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BEER (latin bibere – to drink). Before starting the anaerobic stage there is an aerobic phase in which the trapped oxygen is utilized. After finishing.

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Presentation on theme: "BEER (latin bibere – to drink). Before starting the anaerobic stage there is an aerobic phase in which the trapped oxygen is utilized. After finishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 BEER (latin bibere – to drink)

2 Before starting the anaerobic stage there is an aerobic phase in which the trapped oxygen is utilized. After finishing that oxygen, the anaerobic phase starts. Silage undergoes anaerobic fermentation, which starts about 48 hours after the silo is filled. In the past, the fermentation was conducted by indigenous microorganisms, but, today, some bulk silage is inoculated with specific microorganisms to speed fermentation or improve the resulting silage. The process converts sugars to acids and exhausts any oxygen present in the crop material. Fermentation is essentially complete after about two weeks. Silage inoculants contain one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria, and the most common is Lactobacillus plantarum. Other bacteria used in inoculants include Lactobacillus buchneri, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus species. Prehistoric Nomads discover fermented grain

3 If you tread grapes you get wine, if you tread grain you get sore feet. Grain must be processed before you can ferment it and you have to rely on wild yeasts. Grapes have the all the yeast they need on their skins. All you have to do to make wine is break the grape open to give the yeast access to the sugar Hazy = Brewers YeastYeast Cells up closeBeer Yeast Starter

4 Different fermentables for different cultures Africa – Millet, Maize and Cassava North America – Persimon and Agave (Mexico) South America- Corn and Sweet Potatoes (Brazil) Japan – Rice (Sake) China – Wheat (Samshu) Asia – Sorghum (Kvass) Russia – Rye Egyptians - Barley Millet CassavaPersimmonSorghum Rye Barley Agave Corn

5 Grape Friendly RegionsWorld Grain Production  30 – 50 degrees latitude North and South are the best grape producing regions  Grain is grown in nearly every country on the planet  Grapes began cultivation between 5,400 – 5,000BCE  Grain cultivation and bread making began 8,000BCE  Egyptians begin grape cultivation around 3,000-2,500BCE (wine was 4x as expensive as beer)  Beer sediments have been found in jars dating from the pre-Dynastic era 5,500BCE (Egypt)  Greeks began growing grape vines on trellises while Romans perfected pruning practices  Egyptians and Mesopotamians paid wages in beer and used beer as currency

6 Beer Gods Silenus In Ancient Greek mythology, Silenus is the God of beer and a drinking companion. He is usually associated with his buddy, Dionysus. He is often featured as a bald and fat man, with a big beer belly. He is normally drunk and it is said that he had to be carried either by donkeys or satyrs (in Greek mythology, satyrs are wood-dwelling creatures with the head and body of a man and the ears, horns, and legs of a goat). Dionysus is famously known for being the Ancient Greek God of intoxicating drinks like wine and beer. He is also known as the Liberator as he liberates oneself with the intoxicating power of alcoholic drinks. He is the son of Zeus and considered Silenus his tutor. Dionysus Ninkasi is the Ancient Sumerian Goddess of beer and brewing. It is said that she provides the world with the secret to make beer. In Sumerian culture, she is also known for her power to satisfy human desire. Ninkasi In Ancient Egyptian culture, Osiris is the God of agriculture. He is also known as the God of beer. A Greek historian from the time of Julius Caesar once wrote that, “Osiris taught the people how to brew the beverage which is made of barley, which is not greatly inferior to wine in odor and potency.” Osiris In Norse mythology, Aegir is actually the God of the sea. It is believed that he has the control of the storms and turbulent seas. He is also known as the God of beer and brewing. Aegir In the Aztec tradition, Tezcatzontecatl is the God of pulque (a traditional alcoholic beverage made of fermented juice of the century plant, and similar to beer). He is also associated with drunkenness and fertility. A monument built like a pyramid was built on top of the Tepozteco Mountain for the worshiper and now, this place has become a well known archaeological site. Tezcatzontecatl In Zulu mythology, Mbaba Mwana Waresa is the Goddess of beer because it is believed that she created the first beer for human comsumption. She is also known as the Goddess of rain and the rainbow. She is celebrated for her search of true love. Mbaba Mwana Waresa In certain African cultures, Yasigi is the Goddess of beer, dance and masks. Her statue portrays her as large- breasted female holding a beer ladle while dancing. Yasigi In the Czech mythology, Radegast is the God of hospitality and mutuality. According to the legend, he is credited for the creation of beer. Radegast In Ancient Baltic and Slavic mythology, Raugupatis is known as the God of fermentation. Raugutiene is Raugupatis partner and she is known as the Goddess of beer. Raugupatis and Ragutiene

7 5000 years ago, Chinese civilizations brewed a beer known as kui The 6th King of Babylonia, Hammuabi, incorporated provisions regulating the business of tavern keepers in his great law code in 2,100 BC. These provisions enclosed the sale of beer and were intended to protect the consumer. The penalty of short measure by an innkeeper was drowning. The Alulu tablet - found in the Sumerian city of Ur - displays a reciept for "best" beer. Mesopotamia – 4300 BCE clay tablet Babylonians brewed 20-30 different styles, including a light beer.

8 The invention of the straw? Early beer drinkers use reeds to help filter out the grain hulls and Other particulate matter. Egyptian Royalty used Gold tubes and drank from gold goblets Early Mesopotamian Beer Seal Early Egyptian Hieroglyph *In ancient times beer was cloudy and unfiltered. The "drinking straws" were used to avoid getting the brewing residue, which was very bitter, in the mouth. Beer from Babylon was exported and distributed as far away as Egypt. Hammurabi, an important Babylonian King, decreed the oldest known collection of laws. One of these laws established a daily beer ration. This ration was dependent on the social standing of the individual, a normal worker received 2 liters, civil servants 3 liters, administrators and high priests 5 liters per day. In these ancient times beer was often not sold, but used as barter. (Beer had a watery porridge consistency in ancient Egypt)

9 *The Egyptians carried on the tradition of beer brewing. They also used unbaked bread dough for making beer and added dates to the brew to improve the taste. The importance of beer brewing in ancient Egypt can be seen from the fact that the scribes created an extra hieroglyph for "brewer". Beer production was controlled by the State. There were strict rules governing the methods of production since beer offerings were part of the pharaohs religious practices. If an Egyptian man offered a lady a sip of his beer, and she accepted, then they were betrothed. The Gilgamesh epic, one of the oldest stories on earth (2,500BCE), refers to beer as a product of civilization. Separating “cultured man” from barbarians.


11 Beer as an Egyptian Medicine 1600BCE Egyptian medical text lists 100 different prescriptions calling for the use of beer. These early beers were brewed with balsam, hay, dandelion, mint, wormwood seeds, horehound juice, crab claws and oyster shells. *Egyptians used beer as a gum-disease treatment, a dressing for wounds, and even an anal fumigant—a vapor borne pesticide to treat diseases of the anus. The anthropologist also believes the tetracycline (in the beer) protected the Nubians from bone infections, as all the bones he examined are infection free.

12 Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognized as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs. Beer in Europe **A large number of weakly germinated hulled barley grains were found at Eberdingen-Hochdorf in southwest Germany (ca. 600 – 400 BC). These grains seem to represent deliberate germination. These grains from Hochdorf seem to be the result of deliberate malting of hulled barley for the purpose of Celtic beer brewing. (Institut für Botanik, Universität Hohenheim -210, Garbenstr. 30, D- 70599 Stuttgart, Germany) **A few hundred years after this (424BC), Stout wooden barrels held together with an iron hoop were developed by north European Celts during the Iron Age for storing all manner of goods. The underlying ‘real ale’ principle is still used today with containers, being that “They all contained unfiltered, unpasteurized beer”. ** **During the centuries of Roman invasion into Great Britain, it is likely that the names Bracis (or Braces) and Curmi (or Kurmi), meaning malted barley and beer respectively were used commonly in the Celtic homelands. Thus, showing more evidence of the developed Celtic brewing culture. Today the French word for Brewery, ‘Brasserie’ stems from the celtic name ‘Bracis’ and the Spanish name for beer, ‘Cerveza’ is likely to have mutated from the Celtic name ‘Curmi’. The Romans marched through most of Britain, but struggled and were defeated once by a Celtic tribe known as the Silurians, who had a territory in what would be today’s South East Wales. 78-48 BCE 600-400 BCE

13 *The Greek writer Sophocles (450 BC) discussed the concept of moderation when it came to consuming beer in Greek culture, and believed that the best diet for Greeks consisted of bread, meats, various types of vegetables, and beer or "ζῦθος" (zythos) as they called it. 484-420BCE Herodotus writes a lengthy treatise on brewing beer. * Greece

14 Rome Ancient Rome also enjoyed beer way before wine replaced the beverage as the alcoholic drink of choice. They are said to have learned the art of beer brewing from the Greeks, who in turn, learned it from the Egyptians. The Romans called beer “cerevisia” (Ceres the God of agriculture and Vis which means strength). Eventually, the Romans started regarding beer as a drink of the Barbarians. In 49 BC Caesar toasted his troops after crossing the Rubicon, and thus began the Roman Civil War. Pliny - 23-79 AD documents the Romans learning to brew from the Egyptians. I n his journals he describes brewing methods, the use of corn as an adjunct, and of the common types of beer brewed by the tribes conquered by Rome. (Goths, Celts, Vandals, Gauls and Germans) “The nations of the west also have their own intoxicant, made from grain soaked in water; there are a number of easy of making it in the various provinces of Gaul although the principal is the same.” Pliny the Elder

15 Grape Region versus the Roman Empire

16 Beer in the Bible Judges: 4:19 – Tells of Noah brewing beer on the Ark by boiling loaves to make a malty broth. In the New International Version of the Bible the Hebrew word "shakar" is translated as "beer". In the King James versions of the Bible the Hebrew word "shakar" is translated as "strong or intoxicating drink." Proverbs 20:1, warns, "Wine is a mocker, intoxicating drink (beer) arouses fighting, whoever is led astray by it is not wise!" Isaiah 24:9 that when Jerusalem fell, they’d lose their day-ending drink: “No more do they drink wine with singing; strong drink is bitter to those who drink it.” Isaiah 28:7 cautions the many who abused their drink and misled Judah: “These also reel with wine and stagger with strong drink; the priest and the prophet reel with strong drink, they are swallowed by wine, they stagger with strong drink, they reel in vision, they stumble in giving judgment.”

17 To Preach and to Brew... At the time of Charlemagne, monasteries were a recent innovation. Outside Italy, the first people to be Christianized were the Irish and the Britons, early in the fifth century. Imbued with missionary zeal, the new converts set out to save continental pagans from damnation. By the beginning of the sixth century, Irish missionaries had started to penetrate the heathen Teutonic forests in search of souls. They founded small monasteries from which they spread the gospel. The three central figures are the three Irish missionaries who brought Christianity to Franconia around 700: Kilian (center), Kolonat, and Totnan. KilianKolonatTotnan

18 Charlemagne King of the Franks and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, 742 - 814 ‘By the sword and the cross,’ Charlemagne became master of Western Europe. Charlemagne's empire was organized into great estates, each with a master's house, church, grain mill, forge, bakery, stables, barns, workshops, peasant's cottages and, of course, a brewery. Charlemagne was a great supporter of the brewing craft and insisted that there be a brewery in each of his estates. For his vassals, he wrote an elaborate set of economic ordinances, entitled Capitulare caroli magni de villis (The main points about running Charlemagne's estates), in which he gave rather detailed instructions about almost any aspect of management, including that of the brewery. Whenever he showed up, paragraph 61 kicked in: "We wish that the intendant on duty bring before Our Person samples of beer. We also wish that they bring along their brewmaster so that they can brew for Us good beer in our presence." In paragraph 34, he instructed brewers about hygiene: "The administrators have to make sure that workers who use their hands in the preparation of beer, keep themselves especially clean." He also insisted on annual reports (paragraph 62): "We also wish that our intendants compose an annual inventory ledger at Christmas time. We also want a list of the beers they brew so that we know which quantities of the different products are available." In these ordinances lie the seeds of institutional, commercial brewing in central Europe, an activity in which the monasteries were soon to become the most successful players.

19 Charlemagne (cont) King of the Franks and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, 742 - 814 If You Got the Gruit, You Got the Beer In the feudal system of land control with a clear division of rights and obligations between lords, vassals and serfs, all land not specifically granted to a vassal belonged to the crown. And the crown land held a most important resource for the hausfrau-brewster of the age: Remember, we are still in the pre-hops era. We know that hop gardens were cultivated in the Hallertau region of Germany as early as the 730s, but, for centuries to come, beer generally continued to be spiced mostly with gruit (old German for "wild herbs") such as yarrow, bog myrtle, or juniper. Thus the quality of the beer you could make depended on your access to suitable herbs, and these grew mostly on crown lands. Though everybody was allowed to brew, not everybody was allowed to pick gruit. This gave the crown almost accidental control over the quality of the beer in the land. Initially, the crown reserved the gruit privilege only for its own estates, although it later granted it to churches and monasteries as well. Eventually, the term gruit came to mean not only the herbs brewers used to flavor the beer but also the taxes they had to pay for their brewing privilege.

20 The most famous today being Saint Corbinian, who, in 724, built a simple chapel on Weihenstephan Mountain, north of Munich. He must have picked a great spot, since the little religious outpost grew into a Benedictine Abbey, which, in 1040, obtained, from Bishop Engilbert of Freising, official brewing privileges and the right to sell its beer for profit. Today, the brewery at Weihenstephan is owned by the State of Bavaria and is the oldest continuously operating brewery in the world.

21 500-1000 AD the first half of the Middle Ages, brewing begins to be practiced in Europe, shifting from family tradition to centralized production in monasteries and convents (hospitality for traveling pilgrims). During Medieval times beer was used for tithing, trading, payment and taxing. 1000 AD hops begins to be used in the brewing process.

22 1200 AD beer making is firmly established as a commercial enterprise in Germany, Austria, and England. a) German's preferred cold temperature lagers (bottom-fermentation) stored in caves in the Alps. b) English preferred mild temperature ales (top-fermentation) stored in cellars. 1295 King Wenceslas grants Pilsen Bohemia brewing rights (formerly Czechoslovakia, now Slovakia & Czech Republic). 1420 German brewers develop the lager method of brewing. 1489 Germany's first brewing guild, Brauerei Beck, was established. 1490's Columbus found Indians making beer from corn and black birch sap. The brewer's star was intended to symbolize purity; that is, a brewer who affixed the insignia to his product was thereby declaring his brew be completely pure of additives, adjuncts, etc. In fact, folklore has it that the six points of the star represented the six aspects of brewing most critical to purity: the water, the hops, the grain, the malt, the yeast, and the brewer

23 Renaissance History 1516 Bavarian brewing guilds push for the Reinheitsghebot purity laws make it illegal to use any ingredients but water, barley, and hops in the brewing of beer (they didn't know yeast existed). 1553 Beck's Brewery founded & still brewing today. Late 1500's Queen Elizabeth I of England drank strong ale for breakfast. 1587 the first beer brewed in New World at Sir Walter Raleigh's colony in Virginia-- but the colonists sent requests to England for better beer. 1602 Dr. Alexander Nowell discovers that ale can be stored longer in cork sealed, glass bottles. 1612 the first commercial brewery opened in New Amsterdam (NYC, Manhattan) after colonists advertised in London newspapers for experienced brewers. 1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock because the beer supplies were running low. 1674 Harvard College has its own brewhouse.

24 1680 William Penn (founder of Pennsylvania) operated commercial brewery. 1757 Washington wrote his personal recipe "To Make Small Beer." 1786 Molson brewery is founded in what is today Canada. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had their own private brewhouses. Samuel Adams operated commercial brewery. Soldiers in the revolutionary army received rations of a quart of beer a day. 1789 James Madison proposes that Congress levy a low 8-cent duty per barrel on malt liquors to encourage "the manufacture of beer in every State in the Union." Beer and bread were the mainstays of the ordinary person's diet for centuries. Yeasts during this time were exactly the same as those used in bread. Molson Brwery

25 The beer engine, a device for manually pumping beer from a container in a pub's basement or cellar, was invented by Joseph Bramah in 1797. The bar-mounted pump handle, with its changeable pump clip indicating the beer on offer remains a familiar and characteristic sight in most English pubs. Before the beer engine, beer was generally poured into jugs in the cellar or tap room and carried into the serving area. 1797 – Invention of the tap

26 Before the 1800's most beer was really "Ale.“ 1810 Munich establishes Oktoberfest as an official celebration. 1830's Bavarians Gabriel Sedlmayr of Munich and Anton Dreher of Vienna developed the lager method of beer production. 1842 the first golden lager is produced in Pilsen, Bohemia. In the mid-19th Century (1850's) German immigrant brewers introduced cold maturation lagers to the US (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, Coors, Stroh, Schlitz, and Pabst roots begin here). The Bürger Brauerei recruited the Bavarian brewer Josef Groll (1813 – 1887) who, using new techniques and the newly available paler malts, presented his first batch of modern pilsener on 5 October 1842. The combination of pale colour from the new malts, Pilsen's remarkably soft water, Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec (Saaz in German) and Bavarian-style lagering produced a clear, golden beer which was regarded as a sensation. Improving transport and communications also meant that this new beer was soon available throughout Central Europe, and the Pilsner Brauart style of brewing was soon widely imitated. In 1859, “Pilsner Bier” was registered as a brand name at the Chamber of Commerce and Trade in Pilsen. In 1898, the Pilsner Urquell trade mark was created to put emphasis on being the original brewery.

27 The modern era of brewing in the US began in the late 1800's with commercial refrigeration (1860), automatic bottling, pasteurization (1876), and railroad distribution. 1870's Adolphus Busch pioneers the use of double-walled railcars, a network of icehouses to make Budweiser the first national brand. 1876 Pasteur unraveled the secrets of yeast in the fermentation process, and he also developed pasteurization to stabilize beers 22 years before the process was applied to milk. 1880 there are approximately 2,300 breweries in the US. The introduction to Germany of modern refrigeration by Carl von Linde in the late 19th century removed the need for caves in which to store the beer and thus allowed the brewing of bottom-fermenting beer in many places which had been unable to do so before. Pasteur's research also showed that the growth of micro-organisms was responsible for spoiling beverages, such as beer, wine and milk. With this established, he invented a process in which liquids such as milk were heated to kill most bacteria and moulds already present within them.


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