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Glavna knjiga SAP Best Practices
©2011. SAP AG. Sva prava pridržana.2 Svrha, prednosti i ključni koraci procesa Svrha Ovaj scenarij pruža cjelovitu sliku vanjskog računovodstva i konta. Prednosti Bilježenje svih poslovnih transakcija osigurava potpunost i točnost računovodstvenih podataka. Ključni koraci procesa Knjiženje dokumenata konta glavne knjige Prikaz dnevnika dokumenta Prikaz stanja glavne knjige (lista) Izvršavanje periodičnih knjiženja Održavanje konta: automatsko i ručno zatvaranje
©2011. SAP AG. Sva prava pridržana.3 Potrebne SAP aplikacije i uloge u poduzeću Potrebno Paket proširenja 5 za SAP ERP 6.0 Uloge u poduzeću Računovođa glavne knjige Voditelj financija
©2011. SAP AG. Sva prava pridržana.4 Detaljni opis procesa Glavna knjiga Glavni zadatak računovodstva glavne knjige je pružanje cjelovite slike vanjskog računovodstva i konta. Bilježenje svih poslovnih transakcija (primarnih knjiženja kao i obračuna iz internog računovodstva) u softverskom sustavu koji je u potpunosti integriran sa svim drugim područjima djelovanja poduzeća osigurava stalnu potpunost i točnost računovodstvenih podataka. SAP FI računovodstvo glavne knjige ima sljedeća obilježja: Slobodan izbor razine: složeno društvo ili poduzeće Automatsko i simultano knjiženje svih stavki pomoćne knjige na odgovarajuća konta glavne knjige (konta usklađenja) Simultano ažuriranje glavne knjige i područja računovodstva troškova Analiza u stvarnom vremenu i izvješćivanje o aktualnim knjigovodstvenim podacima, u obliku prikaza konta, financijskih izvješća s različitim verzijama financijskih izvješća i dodatnim analizama. Glavna knjiga prvenstveno služi kao potpuna evidencija svih poslovnih transakcija. To je centralizirana, aktualna referenca za prikaz konta. Stvarne pojedinačne transakcije mogu se bilo kada provjeriti u obradi u stvarnom vremenu prikazom originalnih dokumenata, pojedinačnih stavki i brojki transakcija na različitim razinama kao što su: Informacije o kontu Dnevnici Ukupni iznosi/brojke transakcija Bilanca/analize dobiti i gubitka
©2011. SAP AG. Sva prava pridržana.5 Dijagram toka procesa Glavna knjiga Računovođa glavne knjige Voditelj financija Doga- đ a j GK = glavna knjiga Obrada odluke Knjiženje (FI)StorniranjePrikaz Knjiženje dokum. konta gl. knjige Prikaz i promjena pojedinačnih stavki Prikaz dokumenta Prikaz kompaktnog dnevnika dokumenta Prikaz dnevnika dokumenta Prikaz stanja Storniranje dokumenta Obrada dokumenta periodičnog knjiženja Lista originalnih dokumenata periodičnog knjiženja Izvršavanje periodičnih knjiženja Zatvaranje Obrada odluke Prikaz stanja glavne knjige (lista) Prikaz i promjena Obrada odluke Održavanje konta: automatsko zatvaranje Održavanje konta: ručno zatvaranje Storniranje dokumenta – pojedinačno storniranje Storniranje dokumenta – masovno storniranje
©2011. SAP AG. Sva prava pridržana.6 Legend SymbolDescriptionUsage Comments To next / From last Diagram: Leads to the next / previous page of the Diagram Flow chart continues on the next / previous page Hardcopy / Document: Identifies a printed document, report, or form Does not correspond to a task step in a document; instead, it is used to reflect a document generated by a task step; this shape does not have any outgoing flow lines Financial Actuals: Indicates a financial posting document Does not correspond to a task step in a document; instead, it is used to reflect a document generated by a task step; this shape does not have any outgoing flow lines Budget Planning: Indicates a budget planning document Does not correspond to a task step in a document; instead, it is used to reflect a document generated by a task step; this shape does not have any outgoing flow lines Manual Process: Covers a task that is manually done Does not generally correspond to a task step in a document; instead, it is used to reflect a task that is manually performed, such as unloading a truck in the warehouse, which affects the process flow. Existing Version / Data: This block covers data that feeds in from an external process Does not generally correspond to a task step in a document; instead, this shape reflects data coming from an external source; this step does not have any incoming flow lines System Pass / Fail Decision: This block covers an automatic decision made by the software Does not generally correspond to a task step in the document; instead it is used to reflect an automatic decision by the system that is made after a step has been executed. Externalto SAP Business Activity / Event Unit Process Process Reference Sub- Process Reference Process Decision Diagram Connection Hardcopy / Document Financial Actuals Budget Planning Manual Process Existing Version / Data System Pass/Fail Decision SymbolDescriptionUsage Comments Band: Identifies a user role, such as Accounts Payable Clerk or Sales Representative. This band can also identify an organization unit or group, rather than a specific role. The other process flow symbols in this table go into these rows. You have as many rows as required to cover all of the roles in the scenario. Role band contains tasks common to that role. External Events: Contains events that start or end the scenario, or influence the course of events in the scenario. Flow line (solid): Line indicates the normal sequence of steps and direction of flow in the scenario. Flow line (dashed): Line indicates flow to infrequently-used or conditional tasks in a scenario. Line can also lead to documents involved in the process flow. Connects two tasks in a scenario process or a non-step event Business Activity / Event: Identifies an action that either leads into or out of the scenario, or an outside Process that happens during the scenario Does not correspond to a task step in the document Unit Process: Identifies a task that is covered in a step-by-step manner in the scenario Corresponds to a task step in the document Process Reference: If the scenario references another scenario in total, put the scenario number and name here. Corresponds to a task step in the document Sub-Process Reference: If the scenario references another scenario in part, put the scenario number, name, and the step numbers from that scenario here Corresponds to a task step in the document Process Decision: Identifies a decision / branching point, signifying a choice to be made by the end user. Lines represent different choices emerging from different parts of the diamond. Does not usually correspond to a task step in the document; Reflects a choice to be made after step execution
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