Learning Objectives Recognize the two basic aspects of materials control. Specify internal control for materials. Account for materials and relate materials accounting to the general ledger. Account for inventories in a just-in-time (lean production) system.
Learning Objectives (cont.) Account for scrap materials, spoiled goods, and defective work.
A cost control System The major function of a cost control system is to keep expenditures within the limits of a preconceived plan. An effective cost control system is designed to control the actions of people responsible for expenditures because people control costs. Costs do not control themselves.
A cost control system An effective cost control system should include the following: 1. A specific assignment of duties and responsibilities. 2. A list of individuals who are authorized to approve expenditures. 3. An established plan of objectives and goals.
A cost control system 4. Regular reports showing the differences between goals and actual performance. 5. A plan of corrective action designed to prevent unfavorable variances from recurring. 6. Follow-up procedures for corrective measures.
Materials Control The two basic aspects of materials control are : (1) the physical control or safeguarding of materials (2) control over investments in materials
Physical Control of Materials Limited Access – only authorized personnel should have access to material storage areas. Segregation of duties- segregation of employee duties to minimize opportunities for misappropriation of assets. Accuracy in recording – accurate recording of the purchase and issuance of materials.
Investment Control of Materials Maintaining the appropriate level of raw materials is one of the most important objectives of materials control. An inventory of sufficient size and variety for efficient operations must be maintained. Management should consider other working capital needs in determining inventory levels.
Investment Control of Materials Adequate planning and control is required. Management must determine: 1. When orders must be placed 2. How many units should be ordered Order point must be determined; order point is a minimum level of inventory that should be determined for each type of raw material, and inventory records should indicate how much of each type is on hand.
Investment Control of Materials Order point is based on the following data: 1. Usage – the anticipated rate at which the material will be used. 2. Lead time – the estimated time interval between the placement of the order an the receipt of the material. 3. Safety Stock - estimated minimum level of inventory needed to protect against stockouts
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ The optimal quantity to order at one time. Minimizes the total order and carry costs over a period of time.
Calculating EOQ EOQ = Economic Order Quantity C = Cost of placing an order N = Number of units required annually K = Annual carrying cost per unit of inventory EOQ =2CN K
Materials Control Procedures Materials control procedures generally related to the following functions: 1. Purchase an receipt of materials 2. Storage of materials 3. Requisition and consumption of materials
Materials Control Personnel Personnel involved in materials control usually include 1. Purchasing Agent 2. Receiving Clerk 3. Storeroom Keeper 4. Production Department Supervisor
Control During Procurement Documents commonly used in procuring materials include: 1. Purchase requisitions 2. Purchase Orders 3. Vendor’s invoices 4. Receiving reports 5. Debit-credit memoranda
Control During Procurement
Control During Storage and Issuance Materials Requisition Returned Materials Report
Accounting for Materials A company’s inventory records should show (1) the quantity of each kind of material on hand and (2) its cost. The materials accounting system must be integrated with the general ledger. Purchases of materials on account are recorded as a debit to Materials in the general ledger.
Accounting for Materials Materials account is a control account that is supported by a materials ledger.
Flow of materials and costs Flow of materials is the order in which materials are actually issued for use in the factory. Flow of costs is the order in which unit costs are assigned to materials issued.
Cost Flow Methods First-In, First Out (FIFO) Method – the materials issued are assumed to be taken from the oldest materials in stock. Last-In, First Out (LIFO) Method – the materials issued are assumed to be taken from the most recent purchase prices. Moving Average Method – assumes that the materials issued at any time are simply withdrawn for a mixed group of materials.
Interrelationship of Materials Documents and Accounts
Just-in-Time Materials Control In a just-in-time inventory system (lean production system), materials are delivered to the factory immediately prior to their use in production.
Just in Time Materials Control
Just in time and Cost Control Throughput time – the time it takes a unit to make it through the manufacturing system. Velocity – speed at which units are produced in the system. Nonvalue-added activities – operations that add costs but do not add value to the product for its customers, such as moving, storing, and inspecting the inventories.
Just in Time and Cost Flows
Scrap, Spoiled Goods, and Defective Work Scrap materials may result naturally from the production process. Spoiled units have imperfections that cannot be economically corrected. The loss can be treated as part of the job or charged to factory overhead. Defective work has imperfections that are correctable. The extra costs are either charged to the job or factory overhead.
Accounting for Scrap Materials If the scrap value is small: Cash……..XXX Scrap Revenue XXX If the scrap value is relatively high: Scrap Materials XXX Scrap Revenue Cash XXX Scrap Materials XXX