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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7 th EDITION CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SYSTEMS -HARDWARE.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7 th EDITION CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SYSTEMS -HARDWARE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7 th EDITION CHAPTER 2 COMPUTER SYSTEMS -HARDWARE -SOFTWARE

2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-2 HARDWARE Building Blocks of Information Technology HardwareSoftwareNetworksData Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4

3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-3 COMPUTER SYSTEMS Hardware: Physical pieces of a computer system Software: Set of programs that control the operations of a computer

4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-4 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS All computers made up of the same set of six building blocks: input, output, memory, arithmetic/logic unit, control unit, and files Control unit and arithmetic/logical unit together known as the central processing unit (CPU)

5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-5 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-6 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Device(s) needed to enter data into the computer for it to use in computations and comparisons Input:

7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-7 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Terminal -Designed strictly for input and output -Has keyboard and screen -Does not have a processor -Connected to a computer with a processor via telecommunications - Examples: point-of-sale terminal, ATM Input: What is the difference between a terminal and a PC?

8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-8 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS -Keyboard: input entered by user through keystrokes -Mouse, stylus, touchpad: alternative to keystrokes -Disk drive or flash drive: data on disk read into memory -Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR): used to process bank checks -Barcode labeling: scans barcodes on packages or products, and reads into computer -Optical character recognition (OCR): directly scans typed, printed, or handwritten material -Imaging: inputs digital form of documents and photos Common Input Methods: Keyboard Disk Drive Barcode

9 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-9 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Device(s) needed to produce results in a usable format Output:

10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-10 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS - Video display unit: displays output on a screen - Disk drive or flash drive: output written to disk for storage - Printer: output to paper (various types of printers) - Computer output microfilm (COM): microfilm generated for archive copies in small space - Voice response units: computer-generated verbal response messages Common Output Methods: Video Display Disk Drive Microfilm

11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-11 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Referred to as main memory or primary memory All data flows to and from memory Divide into cells -Each has a unique address -Can only store limited amount of data -Byte: stores one character of data -Word: stores two or more characters of data Memory: Memory

12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-12 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Memory:

13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-13 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Each memory cell is a set of circuits Each circuit is on or off (represented by 1 or 0) Each circuit corresponds to a bit (binary digit) Most computers – 8 bits (circuits) represents a character (byte) 2 common bit coding schemes used today: - ASCII - EBCDIC Memory:

14 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-14 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Carries out: - Mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) - Logical operations (number comparisons ) Arithmetic/Logical Unit:

15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-15 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Consists of VLSI circuits on a silicon chip Can perform up to billions of operations per second Numbers are taken from memory as input and results are stored in memory as output Arithmetic/Logical Unit: ALU Circuits

16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-16 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS File devices used to store vast quantities of data Main memory is limited, volatile and expensive Advantages: - File devices or secondary memory are used to store additional data that is non-volatile Disadvantages: - It has relatively slow speed Storage Devices: -Magnetic tape drives, disk drives, floppy drives -Optical CD or DVD drives Computer files:

17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-17 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Sequential Access Files -Records are stored in sequence according to file’s control key -Usually stored on magnetic tape Direct Access Files -Records can be accessed immediately, without regard to physical location -Stored on Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) Types of Computer files:

18 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-18 DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICES Types of DASD: Fixed (hard) drives Optical disk storage - CD-ROM - DVD-ROM - CD-R - DVD-R - CD-RW - DVD-RW Removable drives - Floppy Drives - Zip Drives - Flash (keychain) Drives

19 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-19 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Controls the other five components of the computer system Used to take advantage of speed and capacity of other components List of operations, called a program, tells the control unit what to do These operations are read from memory, interpreted, and carried out one at a time (stored- program concept) Control unit:

20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-20 STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT Computer Program - A list of what is to be done for an application - Each step or operation is called an instruction Machine Language - Computer program written for specific computer model - Program executed by control unit; consists of operation code and addresses Measure of Computer Power - Millions of instructions per second (MIPS) - Millions of floating point operations per second (MFLOPS) Benchmarking is used to compare speed for running a set of jobs on different machines

21 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-21 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Table 2.1

22 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-22 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS For personal computing Can generally be carried or moved by one person and only have one keyboard and display unit Examples: - Desktop PC - Laptop or notebook - Handheld or personal digital assistant (PDA) - Tablet PC Microcomputers:

23 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-23 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Microcomputers:

24 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-24 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Two major microcomputer platforms -IBM-compatible PCs (personal computers) -Apple microcomputers (does not use Windows OS) Have been put to a myriad of uses -Record-keeping -Word processing -Presentations -Programming -and a “client” in a client/server system Microcomputers, continued:

25 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-25 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS In 1980s, included 2 types of computer systems 1. Workstations - Microcomputers with more powerful chips than PCs - Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) chip yielded greater performance because it was specialized 2. Minicomputers - Less powerful and less expensive than mainframe systems - Used for departmental computers & office automation Midrange systems: Midrange Systems

26 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-26 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Servers for client/server applications, Web server, etc. - Low-end - Essentially high-powered PCs - Typically built on Intel Pentium, Celeron, Xeon or AMD processors - Often run Windows Server software - High-end - Powered by RISC processors or top-of-the-line Intel or AMD processors - Usually run Linux or some variation of UNIX Midrange systems - today :

27 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-27 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Computer platforms for most major corporations and government agencies Major strength is versatility in application processing - Online and batch processing - Integrated enterprise systems - Engineering and scientific applications - Network control - Systems development environment (not production) - Web server Major players today: IBM, Fujitsu, Unisys Mainframe Computers:

28 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-28 TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS “Number-crunchers” at 250K MFLOPS Handle problems generated by research scientists High-end supercomputers located in government, R&D labs, major universities Cost: $1 - $100 million One of fastest supercomputers (IBM Blue Gene/P): 294,912 processors and can achieve speed of 1 petaflop Supercomputers:

29 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-29 SOFTWARE Building Blocks of Information Technology HardwareSoftwareNetworkData Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4

30 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-30 TWO CATEGORIES OF SOFTWARE 1.Applications software 2.Support software

31 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-31 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE Programs written to accomplish particular business tasks: accounting, payroll, inventory, sales invoicing, etc. Programs that users interact with Software for standard applications typically purchased from a vendor Software for applications unique to the organization typically developed internally or via a vendor contract Includes personal productivity software by knowledge workers

32 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-32 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE EXAMPLE Accounting Software Package: - Commercial accounting package for smaller businesses - Includes general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory, payroll, time and billing, job costing, fixed asset accounting, and analysis and reporting tools - Price: $500 for single-user version

33 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-33 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE EXAMPLE Personal Productivity Software may be purchased as a software suite - Word Processing - Spreadsheets - Database Management Systems - Presentation Graphics - Electronic Mail and Groupware

34 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-34 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE Database management systems -Used to create, manage and protect organizational data -All employ a relational data model Database - Is a shared collection of logically related data organized to meet organizational needs - MS Office Example : Access Personal Productivity Software

35 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-35 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE Presentation graphics -Used to create slide shows for business presentations -All allow embedding of clip art, photos, graphs, and other media -MS Office Example: PowerPoint Personal Productivity Software

36 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-36 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE Electronic mail Groupware -Incorporates e-mail and other productivity features, such as calendaring, scheduling, and document sharing -MSOffice Example : Outlook Personal Productivity Software

37 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-37 APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE Used to access information (navigate) on the WWW from computers that can access the Internet -Hypertext-based approach (to link text and media objects to each other) Pull technology: browser requests a Web page before it is sent to client Push technology: data sent to client without requesting it (such as e-mail, spam, software patches ) Examples: Internet Explorer (Microsoft), Firefox (Mozilla), Safari (Apple) WWW Browsers

38 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-38 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Enables applications software to be carried out (run) Ensures that computer hardware and software are used efficiently Purchased from a hardware or software vendor

39 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-39 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Usually purchased from manufacturer of computer hardware that OS will be used on Complex program that controls operation of computer hardware and coordinates other software Performance objective is to maximize work done (throughput) User communicates with operating system software for input, output, storage, etc. Easier to use with graphical user interface (GUI): click on icons instead of enter text commands Operating System (OS)

40 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-40 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Operating System

41 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-41 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Job control language (JCL): instructions used to communicate with the operating system Multiprogramming: employed on larger machines to overlap input and output operations with processing time, keeping the CPU busy and speeding up execution Multitasking: similar to multiprogramming, but employed on microcomputers Multithreading: similar to multitasking, but multiple threads within the same program are overlapped Multiprocessing: work that takes place when two or more CPUs are installed on same computer system Operating System Concepts

42 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-42 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Virtual Memory : - Optimizes management of main memory by switching in and out portions of programs from DASD -- Permits multiprogramming to operate more efficiently Operating System Concepts, cont.

43 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-43 SUPPORT SOFTWARE - Proprietary systems: operating systems written for a particular computer hardware configuration - Microcomputers: MS-DOS, Vista, Windows 7, Mac OS - Large systems: IBM z/OS and z/VM - Open systems: not tied to any particular computer system or hardware manufacturer – will run on virtually any computer Examples: UNIX and Linux - IT Platform: set of hardware, software, communications ; OS name usually implies platform Operating System Concepts, cont.

44 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-44 SUPPORT SOFTWARE - Software running on a server that manages network resources and controls the operation of a network - Enhanced operating system that allows for: - Sharing disk drives and printers - Handling server side of client/server applications - Major players include: - UNIX and Linux -Microsoft Windows Server Server or Network Operating System (NOS)

45 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-45 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Machine language (1GL) Each instruction must be expressed in unique form for a particular computer Complete program consists of thousands of instructions Programming is a tedious, time-consuming process Assembly languages (2GL) Easily remembered mnemonic operation codes substituted for machine language operation codes Assembler used to convert mnemonic codes to machine language First and Second Generation Languages

46 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-46 SUPPORT SOFTWARE First and Second Generation Languages

47 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-47 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Procedural languages (3GL) -Express a step-by-step procedure devised by the programmer -Typically machine independent -Easier for programmers to learn -Structured programs: divided into modules, where each has one entry and one exit point - Must be compiled or interpreted (translated into machine language) ; one 3GL instruction typically translates into many machine language instructions Third Generation Languages

48 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-48 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Compiling and running a 3 GL Program

49 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-49 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Developing programs with a 3GL

50 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-50 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Most popular procedural languages & decade introduced 1950s - FORTRAN 1960s - COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) BASIC 1970s – C Third Generation Languages

51 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-51 SUPPORT SOFTWARE COBOL program example

52 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-52 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Nonprocedural languages (4GL) Easier to program, but less efficient for computers to run Uses more English-like statements for program instructions Today may be referred to as a language for business intelligence (BI) application development SAS IBM Cognos SAP Business Objects Oracle BI Enterprise Editing Plus Microsoft SQL 2008 Services (Analysis, Reporting ) Fourth Generation Languages

53 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-53 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Employ tags to “mark up” documents HTML - Used to create Web pages -Consists of special tags that tell the Web browser how to display various elements on a Web page (e.g., bold-faced or italic text, image location, links to other Web pages) XML - Used to facilitate data interchange among Web applications and Web services - Meta language consisting of tags that identify particular data elements Markup Languages HTML Example

54 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-54 EXAMPLES XML Example (tags in brackets) Indiana vs. Michigan 33 36 XML Example

55 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-55 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Neither 3GL nor 4GL … new paradigm Create objects once, store, then reuse Object examples: - Text box, check box Most Common Languages: - C++, Java, Visual Basic.NET, C# Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Languages

56 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-56 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Object-Oriented Programming – Java Example

57 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-57 SUPPORT SOFTWARE HTML is the most common form of user interface Server-side programming languages include: PHP Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP) Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP, ASP.NET) Adobe’s ColdFusion Languages for Developing Web Applications

58 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-58 SUPPORT SOFTWARE - Systems that create, store, and manage modifications to data in a database – and make data accessible for queries, reporting Data Dictionary/Directory - Repository for data definitions used by a Database Data Warehouse - Very large database or collection of databases for decision support that use a DBMS optimized for analytics (including data mining) Database Management Systems (DBMS)

59 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-59 SUPPORT SOFTWARE 1. Hierarchical Data are arranged like a top-down organization chart Example: IBM Information Management System (IMS) 2. Network Data are arranged like cities on a highway system, often with several paths from one piece of data to another Example: Computer Associates’ CA-IDMS 3. Relational Most common type Data arranged in simple tables Records related by storing common data in each associated table Examples: Microsoft Access and SQL Server, Paradox, DB2, and Ingres 5 DBMS Architectures

60 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-60 SUPPORT SOFTWARE 4.Object- Oriented Data can be graphics, video, and sound as well as simpler data types Attributes and methods are encapsulated in object classes, and relationships between classes can be shown by nesting one class within another Examples: Versant Object Database, Progress ObjectStore, and Objectivity/DB 5.Object-relational Hybrid approach that can handle complex data types with the simplicity of the relational model Examples: Oracle, IBM’s DB2 and Cloudscape, and FFE Software’s First SQL/J DBMS Architectures

61 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-61 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Query Language example: SQL/DS Command Language SELECT ORDER#, CUSTOMER#, CUSTNAME, ORDER-DATE FROM CUSTOMER, ORDER WHERE ORDER-DATE> ‘03/12/11’ AND CUSTOMER.CUSTOMER# = ORDER.CUSTOMER#

62 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-62 SUPPORT SOFTWARE Collection of software tools to help automate all phases of the software development life cycle to increase productivity of software designers and programmers CASE tools for OO development for Unified Modeling Language ( UML) - UML = general-purpose notational language for specifying and visualizing complex software, especially large, object-oriented projects Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) Tools

63 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-63 SUPPORT SOFTWARE For Large computers: Controls communications between workstations and terminals connected to a network & central computer Example: IBM’s Customer Information Control System (CICS ) Web Server Software serves Web pages to Web browser File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfers files from one computer system to another Utility programs: link together programs & subprograms, merge files (ZIP programs), check for viruses, etc. Communications Interface Software FTP

64 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-64 KEY SOFTWARE TRENDS More concern with human efficiency More purchased applications software More open source support software More programming using object-oriented languages More emphasis on applications that run on intranets and the Internet More user development More use of personal productivity software on microcomputers

65 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-65 IT INDUSTRY TRENDS Have been expanding by adding services (including acquiring established consulting firms) Major players: -US: IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Apple -Non US : Acer, Lenovo, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Sony Software firms Have been expanding by developing new products and acquiring smaller software companies -IBM bought Cognos; SAP bought Business Objects -Oracle bought PeopleSoft and Salesforce.com -Oracle also bought Sun (hardware and Java) Hardware firms

66 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-66 COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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