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PART 2: On to the Brain!!!. Organization of the Brain How can we describe the brain? How can we describe the brain? Neural tissue description(the look)

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Presentation on theme: "PART 2: On to the Brain!!!. Organization of the Brain How can we describe the brain? How can we describe the brain? Neural tissue description(the look)"— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 2: On to the Brain!!!

2 Organization of the Brain How can we describe the brain? How can we describe the brain? Neural tissue description(the look) Neural tissue description(the look) Location description(the place) Location description(the place) NAT GEO photo gallery NAT GEO photo gallery NAT GEO photo gallery NAT GEO photo gallery

3 General divisions of the nervous system Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System

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6 Central Nervous System (CNS) Central Nervous System (CNS) Spinal Cord Spinal Cord The Brain The Brain Reptilian Brain Reptilian Brain Old Mammalian Brain Old Mammalian Brain New Mammalian Brain (Neocortex) New Mammalian Brain (Neocortex)

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9 Localization of function of the human brain Structure and Function, Structure and Function Structure and Function, Structure and Function Subcortical areas Subcortical areas Structure and Function Structure and Function

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11 Neocortex The look The look The lobes The lobes

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13 A review NAT GEO web site for review NAT GEO web site for review NAT GEO web site for review NAT GEO web site for review

14 Let’s Look Into Your Brain! Today’s topics Today’s topics Right/Left Brain Right/Left Brain Dysfunctions Dysfunctions

15 How do the two hemispheres of the brain communicate?

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17 Lateralization of function of the human brain Split Brain- although similarly located both cerebral hemispheres generally have similar functions, but... Split Brain- although similarly located both cerebral hemispheres generally have similar functions, but... There are some differences or lateralization of functions shown to exist There are some differences or lateralization of functions shown to exist How did scientist figure this out??? How did scientist figure this out???

18 How is this studied? Electrical stimulation Electrical stimulation PET scans PET scans Cerebral vascular accidents (strokes), injury or lesioning Cerebral vascular accidents (strokes), injury or lesioning Left/Right Side neglect Left/Right Side neglect Split brain patients Split brain patients Drugs affecting half of brain Drugs affecting half of brain Dichotic listening Dichotic listening

19 Roger Sperry According to Dr.Sperry, the brain has two hemispheres with different but overlapping functions. The right and left hemispheres of the brain each specialize in distinct types of thinking processes. According to Dr.Sperry, the brain has two hemispheres with different but overlapping functions. The right and left hemispheres of the brain each specialize in distinct types of thinking processes.

20 Left and Right Brain Specialization

21 Left Hemisphere Specialization Speech and Language Functions Speech and Language Functions Wernicke’s Area Wernicke’s Area Broca’s Area Broca’s Area

22 Right Hemisphere Specialization Spatial Functions (patterns), visual configurations, color discrimination) Spatial Functions (patterns), visual configurations, color discrimination) Musical Functions Musical Functions

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24 Hemispheric Dysfunction Broca’s Aphasia Broca’s Aphasia Wernicke’s Aphasia Wernicke’s Aphasia Anomic Aphasia Anomic Aphasia Global Aphasia Global Aphasia Developmental Dyslexia Developmental Dyslexia

25 Plasticity Chudler/plasticity Chudler/plasticity Chudler/plasticity The Brain 7 mins The Brain 7 mins The Brain 7 mins The Brain 7 mins

26 Brain Dysfunction oke_of_insight.html oke_of_insight.html oke_of_insight.html oke_of_insight.html Ted talks and strokes Ted talks and strokes

27 Investigative Assignment Brain Imaging and web search Brain Imaging and web search Complete prior to slides Complete prior to slides

28 Windows to the Brain The Greeks The Greeks Franz Gall Franz Gall Brain Damage – Phineas Gage\ Brain Damage – Phineas Gage\ Walter Hess Walter Hess Lesion (ablation) Lesion (ablation) Imaging Techniques Imaging Techniques

29 The Greeks Hippocrates BCE Emotions, thought and mental health arise from the brain Galen CE Fluids in the brain ventricles were responsible for sensations, reasoning, judgment and memories

30 What is Phernology Phrenology was a faculty psychology. In layman’s terms – reading head features, size, & bumps to determine characteristics, personality, and intellect. Phrenology was a faculty psychology. In layman’s terms – reading head features, size, & bumps to determine characteristics, personality, and intellect. Phrenology was derived from the theories of the idiosyncratic Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall ( ). Phrenology was derived from the theories of the idiosyncratic Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall ( ). The basic tenets of Gall’s system: The basic tenets of Gall’s system: 1. The brain is the organ of the mind. 2. The mind is composed of multiple distinct, innate faculties. 3. Because they are distinct, each faculty must have a separate seat or "organ" in the brain. 4. The size of an organ, other things being equal, is a measure of its power. 5. The shape of the brain is determined by the development of the various organs. 6. As the skull takes its shape from the brain, the surface of the skull can be read as an accurate index of psychological aptitudes and tendencies.

31 31 Gall’s Contribution

32 32 American Phrenology Journal

33 33 Phineas Gage A railroad construction worker in Vermont in Dynamite blew a tamper rod through his eye and out his skull. Remarkably, he survived, but was never the same. Once considerate and friendly, he was now overbearing, inappropriate, and indecisive. What did we learn from Phineas Gage? We developed a theory about the frontal lobe and we determined that the executive control system in prefrontal cortex was damaged.

34 Walter Hess Studied brain function. First to discover function of hypothalamus and “start-stop eating” function Studied brain function. First to discover function of hypothalamus and “start-stop eating” function

35 Lesions Cutting of brain tissue Cutting of brain tissue Ablation – destroy brain tissue Ablation – destroy brain tissue (Essentially these are the same thing) (Essentially these are the same thing)

36 Brain Imaging Techniques The are now many, highly specific methods to see into your brain. The are now many, highly specific methods to see into your brain. Assignment yesterday helped you examine these. Assignment yesterday helped you examine these. As a review... As a review...

37 More modern approaches EEG EEG CAT CAT MRI and fMRI MRI and fMRI PET PET MEG MEG SPECT SPECT DTI DTI

38 EEG Transmit electrical activity (brain waves) Transmit electrical activity (brain waves)

39 CAT or CT scan Computerized axial tomography- computerized image of x-rays Computerized axial tomography- computerized image of x-rays

40 MRI Magnetic resonance imaging – magnetic field to develop image of the brain Magnetic resonance imaging – magnetic field to develop image of the brain

41 fMRI Functional MRI – detect the use of oxygen in the brain Functional MRI – detect the use of oxygen in the brain

42 PET Positron emission tomography- slightly radioactive solution injected to see metabolic activity in imaged part of the brain Positron emission tomography- slightly radioactive solution injected to see metabolic activity in imaged part of the brain

43 MEG Magnetoencephalography- detect activity too brief to be detected by PET or MRI Magnetoencephalography- detect activity too brief to be detected by PET or MRI

44 SPECT Single photon emission computerized tomography- tracks cerebral blood flow as an indicator of neural activity in a specific region of the brain Single photon emission computerized tomography- tracks cerebral blood flow as an indicator of neural activity in a specific region of the brain

45 Diffusion Tensor Imaging An MRI technique that measures the diffusion of water within a cell to yield an image of axons and neural tracts An MRI technique that measures the diffusion of water within a cell to yield an image of axons and neural tracts

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