Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should be able to: –Explain the role and purpose of the acquisition / payment process –List and discuss, in order, the steps in the process –Identify and describe documents commonly used in the process –Suggest and evaluate internal controls associated with it –Explain the role of information technology in the process –Create and interpret systems documents 12-3
Acquisition / payment steps 1.Request goods / services based on monitored need 2.Authorize a purchase 3.Purchase goods / services 4.Receive goods / services 5.Disburse cash 6.Process purchase returns as necessary 12-4
Acquisition / payment steps Inventory database Inventory information 1.0 Requisition inventory. 2.0 Prepare purchase order. Requisition data Vendor database Vendor information vendor Purchase order 3.0 Receive inventory. Order information Receiving information 4.0 Disburse cash. Authorization information A / P database Payment information Purchase information 12-5
Documents Purchase requisition –Requests that the purchasing department order goods / services –Originates in an operating department –Terminates in the purchasing department Purchase order –Specifies items ordered, shipping terms and other information about the purchase –Originates in the purchasing department –Terminates with vendor 12-6
Documents Receiving report –Ensures that ordered goods have been received in good condition –Originates in receiving department –Terminates in various departments Vendor invoice –Requests payment from buying organization –Originates with vendor –Terminates in accounting department of buyer Check –Pays the vendor –Originates in accounting –Terminates with vendor 12-7
Internal controls Inventory monitoring system Justification for unusual goods Conflict of interest policy Criteria for supplier reliability and quality of goods Strategic alliances Document matching –Receiving reports with purchase orders –Receiving reports and purchase orders with invoices Insurance and bonding Internal audit department 12-8
Internal controls Separation of duties: custody, recordkeeping, authorization Employee monitoring systems “Paid” stamps Information technology, such as radio frequency identification (RFID) 12-9
Information technology Online vendor payments Bar codes Vendor lists Inventory status checks Transaction recording in the AIS 12-10
Goals of the Expenditure Cycle The goal of providing needed resources to organization can be broken down into several objectives: –purchase from reliable vendors (more important than price?) –purchase high quality items –obtain best price possible –purchase only items that are properly authorized –have resources available when needed –receive only those items ordered –ensure items are not lost, stolen, or broken –pay for the items in a timely manner
A Manual Purchases System The purchases cycle begins in the Inventory Control department when inventory levels drop to reorder levels or when some other authorized person fills out a purchase requisition. After all required signatures are obtained the requisition goes to the Purchasing department. The Purchasing department prepares a purchase order for each vendor and sends copies to Inventory Control, Accounts Payable, Receiving (blind copy), and the vendor. (Note: some companies use credit cards for small purchases)
A Manual Purchases System Upon receipt of the goods, the Receiving department counts and inspects the goods. –One of the purposes of the blind copy of the purchase order is to force the workers to count the goods. A worker then prepares the receiving report and sends copies to the raw materials storeroom, Purchasing, Inventory Control, and Accounts Payable.
A Manual Purchases System The Accounts Payable department has now received copies of the purchase order, and receiving report. Upon receipt of the supplier’s invoice, Accounts Payable reconciles all documents, posts to the purchases journal (inventory), and records the liability in the accounts payable subsidiary ledger. Periodically, the entries in the purchases journal are summarized in a journal voucher which is sent to the General Ledger department.
A Manual Purchases System The journal voucher is prepared by Accounts Payable and sent to the General Ledger department: Inventory DR Accts PayableCR Accounts Payable also prepares a cash disbursements voucher and posts it in the voucher register.
A Manual Purchases System The General Ledger department: –posts from the accounts payable journal voucher to the general ledger –reconciles the inventory amount with the account summary received from inventory control
Manual Purchases System
Manual Cash Disbursements System Periodically, usually daily, Accounts Payable searches the open vouchers payable file for items with payments due: –AP sends the voucher and supporting documents to Cash Disbursements –AP updates the accounts payable subsidiary ledger
Manual Cash Disbursements System The Cash Disbursements department –prepares the check –records the information in a check register (cash disbursements journal) –Sends the check and supporting documentation to the treasurer for signing –sends a journal voucher to General Ledger: Accounts PayableDR CashCR
Manual Cash Disbursements System Treasurer: –Reviews the supporting documentation and compares to the check ($ amount, vendor details etc.) –Hand or machine signs the check –Mails the check directly to the vendor (never return it to anyone in accounting) –Stamps supporting documentation “paid” and returns it to accounts payable
Manual Cash Disbursements System The General Ledger department receives: –the journal voucher from cash disbursements –a summary of changes to the accounts payable subsidiary ledger from Accounts Payable The journal voucher is used to update the general ledger accounts impacted (reduce cash, reduce accounts payable) The change in the accounts payable control account is reconciled to the change in the accounts payable subsidiary ledger.
Cash Disbursements System
The Expenditure Cycle The time lag splits the expenditure transaction cycle into two phases: –physical phase (purchasing cycle) –financial phase (cash disbursements)
Expenditure Cycle Files Master Files –supplier (vendor) master file –accounts payable master file –merchandise inventory master file Transaction and Open Document Files –purchase order file open purchase order file –supplier’s invoice file –open vouchers file –cash disbursements file Other Files supplier reference and history file buyer file accounts payable detail file
The Purchase Requisition A need for an item starts the expenditure cycle –based on reorder point or reorder quantity or by the action of an authorized person –manual: to initiate a credit purchase, someone in the organization recognizes a need for a good or service; an authorized person requests the good or service using a purchase requisition form –computerized: to initiate a credit purchase, someone in the organization recognizes a need for a good or service; an authorized person requests the good or service using a terminal and a purchase requisition screen
Computer-Based Expenditure Applications--Purchases Incorporates a data processing department which performs many of the routine accounting tasks –purchasing - a computer program identifies inventory requirements and can use one of the following methods for authorizing and ordering inventories the system prepares the POs and sends them to the purchasing department for review, signing, and distributing the system distributes the POs directly to the vendors and internal users, bypassing the purchasing department the system uses EDI and electronically places the order
Computer-Based Expenditure Applications--Purchases Other tasks performed by the computer: –updates the inventory subsidiary file from the receiving report, calculates batch totals for the general ledger update procedure and then closes the corresponding records in the open PO file to the closed PO file –a program validates the voucher records against the valid vendor file, adds them to the voucher register, and prepares batch totals for posting to the general ledger
Computer-Based Expenditure Applications--Cash Disbursements Tasks performed by the computer: –the system scans for vouchers currently due –prints checks for these vouchers –records the disbursements in a computer- based check register (transaction file) –batch totals are prepared for the general ledger update procedure
Levels of Automating and Re-Engineering Ordering Computer in inventory control generates a purchase requisition and the –purchasing department manually generates purchase order Computer generates purchase order (no P.R. needed) –not sent until manually reviewed Computer-generated P.O. is automatically sent EDI--no P.O.
Sales Order Shipping Documents SELLER (REVENUE CYCLE) Sales Invoice Check CUSTOMER (PURCHASES CYCLE) Vendor’s Invoice Receiving Report Check Internal Data Flows External Data Flows EDI Purchase Order Customer Order or EFT Goods
Advantages of Real-Time Data Input & Processing Over Batch Processing Shortens the time-lag in record-keeping; hence, records are more current Eliminates much of the routine manual procedures, such as transcribing information onto paper documents Eliminates much of the storage and shuffling of paper documents Reduces data entry correction procedures In cash disbursements it can result in faster payments, discounts for prompt payment and vendor good will
Summary of Internal Controls
General Internal Controls Organization controls –segregation of duties Documentation Asset Accountability Controls Management Practices Data Center Operations Controls Authorization Controls Access Controls
Manual Authorization Controls Purchases of inventory should be authorized by the Inventory Control department or another authorized person, not by purchasing agents Accounts Payable authorizes the payments of bills, not the cash disbursements clerk, who writes the checks How do these controls change in a Computer- Based environment?
Computer-Based Authorization Controls Authorizations are automated. –programmed decision rules must be debugged Automating inventory in EDI and JIT –faulty inventory model can lead to over-purchasing or under- purchasing. Inventory assumptions must be reviewed periodically (need for items in light of current customer orders and future plans) Cash disbursements may automate check printing and signing. –Secure control of unissued check stock and signature plate –Some companies automate check signing only below a dollar threshold
Segregation of Duties Warehouse (stores)-–custody of inventory Inventory control--inventory record keeping Accounts payable--authorization for payment General ledger--reviews accuracy of accounts payable and cash disbursement clerks Requisitioning--inventory control or authorized user Purchasing department--only order what authorized people request Purchases returns and allowances Cash disbursements-only for expenditures authorized by accounts payable and only with proper supporting documentation
Manual Segregation of Functions Custody of the asset, inventory, by the Warehouse must be separate from recordkeeping for the assets by the Inventory Control department Ability to generate checks to pay vendors by Cash Disbursements must be kept separate from recordkeeping for the asset by the Accounts Payable department
Computer-Based Segregation of Functions Extensive consolidation by the computer of tasks traditionally segregated –computer programs authorize and process purchase orders or EDI requests for resupply –computer programs authorize and issue checks to vendors or generate electronic fund transfers
Manual Supervision Within the expenditure cycle, supervision is of highest importance in the Receiving department, where the inventory arrives and is logged in by a receiving clerk. Need to minimize: –failures to properly inspect the assets –theft of the assets How do these controls change in a CB environment?
Computer-Based Supervision Incoming Goods may be scanned electronically by receiving (bar code readers etc.) and an electronic receiving report generated Supervision because more difficult as the workplace becomes more sophisticated. –employees may need to have advanced IT training
Elimination of the Central Receiving Function Many companies no longer have a central receiving function Goods are send directly to the requisitioner or requisitioning department (especially if JIT inventory techniques used) Accounts payable must contract the recipient to verify receipt before payment. Various facsimiles accepted in place of traditional, prenumbered receiving reports
Manual Accounting Records Must maintain adequate records for: –accounts payable –vouchers payable –checks –general ledger –subsidiary ledgers How do these controls change in a CB environment?
Computer-Based Accounting Records Maintaining an audit trail becomes more difficult. Accounting records rests on reliability and security of magnetically stored data. –Be skeptical about accepting, on face value, the accuracy of computer produced hard-copy printouts of journals and ledgers. The system needs to ensure that backup of all files is continuously kept. Traditional automated systems still have a lot of paper documents. This is good for audit trail purposes but is often inefficient.
Manually based Access Controls Access to: –inventories (direct) –cash (direct) –accounting records (indirect) How do these controls change in a CB environment?
Computer-Based Access Controls Magnetic records are vulnerable to both authorized and unauthorized exposure and should be protected –System security must restrict access to inventory and cash disbursements and to related accounts and transaction programs –Backup regularly and review logs for unauthorized attempts to access the system and for unusual transactions
Manual Independent Verification The Accounts Payable department verifies much of the work done within the expenditure cycle. –Purchase requisitions, purchase orders, receiving reports, and suppliers’ invoices must be checked and verified by Accounts Payable. The General Ledger department verifies: –the total obligations recorded equal the total inventories received –the total reductions in accounts payable equal the total disbursements of cash How do these controls change in a CB environment?
Computer-Based Independent Verification Automating the accounting function reduces the need for verification by reducing the chances of fraud and error in the expenditure cycle. (Very hard to generate a payment to a vendor unless paying for goods received via an approved P.O) Fraud and error may still be present if unauthorized users/programmers can access the system.
Common forms of fraud in the expenditure cycle (non payroll) Employees ordering/purchasing unauthorized items (company pays) Employees steal inventory/supplies etc. before processed by receiving Employees steal inventory/supplies etc. from storerooms and other areas Employees pad expense accounts Employees steal refunds from vendors