Presentation on theme: "Mains Sewage Systems. Name: Padraig McMahon Module: Building services."— Presentation transcript:
1Mains Sewage Systems.Name: Padraig McMahonModule: Building services
2Definitions. Surface water Run-off of rain water from roofs and any paved surfaces around the building.Soil waterWater containing excreted material i.e from W.C. pansWaste waterUsed water from waste appliances i.e sink, bath etc. This includes washing machines and dish washers.Foul waterAny water contaminated by soil water or waste water
3Definitions. Ventilation To prevent the water seal from being broken by pressures or suction and to allow the release of gasesSewageMixture of foul and surface water which needs to be removed from the buildingSewerForm of drain which collects foul water/sewage from a number of drains.
4Definitions.TrapsAll points of discharge into a drainage system should be fitted with a water seal to prevent foul air leaking into the building all traps not part of a removable appliance should be removable or fitted with a cleaning eye.DrainA below ground pipe or closed channel where water flows by gravitySewerageA network of sewers that disposes of sewage from a community, town or city.
5Effluent/sewage disposal. Domestic sewage consists of human wastes, paper and vegetable matter. This is organic waste because it is made of compounds of carbon and can be broken down by micro organisms.Sewerage is a system of under ground pipes used to collect and carry sewage either to a treatment unit i.e. septic tank or a a public/ main sewer. The concept of sewage is to pipe waste mater both solid and liquid away from the building, to allow for safe treatment and return to the water table.
6Types of Waste disposal. Main types of waste disposalThere are two main types of waste disposal available in Ireland, septic tanks and sewage systems which under EU law must now incorporate a treatment works.Septic tanksSeptic tanks are mainly used in one off housing in rural areas. this is the typical system used in the country side.SewerageSewage systems are used mainly in built up areas such as villages, towns and cities and is necessary to have a large number of houses to make such a system viable.
7Public Drainage Schemes. Types of drainage systems.There are 2 main types of Public drainage schemes, separate drainage system or combined drainage system.Separate drainage system.Surface water is kept separate from foul water by means of two separate pipe lines. Surface water remains clean and needs no treatment.Higher cost to install but cheaper to run as their is less material entering the treatment works.Combined drainage systemFoul and surface water are mixed and the system uses one large pipe.their is a danger especially with heavy rain fall the treatment plant can get over loaded, plus the previously clean water needs to be cleaned again at extra cost.
9Typical Treatment Processes. The following are the typical processes involved in sewage treatment.Preliminary treatment (1)This is done to remove large solids and grit to prevent blockages further down the line. A system of sedimentation, mesh filters or equipment such as vortex separators can be used to do this.Primary treatment (2)This uses a system of sedimentation tanks, were the water is stagnant enough to allow fine sediments to fall out of suspension by gravity.
10Treatment Processes.Other materials such as oil and grease can form a scum on the surface of the water and this can be scraped off. These forms of treatment the bod measurement by up to 40% and suspended solids by 70%.Secondary treatmentThis involves exposing the settled sewage to bio chemical reactions under aerobic conditions. Purified water is then moved to secondary settlement tanks. The most common methods used for this are biological filtration and activated sludge.
11Treatment Processes. Biological filtration the waste water is trickled through a bed of inert material on which a bio mass of micro organisms develops and aeration occurs naturally.Activated SludgeMechanical agitators are used to aerate the mixture and to encourage the growth of new biomass.In both cases the bacteria created are able to grow multiply and purify the sewage, and are later removed in sediment tanks.
12Treatment Processes. Tertiary treatment This third stage is used if the effluent has still not reached a suitable quality. Their are three main methods used to resolve this 1. Lagoon settlement2. Irrigation on to land3. Filtration using sand or gravel.Sludge treatmentSludge has two main components, liquid effluent and sludge solids. Effluent is easily treated but the sludge can cost up to 50% of overall costs to dispose of. It can be incinerated, spread on the land or placed in land fill.
13Natural Rain Water cycle. The natural rain water cycle will also further purify the water andremove any remaining waste material.
15Typical aboveground System. This is an example of above ground typical drainage pipes showing waste and foul water pipes. Note the vent and the gradient on the pipes.These are all linked to the sewer system.
16Underground Pipe Work. Layout 1) The lay out should be kept a s simple as possible with changes in gradient and direction kept to a minimum.2) Access should be provided only were necessary and connections should always be made obliquely to the direction of the flow.3) The system should be ventilated by a flow of air and should be at the end of each main drain and to any branch longer than 6 meters
17Underground Pipe Work.4) Pipes should be laid at an even gradient and any change in this should have an access point.5) Pipes should be laid in a straight line and were small bends occur access should be provided6) When laying pipes near or under building and in unstable ground special considerations should be made to allow for settlement7)pipes should be bedded in sand, clay or cement were appropriate.
18Simple pipe Layout.Two simple systems showing combined and separate systemsCombined sewersSeparate sewers
19Pipe Laying.This diagram shows how sight rails in conjunction with a boning rod are used to insure an even gradient while laying out the trenches.
20Bedding for Rigid Pipes. keySmall stones, sandand clay.10 mm Aggregate with a compaction factor of 0.2.This must be well compacted and this type of bedding is necessary when connecting to a mains sewer as it is a rigid pipe.
21Bedding of Flexible Pipes. keyBedding for flexible pipingSmall stones sand and clay.Granular fill.10 mm aggregate with a compaction faction of 0.2This type of fill is used mostly around foul water pipes and general drainage.
22General Pipe Materials. The following are the main types of pipes used in underground gravity feed systemsRigid pipesFibber cementVitrified clayConcreteFlexible pipesuPVCuPVC is the most commonly used as it comes in a wide variety of shapes is easily joined and cut and has a wide variety of fittings.
23Jointing of Pipes.All joints should be appropriate to the material being used.To minimise the effects of differential settlement pipes should have flexible joints and be allowed room for movement were ever possibleAll joints should remain sealed under test conditions and normal working conditions and their working life.Nothing in the pipes, their fittings e.t.c should obstruct the flow of materials and all joints should run obliquely to the direction of flow.
24Joining to a Mains Sewer. Note the shape of the saddle. The main sewer is cut to allow the round sleeve to inter and it is then bedded in mortar to insure a good seal.
26Samples of Piping. Waste water reducer Plain gulley External gulley Tapered joint with flexible hosing
27Samples of Piping. Connection to a Toilet. Note the Allowance for settlementaround the pipeMan hole junction.Note the cut sectionpipes. This hole willhave a concrete baseuPVC junction box.Quick and easy toInstall and will besat on a concretebase
28Samples of Man Holes.Close up of a similar precast man hole with flexible pipes.Precast man hole used to change gradients.Precast man holewith cut sectionPipes.
30Joining of Piping.Piping must be jointed securely but still allow for flexibility and settlement.Pipe work should be tested before it is back filled, using either smoke, water or air under pressure.Pipe should be knocked together using waste timber to insure no damage to the edges.Different joints are used in different situations but uPVC is the most common, using simple sleeve joints or rubber seals.
31Pipe jointing.This is an example of a pipe joining to another pipe. Note the way the branched section is running obliquely to the other pipe to insure the continued flow of waste material.
34Clearance of Blockages. There are four main types of access to remove blockages.Roding eyesThese provide access to any pipe in accessible from the trap.Access fittingsSmall chambers on the pipe but do not have an open chamber.Inspection chambersshallow chambers which allow access for working at ground level.ManholesLarge chambers with working space at drain level.All covers should be easy to remove and of a suitable strength. They should be air tight were necessary and secure in position.
35Regulations on Access fittings. Depth to Internal sizeinvert. length & widthAccess fittings x 100300 x 100A.J x300Shaft x 840Man hole X7501200 x 840Inspection chamber x 450
37Connecting to Main Sewers. When connecting to a mains sewer one must make the necessary applications when applying for planning permission in individual cases.In housing estates the builder is responsible for making the necessary connection.In both cases their is a fee, which varies from county to county and permission must be sought before digging for a sewer and the necessary research should be carried out in relation to under ground wires e.t.c.