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© Ana Belén García Hernando1 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services Redes y Servicios Ubicuos y Seguros Unit 2: Applications and Services Ana Belén García Hernando
© Ana Belén García Hernando2 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Where does the great potential of ubiquitous systems come from? Real time measurement and communication of physical phenomena, even in formerly inaccessible locations. mHuge amounts of information unveiled and available for its processing. mEnhanced response time (or prevention) of emergency situations. mBetter quality of life, optimised industrial processes, safer cities and roads, more protected natural environments… Intelligence embedded in thousands (millions) of tiny nodes to offer services that are totally correlated with the reality (Ambient Intelligence). Context awareness.
© Ana Belén García Hernando3 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Application domains Industry Aerospace, automotive, telecommunications, pharmaceutical, retail, logistics, supply chain management, manufacturing, product lifecycle management, oil & gas Society Intelligent buildings, medical / health care, independent living, safety, security of people and things, privacy, people and goods transportation, media and entertainment, e-inclusion, people rescue Environment Environmental monitoring, recycling, natural disaster prevention and detection, agriculture & breeding, energy management, habitat monitoring, bio- surveillance This is just one of many possible classifications. The possible examples are countless. They are not isolated from one another: an application may contribute to more than one domain.
© Ana Belén García Hernando4 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Applications and services Application: a whole system/ framework/ tool that supports one or more of the previous domains. mApplications and domains that are very different in purpose may pose quite similar requirements to services. The services cater for specific functionalities / needs of the intra / inter-domain level. mTarget tracking, measurement of environmental parameters, query services, alarm generation.
© Ana Belén García Hernando5 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Simplified architecture of a WSN system The WSN itself may be accessed using services (abstractions) that imitate databases, web services, etc. m“intelligent middleware will allow the creation of a dynamic map of the real/physical world within the digital / virtual space” [CERP-IoT 2010] “In the long term, the borders between IoT and classic telecommunication networks will blur: a situation-aware service environment will be pervasively exploited (crossing different domains).” [CERP-IoT 2010]
© Ana Belén García Hernando6 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Context awareness Types of context: mUser context: biometrics, attention, posture, … mSocial context: surrounding people, type of group, link to other people, … mEnvironmental context: location, position, time, condition, energy, physical data, … “Little is more basic to human perception than physical juxtaposition, and so ubiquitous computers must know where they are. (Today's computers, in contrast, have no idea of their location and surroundings.) If a computer knows merely what room it is in, it can adapt its behavior in significant ways without requiring even a hint of artificial intelligence.” [Weiser 1991]
© Ana Belén García Hernando7 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Factors facilitating / hindering a wide adoption of WSN / IoT applications There is not a wide proliferation of commercial IoT products yet. Novel nonintrusive human- computer interaction model leads to an intrusive transition process for industries [Liu 2009] Some public concerns, especially privacy and security. Still a high number of standards. The main domains for commercial use are home automation, building automation and medical. Smart energy and human mobility are emerging markets. [EETimes 2010] How to overcome this: Leveraging existing infrastructures, devices, interfaces, development kits, … to overcome initial resistance. More effort on standardization, harmonisation and socio-ethical issues. The necessary reduction in costs and enhancement in battery lifetime and robustness.
© Ana Belén García Hernando8 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Human – Computer Interface Discuss in class: Is this still valid, 20 years after? “It [the computer] is approachable only through complex jargon that has nothing to do with the tasks for which people actually use computers. The state of the art is perhaps analogous to the period when scribes had to know as much about making ink or baking clay as they did about writing.” [Weiser 1991]
© Ana Belén García Hernando9 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Human – Computer Interface The ideal case: a completely natural interaction “The hundreds of processors and displays are not a "user interface" like a mouse and windows, just a pleasant and effective "place" to get things done” [Weiser 1991] The reality: humans will still access applications and services using “conventional” HCI for some functions, although part of the interaction may be completely unnoticed. mGUIs, SMS, mobile calls, touch screens, voice interaction. mInterfaces for technical staff (e.g. a doctor, security personnel, …) should be different than those used by the general public.
© Ana Belén García Hernando10 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Wireless parking scenario Do you find this application useful? Where is the intelligence of this system mainly located? Video: Wireless Parking San Francisco Location:
© Ana Belén García Hernando11 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Wireless parking scenario Very basic sensors (detection of presence / absence of a car). The added value of this applications lies in the managing and interpretation of that distributed information. mCommunication with the parking meter to start / renew a parking period. mVariable price depending on how congested the zone is. mIntegration with other applications and services (restaurant reservation). mEven the mere compilation of information from the raw data (45% of parking sessions unpaid). Imagine upgrades to this application by madding more intelligent nodes to cars, urban infrastructures, roads, … that measure parameters and communicate with each other: ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), Smart cities, Smart roads
© Ana Belén García Hernando12 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Quality of Service requirements QoS can be defined as the degree to which a system fulfils its requirements. mNot all applications have the same QoS requirements. mThere is always a trade-off between QoS and consumption (this is especially important in WSN). QoS, in a broad sense, may be related to: mNetwork: delay, jitter (delay variation) and losses. mSensing: measurement precision, spatial and temporal granularity, coverage. mReliability: robustness, tamper-resistance, resilience. mSociety and users: ease of use, privacy, anonymity, non- intrusiveness.
© Ana Belén García Hernando13 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Privacy is one of the main concerns But aren’t we sometimes willing to give it up? The “worrying” thing about IoT is that it could put privacy at risk without people even noticing. Security aspects of these systems have to be tackled from the beginning to gain users’ confidence.
© Ana Belén García Hernando14 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Oil drums scenario Are these sensing nodes more or less sophisticated than the previous ones? Video: Video about the CoBIs project broadcasted by SAP TV Location:
© Ana Belén García Hernando15 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Oil drums scenario Automation of industrial processes by embedding some degree of intelligence into things. Both managerial and security benefits. Some degree of decision-making in the WSN: mThe WSN itself decides when an event needs further processing for sending it… m… in a distributed manner: sensors communicate with each other. Other possible applications: safety clothes. One of the main worries: Privacy. Why? Great reflection on business processes (less gap between the real time events and their reflection in the digital world).
© Ana Belén García Hernando16 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Elderly care scenario What are the differences between the interfaces that are offered to: mThe elderly person? mThe relative of the elderly person? Video: Video about the SODA project Location: See course materials. Video: Home Care, from the SODA project. Used with permission.
© Ana Belén García Hernando17 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Elderly care scenario Non-intrusiveness. Behavioural patterns recognition. Notification only if special conditions are detected. mLocation of the person. mCommunication with external services (e.g. sending video). Easy and known interfaces. m(Almost) not even noticed for the person at home. mUsual and known interfaces for family and friends receiving the warnings: sms, placing calls.
© Ana Belén García Hernando18 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Some of the main technological challenges Hardware: Miniaturization, radio range, tamper resistance, batteries, … Network: Auto-configuration, network topologies, cross-layer optimization, QoS, routing, low duty cycle, synchronization, … Energy: Energy consumption (at all levels!), energy harvesting, … Software and applications: Low footprint, middleware, data abstraction, robustness, reutilization, usability, … Security: Confidentiality, privacy, authentication, … QoS (at several layers): possibility of coexistence of distinct applications, trade-off QoS-consumption, …
© Ana Belén García Hernando19 Ubiquitous and Secure Networks and Services: Applications and Services Bibliography [CERP-IoT 2010] Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things. Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things. March [CoBIs] “Collaborative Business Items” European project. [EETimes 2010] Mark LaPedus. Wireless sensor networks set to take off. April Online: [García 2008] García, A.B., Martínez, J.F. et al. Problem Solving for Wireless Sensor Networks. Springer-Verlag London Ltd., [IDTechEx 2010] IDTechEx. Active RFID and Sensor Networks [Liu 2009] Yong Liu. Towards an open ubiquitous computing environment. IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, [SFpark] SF park project. [SODA] “Service Oriented Device & Delivery Architecture” European project. itea.org/ [Turon 2005] Turon, M. MOTE-VIEW: A Sensor Network Monitoring and Management Tool. The Second IEEE Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNetS-II), [Weiser 1991] Weiser, M. The computer for the 21st century. Scientific American, vol. 265(3), 1991.
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