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www.concrete-pipe.org ALL STORM PIPING PRODUCTS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL! Rigid Vs Flexible Presentation by:
2 RCP VS Flexible Pipe Systems Hole is same but nothing else! IF YOU TAKE ANYTHING AWAY WITH YOU TODAY WE WANT YOU TO CLEARLY UNDERSTAND: RIGID PIPE IS DIFFERENT FROM FLEX. PIPE Different in MANY WAYS: STUCTURAL STRENGTH INSTALLATIONS INSPECTION POST INSTALLTION SPECIFICATIONS AND DETAILS
3 Engineering Analysis : Structural Strength Installation Inspection Specifications and Std Details: Materials, installation, inspection, structural verification SAFETY & RISK Hydraulic common sense (1/2” corrugations =.010? No!) Risk of Pre-Mature Structural Failure (KY & OH HDPE Issues) Flammability is REAL ISSUE Economic Analysis: REAL ECONOMICS Consider Installation Cost Vs Lifetime Value AGENDA
4 Definition of “Pipe” Dictionary.com: “a hollow cylinder of metal, wood, or other material, used for the conveyance of water, gas, steam, petroleum, etc. Webster’s On-Line: “a long tube or hollow body for conducting a liquid, gas, or finely divided solid or for structural purposes” Oxford English Dictionary: “a tube used to convey water, gas, oil, etc.”
5 A Buried Pipe Must Perform Two Critical Functions? Buried Pipe Conduit /Hole Structure
OTHER PIPES ????STRUCTURE????? Wall thickness for HDPE remains constant for all fill height or live loading conditions “Pipe” stiffness is time dependent and constantly decreases under load “Pipe” stiffness decrease for HDPE & CMP as pipe Dia gets larger! “Pipe” has little or no structural strength
Flexible Pipe Conduit Structure ? ? ? ?? ? ? By Low Bidder Flex. Pipe Wall = NO Strength to Structure
9 60” ASTM C-76 Class III D 0.01 = 6,750 lb / lf D ULT = 10,000 lb / lf Total Load Required for 8’ Pipe: D 0.01 = (8)(6,750) = 54,000 lbs. D ULT = (8)(10,000) = 80,000 lbs. Understand what this means? ASTM C-76 Class III RCP D0.01 = 1,350 lb / lf / ft (dia.) DULT =2,000 lb / lf / ft (dia.) RCP – STRCTURAL CONFIRMATION!
Structure Confirmed before Shipment 60” RCP is tested before it leaves the point of manufacture to prove it can carry the load of a loaded Tractor and trailer with no lateral support! THIS FACT AND PROVEN SERVICE LIFE Should give you CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES OF RCP Vs FLEXIBLE 60” RCP is tested before it leaves the point of manufacture to prove it can carry the load of a loaded Tractor and trailer with no lateral support! THIS FACT AND PROVEN SERVICE LIFE Should give you CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES OF RCP Vs FLEXIBLE
LOAD INCREASES WITH PIPE DIAMETER D W www TOTAL LOAD = 1 W D-LOAD = LOAD DIAMETER TOTAL LOAD = 3 W 3D The backfill or fill load increases in direct proportion to pipe diameter. It is essential for pipe strength to increase with pipe diam. regardless of the pipe. Is this thinking logical? Does this make sense? Strength
Class 5 Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 1,350 lb / lf / ft (dia.) 2,700 lb / lf 5,400 lb / lf Pipe Diameter ASTM C-76 RCP Strengths 0.01” Crack Strength in a 3-E-B RCP Increases Strength with Pipe Diameter to Carry Increased Load.
Pipe stiffness HDPE PIPE CMP 24 ” 34 psi 224psi 36 ” 22 psi 62 psi 42 ” 19 psi 40 psi 48 ” 17 psi 27 psi The Decrease in Pipe Strength Occurs at the Same Time the Load is Increasing. What Should This Alert You To About Installation? 16 Gage Structural Strength – HDPE & CMP
14 1614121087 LH.064.079.109. 138.168.188 Engineers are asked to gravitate to thin gage for CMP
Pipe Different means Installation & Inspection Must be Different
17 Type 1: Type 1: Highest quality installation using select granular soils with high compaction requirements for haunching and bedding. Type 2: Type 2: Allows silty granular soils with less compaction required for haunching and bedding. Type 3: Type 3: Allows use of soils with less stringent compaction requirements for haunching and bedding. Type 4: Type 4: Allows use of onsite native material for haunching and bedding with no compaction required. (6” of Bedding is required if rock foundation) All Backfill Requirements above to spring line ONLY Standard Installations for RCP
DoDo 0.83D o 0.67D o DoDo DoDo 6 3 DoDo 1.33D o LOWER SIDEFILL ZONE HAUNCH COMPACTION HAUNCH COMPACTION MIDDLE BEDDING, UNCOMPACTED OVERFILL LOWER SIDEFILL ZONE SIDD Type 1 Installation For RCP
DoDo 0.5D o DoDo DoDo 6 3 1.33D o HAUNCH SCARIFY MIDDLE BEDDING SITE EXCAVATED BACKFILL SITE EXCAVATEDM ATERIAL SIDD Type 4 Installation For RCP
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Load resisted by backfill! Traffic Load Earth Load Bedding Foundation R1R1 Initial Backfill Final Backfill Haunching Flexible Pipe
AASHTO Section 30 - Thermoplastic Pipe 30.5.4. Structural Backfill 200mm (8 inch) loose lift thickness 90% compaction required Compact both sides simultaneously Structural fill 300mm (1 foot) above pipe “….shall be worked into haunch area and compacted by hand” Compaction equipment within 1000mm (3 feet) of the pipe shall be approved by the engineer Minimum Cover for Construction Loads
23 ASTM D 2321-Thermoplastic Pipe Minimum densities 85% to 95% Recognizes “numerous flexible pipe products” & “inherent variability of natural ground conditions” Install and compact in 6” maximum layers Use hand tampers or vibratory compactors Haunching: Work in around pipe by hand to ensure uniform support Do not permit compaction equipment to contact and damage the pipe
1.25xO.D.+1.0’ STRUCTURAL BACKFILL 96% COMPACTION Flexible pipe 12 ” 6” If You Do Not Build The Block See UTA, KY & Ohio L/V Inspections of Installed HDPE Pipe
26 80% - 90% of Structure from Pipe LOW BID INC. RCP 85% - 95% of Structure from Backfill Material What Do You Want The Structural Integrity of Your Design To Depend On?
Inspection During Construction During Install. Flexible Pipe = confirm design calcs & conditions + Firm Foundation + Homed joints + Structure/Design must be confirmed by compaction testing of pipe envelope material (the structure) Rigid check class = plan design (structure confirmed at plant 3EB) + Firm Foundation + Joints in home position before backfill placed Backfill for flex. Pipe = Structural Integrity of the flex. Pipe system!
28 Post Construction Inspection Post Installation Inspection Flexible check deflection 100% of pipe (over deflection will lead to failure) Must combine video with some way to measure deflection L/V or Mandrel Rigid visual inspect 100% Video 30” and smaller We are not concerned about critical inspection of our product
29 AASHTO SECTION 30.5.6 NEW INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HDPE PIPE (AS ADOPTED BY THE AASHTO SUBCOMMITTEE ON BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES – JUNE 29, 2005) All pipes shall undergo inspection during and after installation. Final inspections shall be conducted no sooner than 30 days after completion of installation and final fill. The pipe shall be evaluated to determine whether the internal diameter of the barrel has been reduced more than 5 percent when measured not less than 30 days following completion of installation. For locations where pipe deflection exceeds 5 percent of the inside diameter, an evaluation shall be conducted by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer for review and approval considering the severity of the deflection, structural integrity, environmental conditions, and the design service life of the pipe. Pipe remediation or replacement shall be required for locations where the evaluation finds that the deflection could be problematic. For locations where pipe deflection exceeds 7.5 percent of the inside diameter, remediation or replacement of the pipe is required. Installed pipe deflections that exceed 5 percent of the initial inside diameter may indicate that the installation was substandard. appropriate remediation, if any, will depend upon the severity of the deflection. In all pipe installations, at least 10 percent of the total number of pipe runs representing at least 10 percent of the total project footage on the project shall be randomly selected by the Engineer and inspected for deflection. Also, as determined by the 100 percent visual inspection in Section 18.104.22.168, all areas in which deflection can be visually detected shall be inspected for deflection.
30 AASHTO SECTION 26.5.7 NEW INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CMP (AS ADOPTED BY THE AASHTO SUBCOMMITTEE ON BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES – JUNE 29, 2005) CMP shall be inspected after placement in the trench, as required during backfilling, and after completion of installation to ensure that final installation conditions allow the pipe to perform as designed. Final internal inspections shall be conducted on all buried CMP installations to evaluate issues that may affect long term performance. Final inspections shall be conducted no sooner than 30 days after completion of installation and final fill. It should be noted that the AASHTO Flexible Culvert Liaison Committee has been directed to write deflection criteria for inclusion in the installation specification for CMP this year. As of ’06 7.5 max deflection established!
31 AASHTO SECTION 27.6.1 NEW INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RCP (AS ADOPTED BY THE AASHTO SUBCOMMITTEE ON BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES – JUNE 29, 2005) Internal inspections shall be conducted on all buried rigid pipe installations to evaluate issues that may affect long-term performance, such as cracks, joint quality and alignment. Inspections shall be conducted no sooner than 30 days after completion of installation and final fill. Hairline longitudinal cracks in the crown or invert indicate that the steel has accepted part of the load. Cracks equal to or less than 0.01 in. (0.25 mm) in width are considered minor and only need to be noted in the inspection report. Inspection records for pipes with crack widths exceeding 0.01 in. (0.25 mm), shall be kept on file for monitoring conditions during subsequent inspections. Crack measurements and photographs shall be taken for monitoring conditions during subsequent inspections.
32 Specifications and Std. Details Review and use national Stds as a guide to complete your own Specs for the diff. piping products Materials & Manufacturing Installation Inspection Allow us to be a resource & provide you with all the national stds. and suggested specification outline for all Products
34 Hydraulics Laboratory testing is done with perfect laminar flow conditions and the pipe is not subjected to external loading Both concrete and plastic pipe have achieved laboratory “n” values of 0.009 What additional losses can be attributed to the “rippling” of the interior liner under field loading conditions?
Measures the present value of all relevant costs of installing, operating and maintaining alternative drainage systems over a specified period of time. engineering construction maintenance rehabilitation replacement Economic Analysis Life Cycle Cost Analysis
46 WASTEWATER = D- INCLUDES SANITARY AND STORM SEWER
It is unwise to pay too much, but it is worse to pay too little. When you pay too much, you lose a little money. When you pay too little, you sometimes lose everything, because the thing you bought was incapable of doing the thing it was bought to do. The common law of business balance prohibits paying a little and getting a lot-it can’t be done. If you deal with the lowest bidder, it is well to add something for the risk you run. And, if you do that, you will have enough to pay for something better. JOHN RUSKIN 1819-1900, renowned English critic, social commentator, and economist of the Victorian Age
48 RCP VS Flexible Pipe Systems DIFFERENT IN MANY WAYS! IF YOU TAKE ANYTHING AWAY WITH YOU TODAY WE WANT YOU TO CLEARLY UNDERSTAND: RIGID PIPE IS DIFFERENT FROM FLEX. PIPE Recognize The Differences: MUST BE DESIGNED DIFFERENT MUST BE INSTALLED DIFFERENT MUST BE INSPECTED DIFFERENT SPECIFICATIONS AND DETAILS SHOULD BE DIFFERENT