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2 TYPES OF FOOD ASSISTANCE IMPLEMENTED Emergency General Feeding Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding  ‘Blanketed’ and ‘targeted’  Community-based Therapeutic Care School Feeding Institutional Feeding Food for Work Food For Training  Safety Net Programs

3 There is a huge body of information, technology and training expertise to help inform and troubleshoot operational processes When Allister started in 1968 in the Biafra war; no email, internet, commodity tracking. Now: Rules and regulations; based on experience and real politic. Manuals and training tools. Technology; internet based tracking

4 US legislation: Farm bill ; PL480 Title I, II, III Section 416(b) Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust (BEHT US/ Host government processes and provisions. Training Manuals : CARE, WVI, FHI, ADRA Training Specialist NGO’s ; ‘Inside NGO’ ; TOPS Consortia. Internet based tracking: FARES and QICKER

5 So why is commodity sometimes lost and late arriving? Observation The further you go down the line, the less control that there is Institutionally and Geographically. USAID/WFP and agents NGO and Agents ( Conduct is controllable) Government customs and control agency standards Cross border Control

6 Why is some commodity lost and late arriving? Geographically: A trade off between speed, safety and security and cost; Examples: DRC, Eritrea, Haiti, Karamoja. (Karamoja Report Example)

7 Operational Processes which follow Project Design: Annual Estimate of Requirements Calls Forward FARES Shipping Documentation Record Keeping for Shipping Activities In-Country Transportation and Storage Handling Damaged Commodities

8 Annual Estimate of Requirements Required for all food programs Indicates type, amount and time of commodity arrival; for the partner or “co-operating sponsor” Foundation on which calls forward of commodities are based Basic planning document for the movement of commodities for the organization Determines the total food required Regarded as a legal document Each commodity and program is detailed separately (e.g. supplementary feeding and food for work)

9 Calls Forward A formal request by a country office for delivery of all or part of the commodity contracted to a country program under its grant or contract agreement. Begins process of purchasing, packaging, manufacturing and shipment Can only be made after the AER has been approved A call forward could be postponed due to a lack of commodity availability.

10 The Food Aid Request Entry System For US.-donated commodities, calls forwards are managed through an internet-based system FARES. Automated, online food aid request system Allows users to modify their orders, based on need, budget, supply, etc. Increases accuracy in food aid processing and distribution and improves security USDA website:

11 Shipping Documentation Packing List  Describes type and amount of the SP-bound commodity on the ship.  Can include more than one bill of lading  Each packing list is numbered consecutively to show the total number of shipments to the country Bill of Lading  Proof of contract of carriage between the carrier (the shipping company) and the shipper (the person or agency sending the commodity)  There can be more than one bill of lading  Essential for receipt and clearance of the commodity through port and customs  Original bill of lading is usually necessary for customs and port clearance  Valued bill of lading: verifies the amount and value of merchandise  Clean bill of lading: the carrier has not indicated any problems with the condition of the cargo at the time of acceptance

12 Arrival at Port Shipping company will present the cargo manifest to the port authorities for authorization to unload. Before the commodity is off-loaded, an SP representative and an independent surveyor must ensure that the ship’s hatches are inspected and the captain’s log reviewed. This shows the condition of the food and weather conditions en route. Some countries require a rep. from the Ministry of Health to make a visual inspection and approve the discharge (unloading)

13 Customs Clearance (by an appointed Clearing agent) Permission to import commodities free of customs duties must be part of SP’s country agreement The Country Director must obtain approvals from the local government and process documents that are required for the cargo to clear customs, and appoint a Clearing Agent to handle the customs procedures. Each country has different policies and requirements for importation of food commodities. If a delay in custom’s clearance occurs, notify the local USAID mission or other donors immediately to request assistance and/or keep them informed. If there are questionable costs, such as customs fees, it is necessary to request a ruling from the USAID mission on whether the cost is to be considered a tax or a duty.

14 Customs Clearance All costs caused by an unnecessary delay in clearing customs are the responsibility of SP. SP must ensure that the discharge of food from the ship does not take place if an independent surveyor is not present. SP must have its own port representative present at all times, irrespective of who else is present SP shipping terms should stipulate “no night discharging of vessels”

15 Damage During Discharge Time of InspectionCommon Causes of DamageWhat to Look For Before discharge from ship  Poor loading supervision in donor country, resulting in broken bags  Moisture trapped in the hold, condensing on the cargo, particularly in barges and break-bulk ships in transit from cold to warm climates.  Mold as a result of wet bags  Quality of stowage on board the ship  Condition of cargo in the hold (mold, broken bags, etc.)  Condition of packaging During discharge from ship to port storage area  Dragging a pallet across the hold  Overloading pallets  Allowing rope slings to cut into bags stacked on a pallet  Overloading material handling carts  Use of hooks  Theft  Quality of stevedore labor  Quality of discharge techniques  Acceptability of dock and storage area for food  Discharge customs of the port/country  Accuracy of reports controlling the movement of the food from port to warehouse  Port security, including limited access to the storage area  Inordinate delays in moving the food out of the port area  Storage of food with incompatible goods, such as grains stored next to gasoline During repackaging at the dock or port storage area  Infestation  Short weight  Adequate labor, packaging and equipment available for reconstitution  Proper segregation of damaged food  Timeliness of fitness certifications  Proper inventory adjustment authorizations

16 Get the documentation right Get good local partners (Independent Surveyor, Clearing Agent, Port Officer or Port Liaizon) Expect the unexpected Report losses immediately

17 Selecting a Food Storage Facility Warehouse Security Receiving Food at the Warehouse Stacking Methods Warehouse Documentation: Ledger, Stack Card Inspection Checklists Other Logistic Considerations

18 Selecting Food Storage Facilities Key factors to consider: Convenient location accessible to trucks, railroads, ships, etc. High ground and hard-packed soil, especially in flood-prone areas Proper ventilation, intact roof, adequate drainage and concrete (or packed-earth) floor to protect against rodents. Adequate security, such as locks, window grates, security walls and perimeter lighting Rental fees and labor availability – casual and long-term workers Cleaned properly before food storage.

19 Warehouse Security Country Directors should make clear to warehouse staff that the person who possesses the keys is accountable for all losses. This is a crucial part of an office security plan, particularly if it becomes necessary to withdraw expatriate management staff from a region or country. In times of riot, angry local demonstrators will usually picket the warehouse first, rather than an agency’s office.

20 Receiving Food at the Warehouse

21 Stacking Methods FIFO (First in-first out) method of stacking ensures easy access to food that has been stored the longest Bags of grain or processed food should not be stacked higher than 20 layers All food should be placed on clean pallets without protruding nails or splinters Stacks should be one meter away from the walls and roof eaves to allow air to circulate Most common method of stacking is cross-stacking food, which makes it easier to count commodities during inspection

22 Warehouse Documentation The warehouse ledger Register commodities entering and leaving the warehouse in the ledger immediately after a waybill has been received Separate ledgers for each commodity type, unit and shipment Record commodity in whole units. Reconcile the ledger daily with the respective stack card Close the ledgers at the end of the month, with Physical count and carry forward the previous month’s ending balance. Stack Card:  Records the number of bags or cartons contained in the stack  The cards should be signed and updated immediately there is a change so as to match the physical inventory.

23 Sample Warehouse Inspection Checklist

24 Other Logistic Considerations ConsiderationsQuestions to Ask Number and location of the main warehouses  How many warehouses will be used for the food program? Holding capacity in the main warehouses  What is the holding capacity of main warehouses?  What is the total in-country holding capacity? Amount of food commodities  How much and what types of food should be dispatched to each warehouse? The turn-around time  What are the conditions of the roads and bridges?  How long does it take for a loaded truck to move from the port to the warehouses?  How long does it take to clear customs at the border crossing (if applicable)?  What are the handling/off-loading speeds at the port and the main warehouses? Seasonality of rainfall patterns  What is the condition of the roads? Are they all-weather?  Is extra transport time required for stormy weather?  Should additional food be pre-positioned in the warehouses?

25 Resources are wasted at the field level because of attitudes and relationships within management, design and implementation structures. Need to commit cash to operational infrastrucure, development and training. Need to explore and commit to relationships in the field and new frameworks of organisational partnership Create synergy between operations and design at the field level.

26 Creativity and Commitment to Partner Development and Capacity Building I’ve just spent a week in Ecuador and visited the WFP logistic base, set up as central warehouse, training facility for WFP and their partners, and operational command centre for future regional emergencies. As a new partner with WFP Ecuador on free distribution, WFP invited out team to the training centre for a day and we got a basic one day training not only on the logistic requirements, but on nutrition s well. SP Haiti partners with WV in a SYAP, with similar joint design / capacity activities. ed. WV came, had the initial meetings, design and training from the SP base

27 New Frameworks of Organisational Partnership There is a new understanding of how to work in consortia. There is roll out to a greater range of operational partners The input of private foundations is opening new ways of conserving and utilizing resources.

28 Synergy between Operations and design at the Field level. There needs to be greater understanding by monitor and logistic staff of program transition and Developmental Relief, and vice versa. More commitment to monitoring and evaluation ‘until the food hits the belly of the beneficiary’ Commitment to inter-sectoral interface


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