Presentation on theme: "Infrastructure Problems Developed by Joe Naumann, UMSL From pictures found on the internet."— Presentation transcript:
Infrastructure Problems Developed by Joe Naumann, UMSL From pictures found on the internet.
What is infrastructure? the system of public works (also publicly owned utilities) of a country, state, or region ; also: the resources (as personnel, buildings, or equipment) required for an activity Examples: streets and highways, sewers, water supply systems, electricity supply system, natural (or other types) gas supply system, communications systems.
Infrastructure & Development Developing countries suffer from a lack of sufficient infrastructure to attract investment and provide a basis for economic growth. Countries that have been developed for quite a while often suffer from the inability to properly maintain and replace the aging infrastructure they have.
THE PROBLEM OF HAVING AN AGING INFRASTRUCTURE THE FOCUS OF THIS PRESENTATION:
New York, July 18, 2007 An underground steam line ruptured, blasting a hole in a Manhattan street and releasing large quantities of asbestos into the air along with the escaping steam. Companies like ConEd in New York need to have a regular schedule of replacement of parts of the system that weaken with age.
A New York city policeman wears a mask as he walks past the scene of the steam pipe explosion on Wednesday.
Collapsed sewer line erodes a sinkhole in Tucson, Arizona Old sewers need to be replaced before they rupture or collapse.
St. Louis, MO – 2007 A 100-year-old large brick sewer line in downtown St. Louis, collapsed causing a very large hole in a downtown street. Many old cities like St. Louis have old masonry sewers or pipes made of wood – these have limited serviceable life.
Sinkhole collapse in Nixa, MO. This is a danger wherever streets or buildings are built on Karst limestone bedrock.
Very large sinkhole This large sinkhole destroyed homes and streets. Broken water or sewer lines can create collapses much like this.
St. Louis – 3 times in less than 12 months – 500,000 w/o electricity July 2007. Failure to trim trees enough in the year before the storms. Ameren UE had cut back on tree trimming.
First winter storm, December 2006 Many trees still hadn’t been adequately trimmed. AmerenUE had not been able to replace above ground power lines with buried onesi n older areas.
2nd winter storm, January, 2007 A repeat of the December storm – there had been no opportunity to improve the infrastructure in less than a month.
Taum Sauk Reservoir Water (1.5 bil. gal.) stored in the upper reservoir was released in peak usage periods to produce extra hydroelectric power.
December 14, 2005 There was a breach in the upper reservoir to the Taum Sauk Hydroelectric plant in Southern Missouri early this morning. A 20 foot wall of water came rushing down into the Black River like the water of a gigantic bathtub being drained. Negligence in maintenance and repair and refusal of management to heed warnings seem to be responsible for the catastrophe.
Before the breach
After the breach
Remains of home of Johnson Shut-ins Park superintendent
20-ft. wall of water scoured the land
Bridge Problems It is estimated that 1 in 8 bridges in the U.S. is structurally deficient... –It was not designed to carry the load of traffic that it is currently carrying Example: the I-70 Bridge to St. Charles over the Missouri River – the traffic load today far exceeds what it was designed to carry. –Every couple years more stress fractures are found and have to be repaired.
Minneapolis – August 1, 2007 Collapse Spotlights Weaknesses in U.S. Infrastructure –The I-35 bridge that lies crumpled in the Mississippi River is the latest link to fail in a national highway system rapidly deteriorating under the strain of ever-increasing traffic volume and inadequate upkeep, transportation experts said on August 2.
2005 photo of the bridge
Diagram of the collapse
Word from Minneapolis More than 70,000 bridges across the country are rated structurally deficient like the I-35W bridge, and engineers estimate repairing them all would take at least a generation and cost more than $188 billion. Authorities said the "structurally deficient" tag simply means some portions of the bridge needed to be scheduled for repair or replacement. It wasn't a candidate for replacement until 2020.
The collapsed bridge is one of 1,160 bridges in that category, which amounts to 8 percent of bridges in the state. Nationally, about 12 percent of bridges are labeled "structurally deficient.“ During the 1990s, inspections found fatigue cracks and corrosion in the steel around the bridge's joints. Those problems were repaired. Starting in 1993, the bridge was inspected annually instead of every other year.
After a study raised concern about cracks, the state was given two alternatives: Add steel plates to reinforce critical parts or conduct a thorough inspection... to see if there were additional cracks. They chose the inspection route, beginning that examination in May. "We thought we had done all we could," state bridge engineer Dan Dorgan said near the mangled remains of the span. "Obviously something went terribly wrong."
Although concern was raised about cracks, some experts theorized it's no coincidence the collapse happened when workers and heavy equipment were on the bridge. The construction work involved resurfacing and maintenance on guardrails and lights, among other repairs.
"I would be stunned if this didn't have something to do with the construction project," said David Schulz, director of the Infrastructure Technology Institute at Northwestern University. "I think it's a major factor."
The simple truth Responding to a disaster is inefficient and counterproductive. –It costs much more than a planned demolition and clean up. –It takes much longer to complete the replacement –It often means that the lives of many productive citizens are lost
The reasonable approach As soon as a bridge, sewer, water line, etc. is built, plans for maintenance and replacement need to be established and followed. In other words, avoid the disaster. –Regular inspection and repairs –Regular maintenance – anti-rust paint on exposed iron work to reduce rust corrosion –Reasonable “life” of the structure should be estimated and plans for replacement developed as that time period approaches its end.
Mississippi R. Bridges STL Metro August 2007 BridgeDeckSuperstructureSubstructure Jefferson Barracks N676 Jefferson Barracks S676 Poplar Street566 Eads767 MLK Jr.755 Chain of Rocks 270 MO.667 Chain of Rocks 270 IL764 Clark675 Key: 0 = Failed; 1 = Imminent failure; 2 = Critical; 3 = Serious 4 = Poor; 5 = Fair; 6 = Satisfactory; 7 = Good; 8 = Very Good; 9 = Excellent
How much could a national infrastructure upgrade cost? The American Society of Civil Engineers puts the total price tag for improvements to the nation's roads, bridges, dams, water systems and airports at $1.6 trillion. Repairing deficient bridges alone would cost $188 billion over 20 years.
EXAMPLE OF ST. LOUIS Urban Infrastructure Problems
Shrinkage problems Population –St. Louis at its peak (approx. 1955) – 800,000 plus –St. Louis today (2007) – 300,000 plus Businesses & industries within the city limits today Tax base Percentage of above average income residents
What hasn’t shrunk? Number of miles of streets to maintain Number of miles of water mains to maintain Number of miles of sewers to maintain Number of miles of telephone and electric lines to maintain Percentage of residents with below average incomes (this has even increased)
The Dilemma How does a city like St. Louis maintain its infrastructure and continue to provide adequate fire and police protection with its greatly reduced tax base and increased population of low-income residents. With a decreasing tax base, how does the city provide a quality education for its large percentage of low-income students and maintain old buildings (some approaching 100 years old)?
The Lesson We Must Learn... At all levels (local, state, and national) we cannot continue to build new bridges and highways, public buildings, etc. while neglecting to provide proper maintenance for those that were built 20 to 150 years ago. Money saved by scrimping on maintenance of older facilities, in the long run ends up costing the tax payers more money!