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Land Use Planning Making Physical Connections – Part 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Land Use Planning Making Physical Connections – Part 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Land Use Planning Making Physical Connections – Part 1

2

3 THE GREAT BARBECUE

4 THE FIRST STEP IS KNOWING WHERE YOU ARE

5 AND THEN – THE BASELINES

6 THE TOWNSHIP AND RANGE SYSTEM

7 HOW THE SECTIONS ARE ARRANGED

8 DESCRIBING WITHIN THE SECTIONS One Section – 640 Acres More Or Less

9 Location Exercise Purchaser: BEADLES RICHARD F Record ID: Date: 03/24/1862 Acres: 80 Price: $11.00 Type of sale: Railroad (RR) County: 41 Section: 8 Section Part: NWNE Township: 01S Range: 01E 3 rd Meridian: 3 Purchaser Res: Arch. Vol. No: 791 Vol. Page No.: 087 Cash warrant code: Record corrected: 0

10 Step 1 – Find Base Line 01S Range: 01E Meridian:

11 Step 2 – Section 8

12 STEP 3 NWNE

13 GETTING THERE – THE AZIMUTH

14 UNDERLYING ELEMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING – CONTOUR MAPPING

15 CONTOUR MAPPING – THE RULES OF THE V’S

16 HOW IT IS ACTUALLY DONE

17 WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT?  Storm Water Discharge Planning  Sewer and Water Installation  Transportation Development  Elevation indicates Soil Type  Soil Type dictates development pattern

18 FOR ROADS – IT’S FINDING THE RIDGE LINES

19 AND KEEPING THE SLOPE WITHIN A REASONABLE LEVEL

20 THE COOKBOOK MEASURE OF SLOPE Expression of Slope 0 – 3 percent (flat) 3 – 10 percent (moderate) 10 – 15 percent (special caution) 15 – 30 percent (only in California and Colorado) Over 30 percent (heart attack) When slope is expressed as a percent, it is the vertical rise / horizontal run

21 Slope can always be expressed as a ratio by dividing the horizontal run by the vertical rise 1:1 2:1 3:1 5:1 10:1 Horizontal run Vertical Rise EXPRESSED AS A RATIO

22 OTHER COOKBOOK FORMULAS FOR LAND USE PLANNING  ½ or less – Nothing feasible  ½ to 1 percent – large scale land uses such as industry, the big box, airports – BUT – major drainage and sewer flow problems  1 ½ to 5 percent – nearly any land use can be sited  3 percent is the upper limit for “no problem” heavy truck flow

23 UPPER SLOPE FORMULA  5 – 10 percent is generally good for housing development and can be used for smaller scale industry, office and commercial  Many communities will not allow road development over 8 – 10 percent

24 HIGH SLOPE DEVELOPMENT  10 – 15% can generally only be used for hillside residential development. Very special practices must be used for road, storm water, and sewer development. All other uses are economically impractical  15 – 25% is used for very large lot residential development. Extreme costs can be expected

25 The Inventory  Current Land Data  SIC Codes – 2, 4, 6 digit  Land Based Classification System

26 SIC Codes  Nine one-digit groups - #3 Trade  67 two digit groups – Retail> food  294 three-digit groups  772 four digit groups  3457 six digit groups  Auxiliary groups

27 Example SIC Codes  Egg farms – poultry except chicken and turkey  Honey Production  Hot tubs – retail  Recreational Vehicles  Computer Rentals 

28 Land Based System  Activity Codes  Function Codes  Ownerships Codes  Site Codes  Structure Codes  Classification Data Base Classification Data Base

29 Product – Current Map  The land use  Structure Type  Age of structure  Condition  Conformance

30 Current Parcel Uses

31 Lot By Lot – Land Use

32 Building Condition Map

33 Next Step - Standards  Purpose – To compare our communities land use to current standards  Outcome – To pinpoint deficiencies  Link – To program needs into future land use plan

34 Journey To Land Use  When you come to a fork in the road – take it  Yogi Bera

35 Before Going On!  Three Characteristics of Population  Size (basic yardstick for space needs)  Composition (age, household type..)  Spatial Distribution (where people are located)

36 Population Terms  Estimate – applies only to a time period between censuses or the current time  Projection – Is a set of methods to determine future population size based on past assumptions  Forecast – Effort to accurately predict a future population point based on modeled assumptions

37 Population Data  Primary Data – how do you obtain local primary data?  Secondary Data – Census?

38 Population Standards  Determine growth factors  Project population  Compare rates of growth/decrease with peers  Use comparative models to determine reasons for variance from peers

39 The Methods  The Big Four Methods  Trend Extrapolation  Ratio/Share  Disaggregate/simulation/component  Symptomatic Association

40 Trend Extrapolation  Quick – dirty – but generally works in normal populations  Linear Model  Exponential Change – compounding method. Rate of change is constant but the absolute change increases with compounding

41 Linear Series

42 Exponentials - Polynomials  Patterns of smaller and smaller incremental growth  Complicated patterns of growth change on regular frequencies  Explosive then incipient growth

43 Exponentials - Polynomials

44 Corridor Approach 34,300 32,300 ? ?

45 Population Variants – Estimate Projection Intervals  Est. World Pop 1950 – 2,523  Est. World Pop 1990 – 5,687  Low Variant 2050 – 7,662  Medium Variant 2050 – 9,366  High Variant 2050 – 11,156 Logistic Curve

46 Ratio- Share  Used only to estimate the ratio of small unit population to a larger/known unit  Extraterritorial areas  CEA units

47 Disaggregate  Cohort – component method  Components of change methods – Chicago transportation/land model  Vacancy/housing estimate models

48 Fine Grained Cohort - Survival

49 Symptomatic Models  A statistical equation is applied to known indicators:  Jobs  Building permits  School Enrollment  Water/power consumption

50 Population Method Problems  Forecasting when you should be projecting  The long range fairy (25 years)  Very rapid gains  Small area analysis rather than city as a whole  Large area analysis rather than just the reporting district

51 Translate Population  Housing needs  Retail/Trade Needs  Facilities needs  Manufacturing needs  Open space needs

52 Translating Requirements  Per capita approach – standards  Requires an LOS assumption 5.6 Ac. Parkland per 1, Structures per five miles per pumper Pad to parking ratio of 3:1 &5% water retention of record 10 year event

53 Translating Requirements  Demand approach  Based on current investigation of actual demand under the assumption that one size does not fit all  Income distribution approach  Survey approach for mass transit  Maintenance and useful life approach

54 Set Density Standards  L.U.I Index (Land Use Intensity) Calculation of the of floor area ratio to the open space ratio Ranges from 1 du/40Ac. To 650 du’s/Ac Calculate slack space equal to about 25% of all land area that is used for roads, facilities, and utilities

55 Just Checking!

56 Housing Needs  Disaggregation  Unit demand per population mix  Average square feet per mix  Lot size  Parking Ratio  Per/L.U.I mix

57 Disaggregation  Unit Demand Per Target Population

58 Lot Size Range

59 Density = 4.0 DU/Ac 8 units on 2 Ac. Lot Size 9,114 sf PAD = 1,490 sf Parking 500 sf

60 9.55 DUs/Ac 32 units on 3.35 Ac Lot size 3,465 sf PAD 1,120 sf Parking 220 sf

61 Retail Trade Needs  Neighborhood Trade  Maximum travel distance = 4 min  Gross sf per family = 175  Typical requirement = 7.5 acres  Parking Ratio 2 to 1  Total requirements 319,200 sf

62 Community Cluster  Community Cluster  Maximum travel distance = 15 min  Gross sf per family = 35 sf  Typical requirement = 25 Ac (also equals one Super Wal-Mart  Parking Ratio = 3 to 1  Pad site = 412,500 – 1,250,000sf

63 Regional Shopping  Regional Scale Facilities – 60 miles  100,000 population served  Gross sf per family = 40  Pad sites = 1.1 million sf  Parking ratio = 4 –1  Total site requirements 60 Ac.

64

65 Galleria – Example Ratios

66 Regional SuperBlock

67 Facilities Calculations  Roads – streets – public parking and utility easements =.30 gross  Land Fill = 80 Ac per 20,000 served or 170 sf per person  Sewer = 60 Ac. Per 10,000 served or 85 Ac with sludge injection  Water = 252 Ac Ft. processed per 100 persons = 34 Ac/10,000 pers

68 Another View

69 Facilities Calculations  Roads – streets – public parking and utility easements =.30 gross  Land Fill = 80 Ac per 20,000 served or 170 sf per person  Sewer = 60 Ac. Per 10,000 served or 85 Ac with sludge injection  Water = 252 Ac Ft. processed per 100 persons = 34 Ac/10,000 pers

70 Land Use Ratio - Visual

71 High Density Mobile Home Park

72 Facilities ……………  Schools – Neighborhood System  Kindergarten Center – 15 Ac (220)  Elementary Center – 20 Ac (240)  Middle School - 40 Ac (650)  High School 60 Ac (1,250)

73 School Sites

74 Middle School Site

75 NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT SYSTEM 160 Ac Target 5,000 persons per average unit

76 Neighborhood Land Use Design Concepts A distance comfortable for most people to walk, as an attractive alternative to driving. This distance is best represented as one quarter mile, 1,320 feet, or a five-minute walk to a 20 minute walk Walking distance is a historic axiom of urban pattern, delimiting the French Quartier and the Neighborhood Unit described in the 1929 New York City Regional Plan. Current adaptations such as Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) and Transit Oriented Development (TOD) also use a XX minute walking distance as a primary design determinant. A limited land mass, then, allows a complete neighborhood to be an incremental unit for urban evolution, as well as the sum of its constituent parts.

77 Each pathway's trajectory has a desirable or useful destination. Frequent destinations are located in places that create a succession of five-minute walks. The pathway network offer choices of route, and is logical, uninterrupted, and inclusive of shortcuts wherever possible. The pathway's trajectory is spatially defined by interesting building architecture and landscape, and tempered by the local climate, providing shade when the air is hot and sun when the air is cool. Pathways are protected from automobile traffic wherever possible. Pathways are visually monitored by people in surrounding buildings, and therefore offer pedestrians a sense of safety. Pedestrian Connection

78 TND Codes prescribe -- in written and graphic format -- performance criteria in terms of function, disposition, and configuration. Function - Existing or permitted uses for the building and its lot. Disposition - Existing or permitted horizontal placement of structures on building lots. Configuration - Three dimensional building form. The Spatial and Function Format

79 Manufacturing Needs  CONCEPTS  Working force as a percent of pop.  Working industrial force as a percent of the labor force / participation rate  Total Gross Area per 1,000 is about 20 Ac  Reserve calculations = 50 years

80 Labor Force Participation  Males 1960 –69.8  Males 1999 – 73.1  Females 1960 – 58.6  Females 1999 – 68.5  FOR SINGLE PERSONS

81 Labor Force Participation  Males 1960 – 89.2  Males 1999 – 77.6  Females 1960 – 31.9  Females 1999 – 61.2 FOR MARRIED COUPLES

82 Largest Job Growth  Projected 2000 – 2006  Computing Engineers  Systems Analysts  Cashiers  Data Processors  Retail Salespersons  General Office Clerks  Truck drivers – light and heavy 

83 Manufacturing Growth  1970 – 20.7 million  1980 – 21.9 million  1990 – 21.3 million  2000 – 20.4 million  2010 – 20.7 million

84 Open Space  Definition  Land specifically dedicated or reserved for active or passive recreation or for conservation purposes  The most rapidly growing and demanded land base in the U.S.

85 Open Space Standards  The National Parks and Recreation Association now sets a standard of 10 Ac. Per 1,000 residents in active and passive recreational facilities (not conserved land)

86 Open Space Has Many Uses

87 Remember Cemeteries

88 Some Additional Thoughts Some land uses are hard to figure out

89 Many are Protective of Their Land Uses

90 Some are REALLY Protective

91 Some Land Uses Are Very Specialized

92 Redneck Sign of the Week

93 Ugly Houses of the Week

94 Restaurant of the Week

95 Review of Material  First – Learn the underlying political and social role of land – “peoples’ property.”  Second – Land use planning is about organization and sharing land  Third – The legal nature of property – land use ownership and economics  Fourth – Parcelization of land – why and how things grow

96 Review Continued - 2  Fifth – Land Use Process – The Filters, Inducements and Impediments  Sixth – Participants and Stakeholders  Seventh – The 10 Steps or Core Values in Land Use Planning  Eighth -The Functions of Land Use Planning – i.e., intelligence gathering; problem solving; development management

97 Review Continued - 3  Ninth – Identifying Land Use and Coding the Functions  Tenth – Mapping and Describing Land  Preparing the Projections & Estimates  Translating the Numbers  Allocating Land for Change and New Growth

98


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