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The Five Basic Principles of Security

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1 The Five Basic Principles of Security
PERSONAL SECURITY MEASURES The Five Basic Principles of Security Liam Morrissey, CD David Mace 17 February, 2014

2 Who am I and what am I doing here?
What are the characteristics of the current situation? What are the key considerations in successfully avoiding kidnap, extortion and security incidents? What are the implications for safe operations?






8 AWARENESS Be aware that a security threat does exist
Continually monitor and assess the degree of the threat as this will change Before departing from your normal place of residence or work, obtain information about the threat along your route of travel and at your destination and take security measures to reflect the level of threat When the threat increases, take additional measures to protect yourself At all times, be aware about what is happening around you so you can identify a threat at an early stage and take avoiding action Check for strangers loitering by your residence or office, following you when on foot or travelling in a vehicle. If you become suspicious of any unusual behavior, warn other members of the family and report it to the police or security company Be particularly alert when arriving at or leaving places that you regularly frequent such as your residence, office, clubs, restaurants and church Brief and constantly remind younger family members to be aware of their surroundings and how to identify suspicious behavior. They should be alert to strangers and suspicious incidents and know who they should report any such occurrence to Avoid using a mobile telephone or i-Pod in public places as your concentration will be distracted Identify plans that can be implemented if a threat develops to allow you to move to safety

Criminals will select targets that are or appear to be wealthy. Avoid driving expensive cars, wearing expensive jewelry or designer clothes, talking indiscreetly in public about your possessions and work especially when holding a conversation on your cellular telephone, or regularly frequenting expensive restaurants and clubs Safeguard personal details such as your residential address, telephone number, club membership and business. Avoid having your contact details published in directories or club membership lists that are available to members of the public Avoid having photographs of you or your family published in newspapers and magazines If there has been publicity that has increased the profile of you or your family, increase security measures and be more aware of your surroundings

Criminals targeting an individual will study that individual’s normal routine to identify where he or she is most vulnerable to become a victim of a criminal act. Vary timings and routes when going to or leaving frequently visited destinations such as a weekend residence, the office, clubs, restaurants, shops or church Identify any routes or timings that you can not vary and be extra alert. Plan an escape route in the event you identify anything suspicious that could develop into a threat When living in a high risk area, vary methods of transport and vehicles. This is specially relevant for children going to and returning from school

11 COMMUNICATIONS Ensure that you know at all times where all family members are scheduled to be, when they are due home and how to contact them Have a list of the contact telephone numbers of the police, security company, close neighbors and the emergency services in an easily accessible location so you can call for assistance in an emergency Brief members of the family not to talk openly about information concerning the family or the movements of family members in public places and especially when using a cellular telephone Monitor chat room contacts of young members of the family and instruct them not to divulge information over the Internet about themselves or the family or make arrangements to meet

12 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Layers of protection include both procedural and physical measures. These layers should be implemented to cover all phases of daily life – residence, travel, business and recreation Professional criminals will identify the weakest points and exploit these. In areas with an identifiable risk, security needs to be in place 24 hours, seven days a week Having layers of protection will make you a harder target for criminals and may encourage them to switch to an easier target

13 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
External doors Keys External doors should be of solid construction, have mortise dead-locks and reinforced hinges and be fitted with a means of identifying a visitor without having to open the door. This could include a peephole, door chain or intercom linked to CCTV. An alarm system should be fitted External doors should be kept locked at all times There should not be a name plate or other form of identification on doors or gates that front on to public areas or in reception areas of apartment blocks Keys to external doors should only be given to authorized personnel The number of keys per lock should be kept to a minimum and each key accounted for If a key is lost, the lock should be changed Do not hide a key in the grounds of the residence for members of the family to use. Nor should keys be hung near a door where they can be reached through a letterbox as criminals are well practiced at “fishing”. Personnel in possession of a key should either carry it on their person or place it in a secure container If a member of domestic staff has a key to an external door (e.g. the door from the kitchen to the grounds), the door between the kitchen and living area should be locked at night

14 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Windows Lighting Fit window locks to all ground floor windows and on upper floors where entry can be obtained easily (across an adjacent flat roof or by scaling a tree or drainpipe) or that are hidden from view of passers by Curtains and blinds should be fitted to windows and kept drawn during the hours of darkness Windows should be connected to an intruder alarm If window grills are fitted, ensure that at least one on each floor can be opened to provide an escape route in the event of a fire Security lights should be fitted to cover all approaches to the residence and especially external doors and the garage The security lights should be controlled from inside the house and be installed at a height that is out of the reach from the ground

15 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Telephone Telephones are an insecure means of communication and care should be taken when speaking on them Personal telephone numbers should be treated with a high degree of confidentiality and not given to strangers indiscriminately nor listed in public telephone or club directories Avoid giving out information about travel plans over a telephone On answering an incoming call, do not state your name or telephone number. Positively identify the caller before giving any information When recording a message on your answering machine, do not state your name, telephone number or the fact that you are out. A message should be non committal along the lines – “We are not able to take your call at present, please leave a message, your name and telephone number and we will return your call as soon as possible” All family members should be instructed not to provide information about the whereabouts or movements of other family members unless they can positively identify the caller If there is any doubt about the identity of the caller or the purpose of the call, ask for a number you can call back. This will provide time and a method to authenticate the caller On receipt of a suspicious call, report it immediately to the police or telephone company. Brief family members and domestic and secretarial staff on the procedures for handling any further calls

16 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Emergency Equipment Domestic Staff It is advisable to have the following in the residence: Torches and spare batteries First aid pack Fire extinguishers Panic buttons connected to an audible alarm A list of emergency telephone numbers Long serving, loyal staff who have been well treated will provide natural security for the family On recruiting new members of staff, thoroughly check all references provided Take care about the subject of conversations held in the hearing of staff members Restrict access to external door keys and do not permit members of staff who live outside the residence grounds to take keys home as they may be taken from them under threat duress Regularly brief domestic staff on the procedures for access control, telephone answering and reporting suspicious behavior or approaches by strangers In the event of a member of the domestic staff being dismissed, change all external door locks

17 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Children Visitor: Service & Maintenance Children should be carefully briefed about: Not divulging information about themselves or the family when using the telephone or an Internet chat room Reporting suspicious behavior or approaches by strangers How and when to call for assistance Never to open the door to a stranger Never to accept a lift from a stranger When in public places, children should be supervised and watched over by a known, responsible adult Regular briefings covering the procedures for checking the authenticity of visitors should be given to domestic staff and family members: All callers should have made an appointment Unexpected callers should not be allowed to enter the residence Obtain the name, scheduled time of arrival, employer’s company name and contact details in advance When the person arrives, positively check identity against an identity card. If in doubt, do not allow the person into the residence until their identity has been checked with the employer Escort all visitors while they are on the premises Confirm the identity of delivery men before opening the door to accept a package All packages should be visually checked before being accepted. If in doubt, ask the delivery man to open the package If there is a change in personnel of regular tradesmen or delivery men, check with the employer that this is authentic

18 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Answering the Door Strangers Procedures for answering the door to callers should include: Ensuring any visitor has an appointment and arrives at the agreed time Positively identifying the visitor through a peephole, intercom, adjacent window or using the door chain to partially open the door Checking for any signs of nervousness Checking the vicinity of the visitor to see if there is anyone loitering in the background Never hold a conversation while standing in the doorway At night, illuminating the visitor and the ground behind and switching off inside lights where practical Be wary of strangers, especially after dark, if they are asking for assistance. Do not allow a stranger into the residence to use the telephone however serious their “emergency” may sound Do not open the door to anyone claiming to be a member of a law enforcement agency or other official body without checking their identity with their head office If you see any stranger loitering suspiciously around the area, inform the police or security company emergency response unit immediately

19 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
The Grounds of the Residence Dogs Perimeter fences should be of solid construction, high enough to act as a barrier and regularly checked and maintained There should be clear ground between the perimeter fence and the residence. This area should be illuminated at night Shrubs and trees adjacent to the outside of the perimeter fence should be cleared to prevent providing assistance for an intruder to scale the fence Gravel drives and paths around the residence will provide an audible warning of someone approaching and act as a deterrent to an intruder Dogs can be a strong deterrent to intruders Dogs should be in the residence and free to move around. Any dogs roaming freely in the grounds can be neutralized by a tranquilizer or poison

20 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Security Personnel Police Liaison It is important that detailed checks about the quality and training of security personnel are carried out before employing a company or individuals Any onsite security guards should be backed up by a quick reaction team that can be summoned in an emergency Security guards should not be replaced unless there are exceptional circumstances An emergency telephone number and the name and contact details of the local senior police officer should be noted Periodic meetings with the senior local police officer can be mutually beneficial

21 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Residential Security
Neighbors Establishing good relations with neighbors is essential for the exchange of information about any suspicious behavior in the area and to keep a watch over your residence when you are away

22 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
Vehicles Garages Both family and company vehicles should be of a popular make, neutral color and not carry personalized number plates or company logos. In many countries, thieves target specific types of vehicle, owning these should be avoided All vehicles should be serviced regularly by trustworthy, known mechanics and maintained in good working order Never allow the fuel tank to drop below quarter full and ensure a lockable filler cap is fitted If possible, families should have use of at least two vehicles so that they can be swapped on a regular basis to prevent easy identification by criminal elements Anti-tamper alarms with an internal indicator should be installed In high risk areas, consideration should be given to driving a bullet-proof vehicle and to attending a defensive driving course Fit garages with remotely operated automatic metal doors and keep the doors closed and locked at all times Direct access from the garage to the residence will prevent observation by members of the public Install CCTV to cover the doors and immediate access to the garage

23 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
Checks Prior to Use Parking Depending on the local threats, visual checks should be carried out before entering the car: Kidnap or carjacking - Survey the general area for people acting suspiciously or lurking in shadows before approaching the vehicle. Check for signs of tampering and also look into the rear seat area to ensure no one is hiding in the back Bomb threat - Look under the car and in the wheel arches for anything that has been attached Do not park the same car in the same place on a regular basis. Use a variety of authorized parks Never leave the car unlocked even for a short time. Ensure that windows are totally closed Avoid parking in quiet, poorly lit streets or parking lots Before getting out of the vehicle, check the immediate area for anyone acting suspiciously or loitering in the shadows. If in doubt, drive away and find another parking place

24 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
On the Road While driving, ensure all doors are locked and windows shut securely Never open a window or unlock the door if a stranger, street vendor or beggar approaches the car while you are stopped at traffic lights, road junctions or in a traffic jam If a policeman approaches your vehicle, keep all doors locked and open the driver’s window about two inches so you can speak to the policeman. Ask for identification and, if you are still suspicious, ask for the name of a senior police officer and telephone number who you can call to verify identification. DO NOT open the door and leave the vehicle until you have verified the identification of the policeman Plan your route before leaving and identify safe areas to divert to in the event of being followed. Restrict knowledge about your timings and routes to trusted people Regularly check the rear view and side mirrors to identify any car that appears to be following. If suspicious, take avoiding action by driving to a populated area (e.g. shopping mall, hospital, hotel, police station), continuing round a roundabout or by coming off a motorway and retracing your route. Be particularly alert when leaving or arriving at your destination. If in doubt, drive past your destination to a safe area Ask passengers to act as a second pair of eyes Follow busy routes and avoid roads with light traffic or through poor areas At night, use routes that are well lit Be alert for cars stopped at the side of the road or waiting at an exit to a side road that may pull out and block your vehicle. Be ready to take evasive action by accelerating away Do not stop at an accident or if another car hits your car. Drive to the nearest police station to report the incident

25 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
Car Equipment Traveling by Public Transport Carry on board a cellular telephone, first aid kit, fire extinguisher and torch If it is necessary to travel regularly by train or bus, vary timings and railway stations/bus stops Select crowded rather than sparsely populated train carriages and buses If you normally travel by car, consider using trains or buses as an alternative form of transport to vary the pattern of travel Only use hotel taxis or radio cabs from a company known to you

26 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
On Foot Avoid walking in sparsely populated and poor areas Use busy main streets rather than quiet side streets At night, use well lit streets At all times, be aware of what is happening around you so you can identify people following you or gangs approaching you. If at all suspicious, take avoiding action by crossing the road, retracing your footsteps or entering a shop or other crowded premises Identify and know the quickest route to safe locations such as police stations, hotels, shopping malls that are in easy reach Avoid speaking on a cellular telephone or listening to an iPod while in public as this will distract your attention to your surroundings Do not stop to speak to strangers, street vendors or beggars who approach you

27 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Security While Moving
Hotels Always lock your room door. Do not display a numbered key. Use the room safe or secure valuables or cash in the hotel safe. Do not leave documents or classified papers in your room. Use your business address to register and not your private address. Retain your passport unless the law requires it to be held by the hotel; try to offer a photocopy. Confirm your room’s location and ensure it meets your requirements for security (see below). Ideally select a room close to the lifts (elevators). Do not admit strangers or visitors into your room who have not been vouched for. Arrange to meet strangers in the hotel reception, or at a designated office or other common areas within the hotel. Provide the hotel security manager with a list of potential visitors in advance if possible Ensure that you locate the nearest fire escape routes to your room as soon as possible after checking in. Take your key with you – do not leave it at reception. If expecting visitors, use the peep hole to confirm the visitor’s identity before letting them in. You should try to stay in a room between the 4th and 8th floors. Make sure your Go Bag is ready at all times. Keep curtains closed so that shattered glass cannot cause any damage to you in the event of a blast.

Access Control Executive Offices Minimize the number of external entrances and exits to the office complex Install barriers at entrances that provide an efficient method of access control Ensure security staff at entrances are properly trained in access control, and bag and personnel search procedures Ensure that security personnel are carefully briefed on procedures for checking visitors and actions to take in an emergency All windows on the ground floor and those adjacent to flat roofs should be fitted with a security grill. A number of these should be fitted with hinges and a padlock to provide an emergency exit in case of a fire or other emergency Vehicle entrances to on site parking should have a manned security barrier to control access Offices of senior executives should be located so that visitors have to enter through the secretary’s office. Secretaries should positively identify visitors and check with the executive before allowing the visitor access Panic buttons should be installed in the offices of executives and secretaries Secretaries should be carefully briefed about not divulging information concerning the movements of executives to unauthorized personnel. Executives’ appointments diaries should not be left lying open on a desk and must be locked away out of working hours. Any documents referring to an executive’s future movements must be kept in a secure place and out of sight of prying eyes

29 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Action in Emergency Situations
General Home/Office The best personal protection is to identify a situation at an early stage of development by being aware of your surroundings and alert to suspicious behavior rather than trying to extract yourself once the threat has developed At each stage of your daily routine, it is advisable to have identified a simple plan of action to implement should you feel threatened. It is unlikely there will be time to decide on the actions to take once faced by an emergency Any plan of action should include moving swiftly to a previously identified secure location that provides a barrier between you and the assailants and using a cellular telephone to summon assistance Secure all doors and windows and contact the police and/or local security company either by telephone or activating an alarm system. Do not venture out until help arrives

30 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Action in Emergency Situations
Vehicles Ensure you always have an identified escape route so you can keep the vehicle moving. Leave sufficient room from the car in front to maneuver when stopped Ensure that all doors and windows are closed and secure Attract attention by using the lights, horn and intruder alarm If possible, drive to a populated area or secure premises and summon assistance by telephone on arrival

31 LAYERS OF PROTECTION Hostage Survival
Do not attempt to escape unless the chances of success are high Obey kidnappers’ instructions and try to establish a relationship with the guards who will be less likely to harm a hostage once rapport has been established Inform the kidnappers about any regular medication being taken Start a daily routine of physical and mental exercise to maintain alertness Always accept the food you are given. If this is only provided once per day, divide it into three portions to eat as breakfast, lunch and dinner Do not be afraid to ask for item to enhance personal comfort and relieve boredom such as a TV, radio, newspapers, books and magazines Identify where in the room will provide the best protection in the event of a rescue attempt Do not attempt to negotiate your release as this will have a negative effect on negotiations that are in motion Do not provide information about the wealth of your family or company or comment on their ability to pay a ransom

Remain calm and relaxed If recording equipment is installed on the telephone, switch on the recorder Speak slowly and clearly and inform the caller to pass his/her message clearly so there is no misunderstanding If the caller makes a threat, do not make any comments but, if you have not heard it clearly, ask the caller to repeat it slowly Query why the caller is making the threat If asked for your name, only provide your first name. DO NOT answer any further questions about your identity If it is a suspicious call asking for information about members of the family but without making a threat ask The caller’s name The reason for the call A contact telephone number to return the call DO NOT PROVIDE ANSWERS UNTIL YOU HAVE BEEN ABLE TO POSITIVELY IDENTIFY THE CALLER If the caller says he/she will call back later, ask for a time to expect the call Get as much information as possible and do not be afraid to ask questions to clarify any comments made by the caller On completion of the call, make a note of the following: Sex M [ ] F [ ] Age child [ ] young [ ] old [ ] Attitude serious [ ] drunk [ ] laughing [ ] Accent? [ ] Education educated [ ] uneducated [ ] State calm [ ] nervous [ ] Background noise music [ ] traffic [ ] talking [ ] trains [ ] machines [ ] other [ ] Type of telephone public [ ] private [ ] mobile [ ] Caller alone [ ] being prompted [ ] reading a script [ ] Disguising voice? Yes [ ] No [ ] Date/Time of call Your name Telephone Number of call


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