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By: David Sundine II & Emilio Zavala.  Is anything that has mass and takes up space.  Its unit is a Atoms  It can be changed.

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Presentation on theme: "By: David Sundine II & Emilio Zavala.  Is anything that has mass and takes up space.  Its unit is a Atoms  It can be changed."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: David Sundine II & Emilio Zavala

2  Is anything that has mass and takes up space.  Its unit is a Atoms  It can be changed

3  Atom Consist of three things  Electrons  Neutrons  Protons  Also Elements Ex: H, Si.  And Bonds!

4  A chemical bond in which atoms are held together by their mutual attracti9on for two electrons they share

5  A chemical bond in which an attractive electric force holds ions of opposite charge together  Ionic compound  Any chemical compound containing compounds

6  They have a positive charge.

7  They have a Negative charge.

8  They have a 0(Zero) Charge.

9  It’s the power to change things.  There are different forms of energy:  Mechanical  Thermal  Chemical  Electrical  Electromagnetic  Nuclear

10  Is get energy with the motion of an object.

11  Total energy of the particles in a substance or material.

12  Potential energy stored in chemical bonds.

13  Moving electrical charges that produce electricity and energy.

14  Energy that travels in waves

15  Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom from fission or fusion.


17 A nuclear bomb is powered by the radioactive elements Uranium and plutonium.  All radioactive means is that the atoms in the element are unstable an release energy. The atoms of any element are made of a nucleus and electrons which revolve around the nucleus.  A nuclear bomb explodes when the energy that’s inside of a radioactive atom is released.

18 There's two ways the energy can be released and that consists of 1. Nuclear Fission and fussion, The two sun- atomic particles protons and neutrons are contained in the nucleus, in fission the reaction occurs when a loose neutron strikes an atom’s nucleus and then break down which releases a massive amount of energy. In fusion hydrogen atoms fuse together to form an atom of helium and, makes a large amount of energy. The sun operates the same way

19  in the process of nuclear fission refined Uranium and Plutonium are used. (make a small note about how their scientific names are U-235 and Plutonium-239)  what fission means is the splitting of a nucleus, in doing so energy is released as a reaction  There are two kinds of nuclear fission and they are:  Gun-Triggered  Implosion

20  In Gun-triggered fission enriched uranium is used  (make a note about what enrichment means, enrichment is done in a complex device and it increases the radioactivity, regularly the atomic number of Uranium is 232 but after its enriched it becomes 235)  In a bomb of this design there are two different uranium objects  The first one is the subcritical mass which is a mass that is used to start a gun triggered fission reaction; this contains the neutrons  The second is the Supercritical mass which is the mass containing the fuel for the explosion, and that’s what has the enriched uranium.  There is a Tamper which is a coating which prevents the loss of energy stored inside the enriched uranium.  The tamper is made out of Uranium-232

21  The actual bomb is exploded through the following process  The trigger receives the signal to shoot the bullet (Subcritical Mass)  The bullet shoots and strikes the Supercritical Mass  The core expands which exerts pressure on the Tamper  The tamper then starts expanding  Expansion stops and pressure is then exerted onto the core  The fission the takes place thus exploding the bomb  While this process sounds quite long it really only takes about a 100 th of a second  However this is how old nuclear devices operated, its now been modified and is more complex, this is how Little Boy (the bomb dropped on Hiroshima) exploded which released energy equivalent to 15 kilotons (you might want to look up how much that is so we don’t look like retards)

22  In the beginning stages of the Manhattan project (look up what the Manhattan project is) US scientists working on the project realized that through implosion they could compress the subcritical masses into a sphere thus making a supercritical mass  However there were a few complications that went along with this idea, the main one was how to control the shock waves across the sphere.  The problems were solved and the implosion device was made of a sphere of Uranium-235 which was the Tamper and a Plutonium- 239 core which was surrounded by high explosives.  The bomb was detonated and what happened is as follows:  The explosives fired which created a shock wave  The shock wave exerted pressure on the tamper  The tamper started expansion  Expansion stopped exerting pressure on the core  The fission reaction began and then exploded the bomb

23 The bomb known as Fat Man worked this way and had a 23 kiloton yield (power).These types of bombs were very efficient and exploded in mere fractions of a second, the fission usually occurred in around 560 billionths of a second.In later implosion triggered modifications this is what happens The explosives fire which creates a shock wave The shock wave propels plutonium pieces together into a sphere The plutonium pieces strike a pellet of beryllium/polonium in the center The fission begins and explodes the bomb

24  This is the destroyer of all destroyers, a bomb made through this technique is known as a thermonuclear device and it uses both Fission and Fusion  However this fusion reaction involves other fuels which are called Deuterium and Tritium  While the Fission bomb worked they weren’t as efficient as fusion bomb which had higher kiloton yields  Imagine that inside that bomb casing you have an implosion fission bomb and a cylinder casing made of uranium 238 (tamper)  In the tamper is the lithium dueteride which is a fuel made of deuterium and a hollow rod of plutonium 239 inside the center of the cylinder  LOOK IN NOTS FOR MORE!!!! : D

25  The fission bomb explodes which gives off x-rays  1. These x-rays heat the inside of the bomb and the tamper, the uranium shield prevents premature detonation of the fuel  2. The heat causes the tamper to expand and burn away which exerts pressure against the lithium deuterates  3. The lithium deuterate is squeezed  4. Compression shock waves start the fission inside the plutonium rod  5. The fissioning rod gives off radiation, heat, and neutrons  6. The neutrons go into the lithium deuterate with the lithium and make tritium  7. The combination of high temperature and pressure are sufficient for tritium-deuterium and deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions to occur which makes even more heat, radiation and neutrons  8. The neutrons from the fusion reactions produce fission in the uranium- 238 pieces from the tamper and the shield  Fission of the tamper and shield pieces make still more radiation and het which in turn finally explodes the bomb  while this process seems like it would take a long time it actually occurs in about 600 billionths of a second and makes and explosion 700 times greater than the little boy explosion and has a whopping 10,000 kiloton yield


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