleanup Project Goals Project Description Competitive."— Presentation transcript:

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2 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Marathon Site Marathon Battery Cold Spring, NY CERCLA Cleanup Project Goals Project Description Competitive Analysis Technology Resources Procedures Schedules & Status Related Documents

3 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Site Description On the Hudson River in NY; Two components: East Foundry Cove Marsh (EFCM) Constitution Marsh Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK  Click for Details

4 5/1/2015 Site Map

5 5/1/2015 East Foundry Cove Marsh

6 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University History: US Army 1952: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Constructed 1953, under Contract with the Army Signal Corps, Sonotone Corporation operated plant to produce nickel-cadmium batteries for use in the Nike missile program Run under Army ownership ; declared “ excess proprty in  Click for Data Sheet Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

7 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Private Owners 1962: U.S. sold it to Sonotone Corporation. 1967: Sonotone Corporation became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Clevite Corporation Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

8 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Marathon 1969, Clevite Corporation Merged with Gould, Inc. 1969, Gould, Inc. sold the Plant to Business Fund, Inc.; later changed its name to Marathon Battery Company (MBC) MBC operated the plant until March Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

9 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University After the Battery Era Plant inactive from 3/79 until 11/80 Battery manufacturing equipment removed and shipped to an MBC plant in Waco, Texas Sold to the current owner, Merchandise Dynamics, incorporated, for use as a book storage facility  Click for Details Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

10 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Contaminants of Concern Cadmium: Cd Toxic to humans, animals and plants Carcinogenic Waste stream had huge amounts of Cd, mostly as Cd hydroxide (10 ’ s-100 ’ s mg/L) Also caustic wastes (pH 12-14) Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

11 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Original Wastewater Treatment System A lift station and piping for transfer of all process wastewater into the Cold Spring sewer (100, ,000 gal/day) Discharged directly into the Hudson River Bypass Valve Was Installed When the Lift Station Was Shut down or Overloaded, direct Gravity Discharge Could Be Made into a Storm Sewer  Click for Detailed Schedule Instructions: Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: Create document in Word. Return to PowerPoint. From Insert Menu, select Object… Click “Create from File” Locate File name in “File” box Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. Click OK Select icon From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” Click OK

12 5/1/2015W. Fish, Portland State University Discharges to EFCM High dissolved solids and pH of the effluent resulted in extreme fouling within the pump and piping Pumps required shut down and maintenance Bypass valve was opened and the flow diverted to EFCM about twice a week

13 5/1/2015 Cadmium Load: Approximately 50,000 kg (over 52 tons) of cadmium may have been discharged to the cove during the life of the plant About half the metal purchased did not make in into batteries

14 5/1/2015 New Sewage Plant 1965: New York State Department of Health said Cold Spring must build sewage treatment plant Battery Plant effluent could not be handled: too toxic Sonotone ordered to disconnect from sewer Entire waste flow diverted to storm sewer USACE (1966) told company to quit discharging to the Hudson

15 5/1/2015 Attempts at Treatment January 1967: NY Dept of Health advised Sonotone it was in violation Plant given Jan 1, 1970 deadline to comply with state discharge regulation Sonotone installed treatment equipment Never really worked, Cd kept on flowing NY found lots of Cd in marsh, river

16 5/1/ Civ Judgement of Federal Court Suit brought under Federal Water Pollution Control Administration against Marathon (pre-EPA) Enforcement then shifted to new EPA

17 5/1/2015 Relief Sought by U.S. Permanent injunction against further discharge of Cd and other metals into Foundry Cove Demanded removal of Cd in sediments Sept. 1971: Complaint amended, named Sonotone, Cleveite and Gould as additional defendants

18 5/1/2015 Final Judgment (70 Civ.4110) June 1972: Remove all sediment with Cd >900 ppm (mg/kg) 1971: Discharge was stopped; routed back to sewer after treatment : Hydraulic dredging by GOULD Design: Dr. Harry Gregor, Columbia U.

19 5/1/2015 1st Dredging Operation Hydraulic dredging of “ hot ” areas Dr. Gregor instructed crew to remove all soft sediment from outfall area (~2-4 ft deep) Gravel base fairly clean In Cove, Gregor delineated with stakes 22 acres with Cd > 1000 ppm

20 5/1/2015 On-Site Soil Handling Spoils dewatered in parking lot inside a temporary dike dewatering leaked all over the place Effluent settle overnight, discharge to marsh Solids mixed with limestone, scored in underground vault on site

21 5/1/2015 Areas Dredged Outfall area Channel leading to the marsh Cove:Winter ’ 72 ice uprooted stakes and Gregor had to redelineate and finish in spring 1973 About 4000 cu.m. stored in vault

22 5/1/2015 “ Satisfaction ” April 24, 1974: US Attorney issues “ satisfaction of judgment ” Site is off the hook … or isi it? Agreement included monitoring by NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Studies by NYSDEC, EPA, NYU

23 5/1/2015 Whoops, There it Is Studies showed much of area was still > 900 mg/kg Channel area was recontaminated In fact in 1973 Gregor had to have channel redredged, but he did not worry about surrounding marsh Only about 10% of Cd had been removed

24 5/1/2015 Dr. Theo Kneip, NYU 1974: Found the recontamination Found the 1000 ppm zone was 50% larger than Gregor ’ s zone just one year before >50,000 ppm within the area dredged the prior year! (= 5% Cd by weight) 135,000 pmm near the outfall

25 5/1/2015 Cd Data of Kneip et al. 1974

26 5/1/2015 MBC Internal Memos: “ He told Jack that he was working on a Federal grant and, as a matter of courtesy wanted us to know the Cd background level of the Hudson River is higher in many cases after the dredging than before ”

27 5/1/2015 MBC Internal Memos [10 days later] “ At any rate he now reports increased Cd levels in the cove and the river due to the dredging. This does not necessarily bother or surprise us, since this was our prediction and which was basically ignored by the Final Jedgment [sic]. ”

28 5/1/2015 CERCLA 1980: CERCLA Passed 1981: First National Priority List (NPL) Prepared Guess what was one of the first sites proposed for the interim NPL? 1983 went on Final NPL Also OSHA found high Cd dust inside book warehouse

29 5/1/2015 CERCLA Units 1986 Record of Decision (ROD): Three “ Operating Units ” (OU ’ s) Area I: EFCM & Constitution Marsh Area II: Plant, grounds, vault Area III: Cove itself and Hudson

30 5/1/2015 RI/FS Findings ~8% of EFCM had >1000 mg/kg Cd

31 5/1/2015 Sediment Cd Profiles

32 5/1/2015 Cd Accumulation in Biota High levels of Cd found in a number of organisms (e.g., Limnodrilus hoffmeisterii)

33 5/1/2015 Cd Accumulation in Muskrats

34 5/1/2015 Muskrats in Cold Spring Exhibit Odd behavior

35 5/1/2015 ROD Plan: 1986 Dredge Hudson near old sewer outfall Dredge Cove and EFCM, dewater, haul offsite Re-vegetate EFCM Leave Constitution Marsh alone Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) 2 other RODS issued ‘ 88, ‘ 89

36 5/1/2015 Final Consent Decrees Marathon, Gould, USACE are Responsible Parties (RP ’ s) Total cost $109 million Gould $57M ACOE $43 M Marathon $9M Insurance paying much of Gould and MBC

37 5/1/2015 Dredging Began 1993 Dredging removed 55,000 cu.yd sediment to depth of 1 ft. Assumed to get about 95% of Cd this way Unlike , did not shoot for a specific target concentration Dredging completed in 1994

38 5/1/2015 Marsh Cleanup 1800 ’ dike, 6-7 ft high 31,000 cu.yd soil excavated, treated, shipped of site Reconstructed and revegetated the marsh

39 5/1/2015 Marsh Cleanup Dike Treatment Dewatering Pond Drainage Stored Sludge RR Line Rail Transfer Foundry Cove

40 5/1/2015 Sediment Cd “ Fixation ”

41 5/1/2015 Rail Line for Removal

42 5/1/2015 DELISTING Declared finished and delisted from NPL, October 1996


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