Presentation on theme: "VCTA A Walk through the new exam format and the new aspects of Unit 3"— Presentation transcript:
1 VCTA A Walk through the new exam format and the new aspects of Unit 3 Vicki Baron Celia MaraHaileybury Toorak College
2 New Study Design – Points to Note Unit 3 – Area of Study 1 - Outcome 12007 – 2011On completion of this unit the student should be able to record financial data into appropriate accounting records using a double entry accrual-based system for a single activity sole trader, and explain related aspects of this accounting system.2012 – 2016On completion of this unit the student should be able to record financial data for a single activity sole trader using a double entry system, and discuss the function of various aspects of this accounting systemFocus today will be on Unit 3 –(will produce similar content for Unit 4, but will be ready for Term 2)Notice that the main difference in Outcome 1 is a move from expecting our students to be able to EXPLAIN aspects of our accounting systemTODISCUSS the FUNCTION of various aspects of our accounting system (NEW KEY SKILL)What do we mean by our accounting system?:Double entry; control accounts; special journals; stock cards etc etcOur students MUST be able to DISCUSS these elements.Its our job to TEACH them how to do this
3 New Study Design – Points to Note Unit 3 – Area of Study 2 - Outcome 22007 – 2011On completion of this unit the student should be able to record balance day adjustments, prepare financial reports and explain related aspects of the accounting system2012 – 2016On completion of this unit the student should be able to record balance day adjustments and prepare and interpret accounting reports.Students need to be able to INTERPRET reports rather than just explain them. We can provide them with fully completed reports and ask them to address key questions about them. Although they need to be able to go through the mechanics of completing the reports, we must ensure that they know what each item is all about and to be able to talk about any part of the reports
4 The New Additions to 2012 General Journal entries for Contribution of non-current assets by the owner at agreed valueUse of stock for advertising purposesThe distinction between historical cost and agreed value in relation to non-current assetsPosting to the general ledger from the general journal and special journals on a monthly basisProcess of balancing the general ledger and subsidiary ledger accounts in preparation for the next reporting periodReasons for using control accountsInternal control procedures and practices of this accounting systemClassified Accounting reportsCash Flow StatementIncome StatementBalance Sheet
5 Key Knowledge Differences – U3,Outcome 1 ALL principles and characteristics listedAPPLICABLE principles and characteristicsspecial journals (the amount of GST will be identified for each relevant transaction):GST NOT IDENTIFIED ONLY NOT APPLICABLE in certain ledgerscontribution of non-current assets by the ownerContribution of non current assets by the owner at AGREED VALUEGJ – 5 areas to coverGJ – 6 areas – new dot point‘use of stock for advertising purposes’Not mentioned in old designThe distinction between historical cost and agreed value in relation to NCAPosting to GL from GJ and SJ’s at the END of REPORTING PERIODthe process of posting to the GL from the GJ and special journals on a MONTHLY BASISNo mention of NEXT reporting periodThe process of balancing the GL and sub ledgers in preparation for the NEXT reporting periodNo mention of theory behind control accounts‘reasons’ for control accounts for debtors, creditors and stock;No mention of thisInternal control procedures and practices of this accounting systemMain differences in KEY KNOWLEDGE:Bring this slide up and talk to this – go through in greater detail in next slideContribution of NCA – agreed value and– when doing General Journal REMEMBER to include theory questions here to allow your students to distinguish between historical cost and NCA?Use of stock for advertising – new dot point to be included when doing General Journal
6 Key Skills Differences – U3, Outcome 1 Use correct accounting terminologyidentify, classify and record financial data and information;Identify, classify and record financial datademonstrate an understanding of the concepts and principles underlying the recording and presentation of accounting data and information;Explain and apply the qualitative characteristics and accounting principles underlying the recording of financial data ad presentation of accounting informationApply theoretical knowledge to simulated situationApply theoretical knowledge to simulated situationsExplain the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equationDiscuss the function of the various aspects of the accounting system for a single activity trading businessMain differences in KEY SKILLSYou can see here that there are 2 completely new key skills that our students must be able to address and can therefore be examined on.Example: Explain the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equationYou could ask your students to state the accounting equation; prepare balance sheets; explain how they treated certain items; show the two fold effect, BUT we must also include in our teaching and learning activities theory questions as part of the practical exercises. They are intrinsic to the process of developing the skills in our students.In past exams we all remember the box approach? Still use this, but get students to EXPLAIN the effect rather than just Identify the effectExample: Discuss the functions of various aspectsAccess this document – REMEMBER to look at the wording of the outcomes (not just the knowledge and skills) as any component can be examined ie double entry?Overstated/ Understated/No effectAmount$AssetsLiabilitiesOwners Equity
7 Key Knowledge Differences – U3, Outcome 2 No specific mention of Principles and CharacteristicsApplicable accounting principles and characteristics of accounting informationBalance day adjustments:– depreciation (straight-line method)– stock loss or gain as revealed by a physical stocktake– prepaid expenses (asset approach, GST to be recorded at time of payment)– accrued expenses (GST to be recorded at time of payment);The recording and reporting of Balance Day Adjustments:Straight line method of depreciationstock loss or gain as revealed by physical stocktake;the asset approach to recording prepaid expenses with GST being recorded at the time of payment;accrued expenses with GST being recorded at the time of paymentTreatment of accrued expenses in subsequent periodThe payment of accrued expenses in the subsequent reporting periodaccounting reports:– classified Cash Flow Statement (using transaction approach)– classified Profit and Loss Statement (gross profit, adjusted gross profit and net profit)– classified Balance Sheet;Classified accounting reports: Cash Flow Statement using transaction approach; income statement; balance sheetAPPLICABLE principles and characteristics. BDA’s - a great place to emphasise RELEVANCE; RELIABILITY (linked to depreciation); CONSERVATISM (linked to stock loss)? REPORTING PERIOD (Balance Day re accrued and prepaid expenses)REMEMBER – INCOME STATEMENT NOT Profit and Loss Statement
8 Key Knowledge Differences – U3, Outcome 2 Closing entries for revenue and expenses in the general journal and in the general ledgerClosing entries for revenue and expenses in GJ and in GLThe preparation of the Profit and Loss Summary account with transfer of profit or loss to Capital Account;The preparation o f the Profit and Loss summary account with transfer of profit or loss to capital accountTransfer of Drawings to Capital accountTransfer of drawings to Capital accountPost adjustment Trial BalanceThe effect of transactions on the acc equation and the accounting reportsThe effect of transactions on the acc equation and the acc reportsThe distinction between cash and profitAll these skills still appropriate to teach
9 Key Skills Differences – U3, Outcome 2 Use correct accounting terminologyIdentify, classify and record financial data and information;Identify classify and record financial data and report accounting informationdemonstrate an understanding of the concepts and principles underlying the recording, reporting and presentation of accounting data and information;Explain and apply the Characteristics and Principles underlying the recording of financial data and the reporting and presentation of accounting informationApply theoretical knowledge to simulated situations;Apply theoretical knowledge to simulated situationsPrepare financial reportsPrepare, explain, and interpret accounting reportsPresent and communicate information in a suitable form using a variety of methodsDiscuss the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equation and accounting reportsDistinguish between cash and profit and explain the effect on accounting reportsDiscuss the function of the various aspects of the accounting system for a single activity trading businessChanges and additions to skillsDISCUSSDISTINGUISHDISCUSS – same skills as in Outcome 1
10 Impact on the classroom Teaching and Learning activities to meet NEW key knowledgePrinciples and Concepts can be introduced at APPLICABLE momentsStudents MUST be able to RECORD and REPORT BDA’sStudents MUST be able to show knowledge of how to PAY accrued expenses in subsequent reporting periodsStudents MUST be taught new terminology of ‘Income Statement’
11 Impact on the classroom Teaching and Learning activities to meet NEW key skillsStudents MUST be able to also REPORT accounting informationStudents MUST be able to EXPLAIN and APPLY the characteristics and principles underlying the recording of financial data and the reporting and presentation of accounting informationStudents MUST be able to DISCUSS the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equation and accounting reportsStudents MUST be able to PREPARE, EXPLAIN and INTERPRET Accounting reportsStudents MUST be able DISTINGUISH between cash and profit and EXPLAIN the effect on accounting reportsStudents MUST be able to DISCUSS the function of the various aspects of the accounting system for a single activity trading businessUnit3.pdf
12 Unit 3 – Outcome 1 Relevant points from new study design The process of posting to the general ledger from the general journal and special journals on a monthly basis The process of posting to the general ledger and subsidiary ledger accounts in preparation for the next reporting periodDifferent Ways we can get our students to practice this:Present them with already completed journals, over a 3 month period and demonstrated the journals being posted to the General LedgerA prepaid expense question where expense has been prepaid quarterly in advance and show posting to General LedgerAn accrued expense question where outstanding accrued amount is paid at the beginning of the quarter and there is an outstanding balance at the end of the quarter.Present them with a trial balance assuming a business reports quarterly
13 Completed Journals example The bookkeeper for Aaron’s Antiques provided the following journal extract for the 3 month period ending 30 June 2012:
15 Prepaid Expense Example Question 1: On 1 September 2011 Jim Laurence commenced trading as Woodstock Neckwear. A firm that specialises in men’s formals neckwear. Their accounting system is set up using the accrual method of accounting and their reporting period is 30 June each year.On the 1st September 2011, Jim paid $1200, plus GST for 6 months insurance on the business premises. During February 2012 he was informed that the insurance would increase to $250 per month. On 27 February 2012, Jim paid $1650, including $150 GST, to cover insurance for March to August 2012 (chq 123)Complete the Prepaid Insurance Expense account as it would appear in the General Ledger after all adjusting and balancing entries were made and in preparation for the commencement of the next reporting period
16 Prepaid Insurance Example Cash Payments Journal would have included both of these cash payments of InsuranceEach MONTH the Cash Payments journal would have been transferred to the General Ledger, thus 2 entries into the Prepaid Insurance Expense General Ledger
17 Accrued Expense Example Wages expense is currently $ per month, paid in arrears on and up to the 15th of each month.The following information relates to wages for the business:• Accrued wages at 1 October 2009 – $5 000• Payments to employees for wages on 15 October were $10 000• During November 2009 a wage increase of 20% was approved, effective from 16 December 2009• Wages owing at 31 December 2009 – $6 000Record the wages payments in the Cash Payments Journal for• 15 October (Chq. 473)• 15 November (Chq. 491)• 15 December (Chq. 522).Show how the• Wages Expense account• Accrued Wages account would appear after all information has been recorded and posted in preparation for the next reporting period.
19 Trial Balance example Additional Information: The business reports yearly on 30the JuneRent is paid quarterly commencing on 1 September each year.The Prepaid Rent amount represents rent paid for this financial year ($24000), plus the balance from the previous reporting period.Show how the Prepaid Rent and Rent Expense accounts would appear after all appropriate entries have been posted. You are required to balance and/or close the accounts
21 Changes to Exam Format Multiple questions Stand alone theory question(s)Higher order skills being examinedAspects of the accounting systemUnderstanding what they are and how they functionStrengths and weaknesses of these aspects
22 Changes to Exam FormatExplain the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equation and accounting reportsRepaid a loan $100 and interest on the loan of $10The repayment of the loan and interest will decrease the Bank by $110 and reduce the current liability of the loan by $100 and will also reduce the owner’s equity (net profit) of the business by $100 as the interest on the loan is an expense.
23 Double Entry What is it? How does it operate? Double entry accounting means recording in ledger accounts whereby at least two ledger accounts are affected by each transactionHow does it operate?Two entries are made for each transaction – one entry as a debit to one account and the other entry a credit to the other account. These two transactions keep the accounting equation (A=L+OE) in balanceWhat is the ‘two-fold effect’?The two fold effect takes the form of debits and credits. For each debit there is an equal and opposite credit and the sum of all debits must equal the sum of all credits.Advantages and limitations /benefits and costs to the businessIs double entry used when recording in subsidiary ledgers?No - double entry is maintained in the General Ledger only – the individual ledgers in the subsidiary ledgers reflect only the transactions from the Control AccountQuestion to consider:Is double entry always the best recording system for all businesses? Why/why not?Double entry accounting provides forAn accurate calculation of profit/lossPreparation of financial reports directly from the ledgerEasier detection of errors and fraudAccurate bookkeeping is required for owners and managers to understand the financial status of their business
24 Documents What is the purpose of the source document? describes the basic facts of the transaction andis the initial input to the accounting process andserves as verifiable evidence of the transactionprovides the information required to analyse and classify the transaction and to create the journal entries
25 Special Journals What is a journal? What are the special journals? A chronological listing of the firm’s transactions, including the amounts, accounts that are affected and the direction the accounts are affected. Known as the book of original entryWhat are the special journals?A journal which groups specific types of transactions and allows for improved efficiency and organisation in the accounting systemThe journals provide a link between the ledger entries and the source documentsBenefits and costs to the business / advantages and limitationsSummarises similar transactionsAllowing totals to be posted to the general ledgerAllows for the removal of bulky detail from the general ledgerHowever involves additional recording which may require additional staff and increase costsWhy are the special journals constructed differently from each other?Which ledger accounts are affected when special journals are balanced and transferred to the general ledger?Question to consider:Should all recording systems include special journals for Cash Receipts, Cash Payments, Credit Sales and Credit Purchases? Why/why not?It is up to each business to determine which journals to use based on their own circumstances and needs. If for example they do not purchase or purchase limited stock on credit they may not require the need for a Purchases Journal
26 The General Ledger What is the purpose of the general ledger? The general ledger is a collection of T-accounts to which debits and credits are transferred and facilitates the tracking of individual account balancesWhat is the purpose of the subsidiary ledgers?To record the individual transactions which affect debtors, creditors and stock items on the date that they occurAllows for the removal of this bulky detail pertaining to individual accounts from the general ledger
27 The Trial Balance What is the purpose of the trial balance? To verify the accuracy of the double entry recording as the sum of all debits in the general ledger must equal the sum of all creditsUsed as a tool for detecting errorsCalculated by summing the balances of all the ledger accountsPrepared prior to the preparation of final reportsCan a balanced trial balance still be incorrect?Omission of an entryA journal entry posted to the wrong ledger accountReversal of debit and credit entries
28 Control Accounts Which areas do we have control accounts for? How do they operate?How are they reconciled?Advantages and limitationsBenefits and costs to the businessQuestions to consider:Should control accounts always be used? Should they be limited to debtors, creditors and stock? Justify your answers.
29 Process of balancing accounts Why should accounts be balanced?Assets and liabilities will exist into the future. That is, the Balance Sheet items involve a future benefit or future sacrifice and so should not be reset to zero, but their balances should carry forward into the next Reporting Period.Why do businesses need to prepare for the next reporting period? What would happen if accounts weren’t balanced?Once the length of the reporting period has been established it is important for decision making to ensure that accounts relate only to the period under consideration in order for decisions to be madeBenefits/costs to the businessAllows for the accounts to be prepared in preparation for the next reporting period.The difference between footing and balancing an accountFooting – an informal process used to determine the balance of a ledger accountBalancing – ruling off an A, L and OE account to determine its balance at the end of the reporting period and transferring that balance to the next reporting period.Where are the balances of accounts shown in reports?Balance of all revenue and expense accounts are shown in the Income StatementBalances of all Asset, Liability and Owner’s Equity accounts are reflected in the Balance SheetQuestion to consider:Are all accounts balanced? Why/why not?
30 Stockcards What is the purpose of a stock card? What is the First-In, First Out (FIFO) method of managing stock?Definition of perpetual inventory methodHow does the business check the stock record is accurate?Costs/benefits to the businessHow are details of the stock cards entered into the general ledger?Question to consider:Should all businesses use the perpetual inventory method? Why/why not?
31 Changes to Exam FormatExplain the effect of financial transactions on the accounting equation and accounting reportsRepaid a loan $100 and interest on the loan of $10The repayment of the loan and interest will decrease the Bank by $110 and reduce the current liability of the loan by $100 and will also reduce the owner’s equity (net profit) of the business by $10 as the interest on the loan is an expense.
32 Approaching extended theory On 30 June 2012 the owner decided to contribute his personal vehicle to the business which he purchased in July for $ including GST. The accountant has valued the vehicle at $Justify with reference to qualitative characteristics and accounting principles the value at which the vehicle should be reported in the Balance sheet
33 Sample solutionThe vehicle should be reported by the business at $ (1) as this is the agreed value that is regarded as the accepted value of a non-cash asset at the time of its contribution by the owner.(1)Whilst $ is the historical cost of the vehicle, that is the original purchase price of the non current asset which can be verified by a source document (1) and so provides a reliable value for the vehicle which is free from bias (1), this value is no longer useful or relevant for decision making.(1)The future economic benefit the vehicle is expected to provide to the business is less than its original purchase price and it is important to recognise this so that when allocating the cost of the vehicle as an expense against revenue (via depreciation expense) expenses are not overstated and net profit understated. The reporting period principle requires that revenues earned be matched against expenses incurred to accurately calculate net profit.The GST has no impact on the valuation of the vehicle as this amount was paid by the owner and is not included in the historical cost of the vehicle.
34 Approaching extended theory The owner is convinced that if they use the FIFO method of cost assignment that the stock on hand will reflect the most recent purchases.Explain the FIFO method of cost assignment and explain to the owner if they are correct. In your response discuss the implications of using this system on the valuation of stock on hand, cost of sales and net profit
35 Sample solutionFIFO stock valuation assumes that the first stock purchased by the business is the first stock that is sold by the business. Many businesses use this method for stock valuation because it is too difficult to individually/label each individual item of stock, especially when the stock items are small and are of relatively low value. The owner believes it is not worth the time, effort and additional cost. Without physically labelling every item of stock there is no way the owner can match the stock items sold with the actual cost price.FIFO is applied to all transactions in the OUT column of the stock card, but it is an assumption only. The business makes an assumption about the cost price of stock as they have no way of knowing for certain the exact cost price for the stock as without marking the stock there is no way of knowing the cost price for the stock that has been sold. (Smarties task)In times of rising prices the valuation of stock on hand in the Balance Sheet will be higher as the stock is reported at the most recent purchases which are the most expensive (prices are rising). As the earlier stock purchased (which is cheaper) is sold first under the FIFO assumption, cost of sales will be lower and net profit will be higher.
36 Approaching extended theory The owner of a business believes that recording prepaid expenses as assets is an unnecessary waste of time.Justify/explain/discuss with reference to accounting principles and qualitative characteristics why recording prepaid expenses as assets is necessary
37 Approaching extended theory Sandra has commenced a business from home. She works from her spare room in her home and the firm’s only assets are a chair, computer, desk and filing cabinet which have a total value of $ When preparing her annual Income Statement, Sandra does not include depreciation of these non current assets and instead writes them off as an expense in the period of purchase.Discuss with reference to qualitative characteristics and accounting principles if Sandra should change her treatment of non current assets in the Income Statement.
38 Sample solution to sample exam Solution prepared by presenters and not VCAA approved.
39 Solution to sample exam Question 1A double-entry accounting system means recording in ledger accounts whereby at least two ledger accounts are affected by each transaction2 marks
43 Solution to sample exam Question 4 a. FIFO stock valuation assumes that the first stock purchased by the business is the first stock that is sold by the business. Many businesses use this method for stock valuation because it is too difficult to individually/label each individual item of stock, especially when the stock items are small and are of relatively low value. The owner believes it is not worth the time, effort and additional cost. 2 marks
44 Solution to sample exam Question 4c.The use of the treadmill for advertising purposes should be treated as an expense as there has been an outflow of economic benefit caused by the decrease in the asset (Stock Control), which reduced owner’s equity (net Profit). That is the treadmill will not be sold and will therefore not contribute to future economic benefit.2 marks
52 Solution to sample exam Question 5d.Discuss benefits and limitations of using Control AccountsControl accounts serve a useful purpose in the recording and reporting processes and further assist in the management of debtors and creditors for businesses that deal with numerous customers and suppliers.The benefits of using control accounts and subsidiary ledgers in the accounting systemAllows for transactions to be summarised and removes clutter from the general ledger.Reporting – only one amount reported, relevant for decision makingManagement – separation of duties – checking mechanism, enhance internal controlHowever there are also limitations of using control accounts and subsidiary ledgers in the accounting system which includethe additional record keeping requirednot suitable for all businesses to use andincreases the costs of record keeping due to the extra specialised staff which may be required.
53 Solution to sample exam Question 6 a. GST would have been reported as a Current Asset This is because there are two entries in the Cash Receipts Journal pertaining to the GST, one from the GST Column representing GST received on cash sales, the other from the Sundries column which indicates that the business has received a GST refund from the ATO as the GST paid and incurred in the last period was greater than the GST earned/received. 3 marks
55 Solution to sample exam Question 7a.Explanation:The short term impact of the new cafe has been detrimental to the cash flow of the business as evidenced by the bank overdraft position that the business is now in.The cost of the new café has exceeded the loan / capital that was contributed (as evidenced by the cash flows from financing activities) and used for its constructionGus has injected loan and possibly additional capital to purchase the necessary non current assets and additional stock required for the new cafe (as evidenced by the net cash outflows from Investing Activities).4 marks.
56 Solution to sample exam Question 7b.DisagreeIn order to Gus to make relevant decisions about the cash flow of the business Gus should have access to the details of his cash flows in order to determine why operating activities is Negative, all details of inflows and outflows should be examined. Investing activities may be negative as a result of the purchase of a new NCA and Gus needs to know how Financing Activities has managed to increase, that is whether it has been due to additional capital contributed or through loans taken out which need to be repaid and on which interest is incurred.3 marks
57 Solution to sample exam Question 8Last year made a loss but bank increased despite having no loans or capital contributedDiscuss:Under accrual accounting there is a difference between revenue earned and received and expenses paid and incurred. Cash and profit are different resources. Whilst the business made a loss in the previous year, the bank balance may have increased due toReceipts from debtors being greater than credit sales, payments for expenses being less than expenses incurred or cost of sales being greater than payments to creditors. All of these examples will impact a net loss but have a lesser impact on the bank balance. In addition the business may have sold non current assets for cash or deferred a loan repayment or the owner may have reduced their drawings from the business preferring to leave cash in the business because of the net loss incurred.4 marks
59 Solution to sample exam Question 9b.Qualitative Characteristic: RelevanceExplanation: Whilst there is a stock loss in one area and a stock gain in another, only the overall effect is reported in the income statement as the business would use a control account for stock in the General ledger and it is the overall impact that is relevant for decision making3marks
60 Solution to sample exam Question 9 c. Impact of Memo 44 Explanation: The inclusion of this information will reduce Net Profit by $1000 in the Income Statement as the operating expenses are currently understated and this will impact on the accurate calculation of profit. In addition, in the Balance Sheet, the Current Assets of Debtors Control will decrease by $1100 and GST Clearing will decrease by $100. Owner’s Equity will decrease by $ marks
61 Solution to sample exam Question 9 d. Justification: The vehicle should be valued at $ which is the agreed value of the NCA by the Accountant at the time of contribution to the business. Whilst Historical cost states that assets should be recorded at their original purchase price as it can be verified by a source document, this value is no longer relevant for decision making the accountant has valued the vehicle at its agreed value which is lower than its historical cost as this value is far more relevant for decision making as the asset is no longer new and its contribution to the business is limited. 3 marks