The study of human social life, groups and societies Deals with your environment, friends, life issues More of the risk of taking drugs
Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry Changes in the brain resulting in a compulsive need to use drugs Depends on two main biological factors: 1.Effects of drugs on the individual 2.Biological status of the individual (inherited characteristics)
Made up of billions of neurons They pass messages back and forth to different systems These networks regulate what we feel, think and do Neurotransmitters-chemicals that carry messages between neurons Receptors-bind with certain neurotransmitters Sending a message: ◦ Neurotransmitter released ◦ Jumps synapse ◦ Attaches to receptor ◦ Causes changes in receiving brain cell ◦ Message delivered
When we participate in life-sustaining activities our brain treats it with a pleasurable “reward” The brain releases dopamine as a reward ◦ Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, cognition, motivation and feelings of pleasure Drugs interfere the way nerve cells normally communicate Drugs can target the reward system with dopamine Drugs release 2-10 times more dopamine than natural rewards do and can last longer
Drugs such as, heroin and marijuana, can activate neurons because their chemical structures mimic that of a natural neurotransmitter ◦ Attaches to receptor and activates nerve cell in an unnatural way ◦ Abnormal messages are transmitted Drugs such as, cocaine and amphetamine, can cause nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these chemicals ◦ Produce a greatly amplified message ◦ Disrupts communication channels
Prefrontal Cortex ◦ a “pleasure centre” ◦ Develops during adolescence ◦ While developing there is a chemical imbalance ◦ Substance use during this time can impair future decision making and other functions A person who starts drinking at age 13 has a 43% chance of becoming an alcoholic A person who starts drinking at age 21 has a 10% chance of becoming an alcoholic
Account for 40%-60% of the likelihood of developing an addiction There are multiple genes that control various aspects of the biological response to drugs or the physiological predisposition to become an abuser Genetic factors don’t ensure addiction, just as lack of them don’t prevent addiction Certain genes make it harder for a user to stop using drugs Diversity of molecular components involved in addiction ◦ Neurotransmitters ◦ Desensitization of targets for many drugs
How researchers proved that addiction is hereditary Constructed from large families with addiction problems Shows recurring traits
Scientists have found more than 80 of these genes Each of these genes contain clustered single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant allele frequency differences between abusers and non-abusers Implicated with many cellular functions, including adhesion ◦ Establish and maintain neuronal connections of significance to addiction’s “memory” function
Genetic factors contribute to alcohol preference ◦ Smaller doses of alcohol affected mice with genetic factors more than ones without ◦ Maybe due to inherited differences in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system – inherited increase response to this system (when exposed to alcohol) ◦ Different levels of activity in other neurotransmitter system that moderate activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system When bred to lack a certain gene: ◦ Cannabinoid receptor gene-reduced reward response to morphine ◦ Serotonin receptor gene-more attracted to alcohol and cocaine ◦ B2 subunits nicotinic cholinergic receptors-reduced reward response to cocaine ◦ Lower levels of neurpeptide Y-drink more alcohol ◦ Higher levels of neurpeptide-tend to abstain from alcohol ◦ Creb gene-less likely to develop morphine addiction ◦ Defective Per2 gen-drink 3X more alcohol
Treatment of addiction genes ◦ Modify activity ◦ Transform them-reduce likelihood of addiction ◦ Signals and pathways in the brain-returned to normal Creating tamper-resistant drugs ◦ When crushed, chewed or cut, release naltrexone which absorbs the morphine ◦ When dissolved-gel-like substance forms, which makes it impossible to inject ◦ Tamper-resistant oxycontin is already being produced Creating a vaccine ◦ Prevents addictive substances from ever reaching the brain ◦ Opioid vaccine is being produced ◦ A vaccine for drugs such as heroin and cocaine is the target
Defining Sociology. (2005). In The British Sociological Association. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from www.sociology.org.uk/as4def.docwww.sociology.org.uk/as4def.doc Definition of Addiction. (2011, April 19). In American Society of Addiction Medicine. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://www.asam.org/for-the-public/definition-of-addictionhttp://www.asam.org/for-the-public/definition-of-addiction Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. (2010, August). In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science- addiction/drugs-brainhttp://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science- addiction/drugs-brain Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012). Genetics is an important factor in Addiction. In The University of Utah. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/genetics/ http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/genetics/ Grucza, R. J. (2006). Co-Occurring Risk Factors for Alcohol Dependence and Habitual Smoking. Alcohol Research & Health, 29(3), 172-178. Liu Q-R, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Hess J, Uhl GR. 2006. Addiction Molecular Genetics: 639,401 SNP Whole Genome Association Identifies Many “Cell Adhesion” Genes. Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:918–925. Nestler, Eric J., and David Landsman. "Learning about addiction from the genome." Nature 2001. Web. 9 May 2012.. Nurnberger, J. (2007). SEEKING THE CONNECTIONS: ALCOHOLISM AND OUR GENES. Scientific American, 296(4), 46-53. The Pleasure Centers (n.d.). In The Brain From the Bottom to the Top. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_03/i_03_cr/i_03_cr_que/i_03_cr_que.htmlhttp://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_03/i_03_cr/i_03_cr_que/i_03_cr_que.html U.S. Congress, Mice of Technology Assessment, BioZogicaZ Components of Substance Abuse and Addiction, OTA-BP-BBS-1 17 Woods, T. L. (2010). Opioid abuse and dependence: Treatment review and future options. (cover story). Formulary, 45(9), 284-291.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.