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Sewer Infrastructure Rehabilitation Kevin Morris Market Director Water & Wastewater.

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Presentation on theme: "Sewer Infrastructure Rehabilitation Kevin Morris Market Director Water & Wastewater."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sewer Infrastructure Rehabilitation Kevin Morris Market Director Water & Wastewater

2 Causes of Deterioration of Concrete in Municipal Infrastructure Stopping Inflow & Infiltration Structural Rehabilitation Materials Chemical Resistant Coatings and Linings Learning Objectives

3 Structural Fatigue Corrosive Gases Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC) Old Age Causes of Deterioration

4 Structural Fatigue Caused by: –Traffic Loading –Freeze/Thaw Cycling –Soil Movement –Erosion or Cavitation Causes of Deterioration

5 Corrosive Gases Hydrogen Sulfide – H 2 S –Corrosive to metal and concrete –Reduces the pH level –Converts to sulfuric acid when it comes in contact with Sulfur Reducing Bacteria (SRB’s) Causes of Deterioration

6 Corrosive Gases Carbon Dioxide –Slow deterioration of the substrate –Naturally occurring –Acts to reduce pH of the substrate –Carbonated concrete Causes of Deterioration

7 Microbial Induced Corrosion (Four Phases) Phase 1 –Sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) break down sulfates in the waste stream and produce hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide CO 2. Causes of Deterioration

8 Microbial Induced Corrosion Phase 2 –The acidic gases H 2 S and CO 2 act to reduce the pH of concrete from approximately 12 to as low as 9. –Sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB’s) attach to the surface as sulfates are produced. Causes of Deterioration

9 Microbial Induced Corrosion Phase 3 –The SOB’s are known as Thiobacillus Thioxidans. They consume H 2 S and discharge sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 –The pH continues to drop and microbial growth accelerates creating more H 2 SO 4 Causes of Deterioration

10 Microbial Induced Corrosion Phase 4 – Final Phase –Acid attack of the concrete creates a layer of gypsum (calcium sulfate). As organisms reproduce additional acid is produced. –Eventual structural failure Causes of Deterioration


12 Purpose: –Lower the cost of wastewater being treated at the plant. –Lower the cost of equipment maintenance associated with abrasive soils in the waste stream. –Protect the environment for Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSO’s) or Combined Sewer Overflows (Cso’s) Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

13 Process –Treated through trenchless technology applications –Utilizing polyurethane grout injection Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

14 Why should you use polyurethane grouts? –Lowest cost permanent repair procedure. –Little disruption to the community. –Grouting seals leaks and fills voids. –Can be performed in house or contracted out. Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

15 Grouting is a Non Structural repair, if the manhole/pipe are in good sound condition grouting is all that is needed to seal leaks, fill voids, extend the structures life, lower repair costs. Grouting, in many cases, may be needed to stop infiltration prior to the application of coatings and linings. Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

16 Possible Applications –Leak Repairs Manholes, Storm Sewers, Treatment Plant Tanks,Tunnels, Box Culverts, Dams, Seawalls & Pipe joints. –Stabilization Manholes, Roadways, Seawalls, Pipe lines &Tank Slabs. Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

17 Chemical Grouts are broken down into 4 basic categories. 1. Acrylamide 2. Acrylate 3. Acrylic 4. Polyurethane Stopping Inflow & Infiltration **Acrylamide and Acrylate grouts are the primary chemical grouts used for Mainline sewer grouting**

18 Polyurethane Chemical Grouts are broken in to two categories. – 1. Hydrophobic – 2. Hydrophilic Stopping Inflow & Infiltration

19 Hydrophilic Resins Flexible Resin only Great Bond Absorbs Water Medium to High Shrinkage Medium Expansion Foam or Gel Stopping Inflow & Infiltration Hydrophobic Resins Rigid and Flexible Resin + Catalyst Good Bond Repeals Water Low Shrinkage High Expansion Adjustable Set Times Foam

20 Typical Problems Here are four products designed to solve problems in Manholes: Polyurethane foam A flexible Polyurethane for cracks and pipe penetration. Hydrophobic: A Polyurethane capable of shutting off gushing leaks and f filling voids. Gel : A Polyurethane gel that will seal leaks and stop infiltration through the walls. OAKUM: A dry jute rope when soaked in Polyurethane is capable of filling large cracks. Grouting Leaks in main line pipes can easily be accomplished using Acrylates or Acrylamide grouts.

21 Using Oakum Soak Oakum In Resin Dip Oakum with Resin in Water Apply Oakum in Joint

22 Insertion of Wall Spear

23 Insertion of Ports

24 Shutting Off High Flow Leaks

25 Complete encapsulation

26 Cementitious Repair Mortars –Portland Cement with Admixtures or Calcium Aluminates –Sprayed or trowel applied –New product mixes allow radial spray with no entry into manhole –Will degrade as the original surface did Structural Rehabilitation Materials

27 Portland Cement –This is the most commonly used cement during the precasting and/or cast-in-place production of today’s wastewater components. Relatively Inexpensive Easily Located Susceptible to MIC Long cure times before topcoating Structural Rehabilitation Materials

28 Microsilica Repair Mortars –Microsilica repair mortars utilize portland cement to create the cement paste but also contain a fumed silica admixture to create a more dense substrate. Chemical Resistant / Lower Permeability Can be used as a stand alone liner in a mild H 2 S environments. Faster cure times for topcoating Susceptible to MIC Lower cost than Calcium Aluminate Mortars Structural Rehabilitation Materials

29 Calcium Aluminate Repair Mortars –There are two common types of calcium aluminate mortar commercially available today. Pure Calcium Aluminate Mortars –Where the aggregate is a coarsely ground version of the cement dust Calcium Aluminate Mortars –Where the aggregate is silica sand Structural Rehabilitation Materials

30 Calcium Aluminate Repair Mortars –Multiple manufacturers in the U.S. –The principle behind Calcium Aluminates is that they maintain a higher pH that prevents they colonization of the Thiobacillus bacteria. –The paste will erode exposing the chemically inert silica sand. Eventually the sand will fall out of the surface of the repair mortar*. Structural Rehabilitation Materials

31 Calcium Aluminate Repair Mortars –Available from only 3 manufacturers in the U.S. –The principle behind Calcium Aluminates is that they maintain a higher pH that prevents they colonization of the Thiobacillus bacteria. –The paste will erode at the same rate as the aggregate*. Structural Rehabilitation Materials

32 Pure or Fused Vs. Calcium Aluminate Mortars –In a test conducted in Germany to replicate an 8-year service life in a sewer system the weight loss difference between these 2 products was approximately 1%. Contributed to the previous statements marked with an*. Structural Rehabilitation Materials

33 Calcium Aluminate Mortars –Offer an improved life cycle over other repair mortars –Fastest cure time for topcoating –Require humidity to properly cure –Susceptible to MIC but a reduced rate –Can be used as a stand alone liner in moderate H 2 S environments. Structural Rehabilitation Materials



36 Protect the surrounding environment Provide a longer life cycle for the substrate they are protecting Provide an excellent infiltration barrier Available chemistries include: –Epoxy –Polyurethane –Polyurea Chemical Resistant Coatings & Linings

37 Epoxy Coating and Linings –Epoxy coatings have been the industry standard since municipalities began lining manholes and provide performance properties that will satisfy the requirements of many rehabilitation projects. Epoxies are not the cure or fix for every situation and should be considered based on the structure, location, use, and environment during application. Chemical Resistant Coatings & Linings

38 Epoxy Coatings & Linings Pros Moisture tolerance High film builds High strength Low/No Odor Chemical Resistance Variable formulations –Epoxy Resins “Hot Pot” Spray Plural Component Spray –Epoxy Mortars Hand trowel “Hot Pot” Spray Cons Rigid films Subject to Blush Exothermic Reaction could cause microfracturing



41 Polyurethane Coating and Linings –Polyurethane chemistries have gained market acceptance over the last several years. This generic chemistry offers the greatest flexibility of formulation to fit the desired needs of the end user and excellent chemical resistance. Chemical Resistant Coatings & Linings

42 Polyurethane Coatings & Linings Pros Flexibility of formulation –Flexible –Rigid –Hand Applied Repair Grades Improved elongation Fast cure times Abrasion Resistance High film builds Cons Do not tolerate moisture well during application or initial cure Plural Component Spray May require a primer


44 Polyurea Coating and Linings –Polyurea or Hybrid Polyurea chemistries are the newest technologies to have gained market acceptance. This technology may be one of the most difficult for an end user to evaluate due to the formulation variances. These variances can effect performance and chemical resistance. Chemical Resistant Coatings & Linings

45 Polyurea/Hybrid Polyurea Coatings & Linings Pros Fast dry times High film builds Used for linings and chimney seals Physical Toughness –Excellent Abrasion resistance –Elongation Cons Do not tolerate moisture well during application or initial cure Plural Component direct impingement application Chemical resistance High tensile strength Primer may be required

46 Required to test liner for discontinuity Moisture in substrate sufficient for reading High Voltage – > 20.0 DFT 100 volts per dry mil Inspection and Holiday Inspection

47 Spark Testing Polyurethane Elastomer Installation For manhole rehab.

48 There are numerous products and methods available for the lining and rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure. Physical performance characteristics vary greatly across the numerous chemistries. Products should be selected based on the needs of the end user. Uniform monolithic films aid in prevention of chemical attack. Summary

49 Thank You

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