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MH  The study of human social life, groups and societies  Deals with your environment, friends, life issues  More of the risk of taking drugs.

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Presentation on theme: "MH  The study of human social life, groups and societies  Deals with your environment, friends, life issues  More of the risk of taking drugs."— Presentation transcript:


2 MH

3  The study of human social life, groups and societies  Deals with your environment, friends, life issues  More of the risk of taking drugs

4  Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry  Changes in the brain resulting in a compulsive need to use drugs  Depends on two main biological factors: 1.Effects of drugs on the individual 2.Biological status of the individual (inherited characteristics)


6  Made up of billions of neurons  They pass messages back and forth to different systems  These networks regulate what we feel, think and do  Neurotransmitters-chemicals that carry messages between neurons  Receptors-bind with certain neurotransmitters  Sending a message: ◦ Neurotransmitter released ◦ Jumps synapse ◦ Attaches to receptor ◦ Causes changes in receiving brain cell ◦ Message delivered

7  When we participate in life-sustaining activities our brain treats it with a pleasurable “reward”  The brain releases dopamine as a reward ◦ Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, cognition, motivation and feelings of pleasure  Drugs interfere the way nerve cells normally communicate  Drugs can target the reward system with dopamine  Drugs release 2-10 times more dopamine than natural rewards do and can last longer


9  Drugs such as, heroin and marijuana, can activate neurons because their chemical structures mimic that of a natural neurotransmitter ◦ Attaches to receptor and activates nerve cell in an unnatural way ◦ Abnormal messages are transmitted  Drugs such as, cocaine and amphetamine, can cause nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these chemicals ◦ Produce a greatly amplified message ◦ Disrupts communication channels

10  Prefrontal Cortex ◦ a “pleasure centre” ◦ Develops during adolescence ◦ While developing there is a chemical imbalance ◦ Substance use during this time can impair future decision making and other functions  A person who starts drinking at age 13 has a 43% chance of becoming an alcoholic  A person who starts drinking at age 21 has a 10% chance of becoming an alcoholic



13  Account for 40%-60% of the likelihood of developing an addiction  There are multiple genes that control various aspects of the biological response to drugs or the physiological predisposition to become an abuser  Genetic factors don’t ensure addiction, just as lack of them don’t prevent addiction  Certain genes make it harder for a user to stop using drugs  Diversity of molecular components involved in addiction ◦ Neurotransmitters ◦ Desensitization of targets for many drugs

14  How researchers proved that addiction is hereditary  Constructed from large families with addiction problems  Shows recurring traits

15  Scientists have found more than 80 of these genes  Each of these genes contain clustered single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant allele frequency differences between abusers and non-abusers  Implicated with many cellular functions, including adhesion ◦ Establish and maintain neuronal connections of significance to addiction’s “memory” function


17  Genetic factors contribute to alcohol preference ◦ Smaller doses of alcohol affected mice with genetic factors more than ones without ◦ Maybe due to inherited differences in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system – inherited increase response to this system (when exposed to alcohol) ◦ Different levels of activity in other neurotransmitter system that moderate activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system  When bred to lack a certain gene: ◦ Cannabinoid receptor gene-reduced reward response to morphine ◦ Serotonin receptor gene-more attracted to alcohol and cocaine ◦ B2 subunits nicotinic cholinergic receptors-reduced reward response to cocaine ◦ Lower levels of neurpeptide Y-drink more alcohol ◦ Higher levels of neurpeptide-tend to abstain from alcohol ◦ Creb gene-less likely to develop morphine addiction ◦ Defective Per2 gen-drink 3X more alcohol

18  Treatment of addiction genes ◦ Modify activity ◦ Transform them-reduce likelihood of addiction ◦ Signals and pathways in the brain-returned to normal  Creating tamper-resistant drugs ◦ When crushed, chewed or cut, release naltrexone which absorbs the morphine ◦ When dissolved-gel-like substance forms, which makes it impossible to inject ◦ Tamper-resistant oxycontin is already being produced  Creating a vaccine ◦ Prevents addictive substances from ever reaching the brain ◦ Opioid vaccine is being produced ◦ A vaccine for drugs such as heroin and cocaine is the target

19  Defining Sociology. (2005). In The British Sociological Association. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from  Definition of Addiction. (2011, April 19). In American Society of Addiction Medicine. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from  Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. (2010, August). In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from addiction/drugs-brain addiction/drugs-brain  Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012). Genetics is an important factor in Addiction. In The University of Utah. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from  Grucza, R. J. (2006). Co-Occurring Risk Factors for Alcohol Dependence and Habitual Smoking. Alcohol Research & Health, 29(3), 172-178.  Liu Q-R, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Hess J, Uhl GR. 2006. Addiction Molecular Genetics: 639,401 SNP Whole Genome Association Identifies Many “Cell Adhesion” Genes. Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:918–925.  Nestler, Eric J., and David Landsman. "Learning about addiction from the genome." Nature 2001. Web. 9 May 2012..  Nurnberger, J. (2007). SEEKING THE CONNECTIONS: ALCOHOLISM AND OUR GENES. Scientific American, 296(4), 46-53.  The Pleasure Centers (n.d.). In The Brain From the Bottom to the Top. Retrieved April 25, 2012, from  U.S. Congress, Mice of Technology Assessment, BioZogicaZ Components of  Substance Abuse and Addiction, OTA-BP-BBS-1 17  Woods, T. L. (2010). Opioid abuse and dependence: Treatment review and future options. (cover story). Formulary, 45(9), 284-291.

20  drugs-alcohol.html drugs-alcohol.html  -addiction/drugs-brain -addiction/drugs-brain  /genetics/ /genetics/  03_cr_que/i_03_cr_que.html 03_cr_que/i_03_cr_que.html  packets/brain-actions-cocaine-opiates- marijuana/section-iii-introduction-to-drugs- abuse-cocaine-opiat-1 packets/brain-actions-cocaine-opiates- marijuana/section-iii-introduction-to-drugs- abuse-cocaine-opiat-1

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