Basic Accounting Assets – Definition: Resources of the City that may or may not be currently available to conduct the activity of the City. Ex. Cash, investments, equipment (Debit Balance) Liabilities – Definition: Demands and obligations upon the City. Ex. Accounts Payable(Credit Balance) Fund Balance (Equity) – Credit Balance Revenues – Credit Balance Expenses – Debit Balance Double Entry – Definition: Every entry has two parts, a debit and a credit Journal Entry – Definition: A balanced set of entries used to reflect transactions.
Assets Liabilities Expenses Revenues Fund Balance (Net Difference)
SUBSIDIARY LEDGER Definition: The record of detail used for individual accounts within a cost center and/or fund. Each line item or account number has a running total throughout the year Each line item or account number must belong to a larger grouping: revenue type or department or function
BUDGET LEDGER Definition: The record of budgetary expenditures compared to the allocated budget for that function, fund or project. Used to monitor or control revenues by type Used to monitor or control expenditures by functions Usually some portion of account number or code is used to generate totals for ledger (chart of accounts)
City Standard Chart of Accounts Definition: A standardized method to insure consistency between budget, accounting, and financial reporting activities.
Account Numbers Expense: 001-1010-6010 – General Fund – Police – Full Time Salary Revenue: 001-1010-1-4765 – General Fund – Police – Misc Revenue - Fines Cash: 001-1110 – General Fund – Cash Accounts Payable: 001-2020 – General Fund – Accounts Payable Fund Balance: 001-3860 – General Fund – Unreserved Fund Balance
City of Boondocks Cash on Hand at Beginning of Year = $10,000 Only One Fund – General Fund Received the following revenues: Property taxes - $75,000 Mobile home taxes = $1,000 Interest Income = $2,000 Electrical Permits = $5,000 Swimming Pool receipts = $20,000 Library donation = $30,000 Paid the following expenses: Staff training = $2,000 Building repair = $10,000 Auditor = $25,000 Engineer Study = $50,000 Clerk’s desk = $5,000 Total budgeted revenues = $200,000 Total budgeted expenses = $180,000
Payroll Gross Payroll - –payroll + city share of benefits = TOTAL COST OF PAYROLL EE ER Gross Wages $500 FICA/Medicare (7.65%) 38 IPERS (5.95%/8.93%) 30 45 Fed/State W/H 10 Net Wages $422 Total Benefits Paid by City 83 Total Cost to City $583
Dr. Salaries$500 Dr. FICA$ 38 Dr. IPERS$ 45 Cr. Cash $422 Cr. Cash $ 83 Cr. W/H Liab $ 78 Total$583 $583
GENERAL LEDGER 001-1110 Cash 001-2120 Accrued Payroll Taxes 001-3860 Unreserved Fund Balance $422 $583 $78 $83 $505
SUBSIDIARY LEDGER - Expenditures 001-6020-6010 Salaries 001-6020-6110 FICA Expenditure Control 001-6020-6130 IPERS $500 $38 $45 $583
Voided Checks 001-1110 Cash on Hand001-4310 Rents Journal Entry: DRCR 001-4310 25.00Returned: Bad check for rental 001-1110 25.00
Sale of Bonds 300-1110 Cash on Hand300-4820 Proceeds from Bonds and Premiums Journal Entry: DRCR 300-1110 250,000Bond Fund 300-4820 250,000
Investment 001-1110 Cash on Hand001-1140 Investments Journal Entry: DRCR 001-1140 2,500.00Purchased a CD for General Fund 001-1110 2,500.00 $2,500.00
Investment 001-1110 Cash on Hand001-1140 Investments Journal Entry: DRCR 001-1140 $2,500.00CD Redeemed for General Fund 001-1110 $2,600.00 001-4300 $100.00interest income $2,500.00 $0 ________
Co-Mingled Investments 001-1110 Cash on Hand001-1140 Investments Journal Entry: DRCR 001-1140 2,500.00Purchase a CD for General, Refuse & Sewer 051-1140 2,500.00 052-1140 5,000.00 001-11102,500.00 051-11102,500.00 052-11102,500.00 999-1110 10,000.00 999-1140 10,000.00
Petty Cash 001-1110 Cash on Hand001-1120 Petty Cash Journal Entry: DRCR 001-1120 200.00Set up a petty cash fund 001-1110 200.00 $200.00
Transfers Journal Entry: DRCR 001-6910 20,000.00Transfers Out 001-1110 20,000.00Cash 206-1110 20,000.00Cash 206-483020,000.00Transfers In Are they authorized or budgeted?
Refunds Do you have a revenue line item for refunds? Do you allow refunds against expense line items? How do you handle credits from a vendor?
Who cares? How can the City monitor and control it?
Control/monitor? Budget Control Definition: A limit of expenditures imposed when the Council adopts the budget. Expectation of revenues based upon information availability during the budget process. Budget Amendment Definition: Alternation of adopted budget approved by the Council after conducting a public hearing (384.18) Unappropriated Surplus Definition: Available cash and investments in excess of all revenues, expenditures and reserve liabilities.
Type of Reports Budget to Actual Reports Bank Reconciliation Annual Financial Report Audit Report Annual Budget Forms List of Long-Term Liabilities (Bonds, separate by type of bond) Street Report Grant Reports TIF Report
Audit Report Cash Basis vs. GAAP GAAP – Definition: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
Fund Balance/Reserves Reserves – Definition: Accounts used to earmark funds designated for a special purpose by the Council. GASB – Definition: Governmental Accounting Standards Board GASB 54 – New Classifications of Fund Balance (Governmental Funds only): Nonspendable – By nature can’t be spent (Reserved for inventories) Restricted – Limitation established by external creditor or law, or legislation Committed – Self imposed - highest level of authority (Council) Assigned – Self imposed – intended use by decision making body or official designated Unassigned
GASB 54 Exercise Street Fund (Road Use Tax) - Local Option Sales Tax Fund – Tourism Fund (H/M Tax) – TIF Fund – Block Grant Fund – Bond Fund – Cemetery Perpetual Care Fund – Pool Capital Fund - Sewer Fund -
GASB 54 Exercise Street Fund (Road Use Tax) – Restricted – Iowa Code Local Option Sales Tax Fund – Restricted - Voters Tourism Fund (H/M Tax) – Restricted - Voters TIF Fund – Restricted – Iowa Code Block Grant Fund – Restricted – Grantor Parking Fund – Committed – Council by Ordinance Bond Fund – Restricted – Bond Restriction Cemetery Perpetual Care Fund – Restricted – Iowa Code Pool Capital Fund – Assigned – Internally decide to keep the capital fund Sewer Fund – N/A – only governmental funds
GASB 54 – Fund Types GASB 54 also gives more clarification on fund types: Special Revenue – used to account for and report specific revenue sources that are restricted or committed for a specific purpose Capital Projects – used to account for and report financial resources restricted, committed, or assigned for capital outlays.
Other Accounts Library Funds Fire Funds Donations – separate foundation
Other Topics GASB 63/65 – Use of the term Deferred and Equation Capital Assets Imaging Systems Computer Software Internal Controls New Audit Requirements Other????
Resources Code of Iowa – Chapter 384 Auditors State Auditor’s Office Government Finance Officers Assoc. GFOA League of Iowa Cities Mentors Department of Management Software support