Presentation on theme: "Lesson Eleven Silent Spring Rachel Carson About the Author About the Text Word Study Detailed Discussion of the Text In-class Discussion Teaching Procedures."— Presentation transcript:
About the Author About the Text Word Study Detailed Discussion of the Text In-class Discussion Teaching Procedures
About the Author Rachel Carson (1907—1964) was an American biologist and writer. She was a quiet, private person, fascinated with the workings of nature from a scientific and aesthetic point of view.
About the Text Today, environmental protection has become a worldwide movement. It is almost fashionable to talk about this problem. But at the time this article was first published, the author was very much under attack. She was accused of being an alarmist. However Carson did not give in. She went on fighting. Soon the idea caught on. More and more people began to join in. So today there is a general consensus that we are facing a very serious ecological problem, and we must do everything possible to keep our water and air clean.
Word Study 1. assault v./n. violent physical or verbal attack (usually implying sudden, intense violence) Examples: Muggers often assault their victims on dark streets. increases in violent assaults over the past decade 2. confine v./n. to keep within bounds; restrict Examples: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. The sick child was confined to bed.
3. consent v./n. to agree; accept; approve of Examples: Mary‘s parents refused their consent to her marriage. Has the minister consented to having his speech printed? 4. contaminate v. a. to make impure or unclean by contact or mixture ； b. to expose to or permeate with radioactivity Examples: The river was contaminated with waste. Don't be contaminated by bureaucracy.
5. contend v. a. to strive in opposition or against difficulties; struggle b. to compete, as in a race; maintain Examples: The armies in the two countries are contending for control of the strategic territory. They had to contend with long lines at the airport. The defendant contended that the evidence was inadmissible.
6. deliberate a. a. intentional b. arising from or marked by careful consideration Examples: He mistook the oversight for a deliberate insult. He told us a deliberate lie. 7. evolve v. a. to develop or achieve gradually b. to work out; devise Examples: The British present political system has evolved over several centuries.
8. futile adj. useless, fruitless, trifling and frivolous; idle: the futile years after her artistic peak. Cf: futile /barren/ bootless /fruitless/ unavailing/ useless /vain The central meaning shared by these adjectives is producing no result or effect. a futile effort; a barren search; bootless entreaties; fruitless labors; an unavailing attempt; a useless discussion; vain regrets.
9. gear vt. To adjust or adapt so as to make suitable: geared the speech to a conservative audience. Education should be geared to children's needs. 教育应适 合学生们的需要。 n. （汽车的）排挡 The truck driver changed gear to go up the hill.
Word Study 10. impetuous adj. abrupt hasty impulsive rash reckless sudden unexpected impetuous rush of water 奔腾急流 Youngsters are usually more impetuous than old people. 年轻人常比老年人急躁。 Impetus: an impelling force; an impulse; Something that incites; a stimulus. The approaching deadline gave impetus to the investigation.
Word Study 11. modify v. a. to change in form or character; alter b. to make less extreme, severe, or strong Examples: The equipment may be modified to produce VCD sets. refuse to modify her stand on the issue 12. prosperous adj. Having success; flourishing, well-to-do; well-off; wealthy: a prosperous family. favorable: a prosperous moment to make a decision; prosperous weather for growing
Word Study 13. sinister adj. evil: a sinister smile. ominous: sinister storm clouds. Chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world. 14. tamper (with) vi to interfere in a harmful manner or improperly: Tried to tamper with the decedent's will; Don't tamper with my feelings. Tamper with a jury.
The rapidity of change follows the impetuous pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. (13) Paraphrase: The rapid change of the environment takes place as a consequence of man’s drastic and reckless alteration of nature. It does not occur as a result of slow and careful working of nature. Detailed Discussion of the Text
Radiation is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, having no counterparts in nature. Paraphrase: In the past, radiation was only sent out from radioactive substances in certain rocks; today man creates such harmful rays by causing the nucleus of the atom to split such as radium. Detailed Discussion of the Text
We have subjected enormous numbers of people to contact with these poisons, without their consent and often without their knowledge. Paraphrase: By spraying insecticides on food grains vegetables and fruit, we have caused large numbers of people absorb harmful chemicals without asking whether they would like to do so and often without their knowing it. Detailed Discussion of the Text
Given time—time not in years but in millennia—life adjusts, and a balance has been reached. (12) Paraphrase: It takes thousands of years for life to adapt itself to environment. Actually it so happens that life adapts and a balance has been reached. Detailed Discussion of the Text
And even this, were it by some miracle possible, would be futile, for the new chemicals come from our laboratories in an endless stream. (14) Paraphrase: Even if life did adjust to the chemicals by some miracle, it would be useless, because the new chemicals are continuously created and produced. Detailed Discussion of the Text
The whole process of spraying seems caught up in an endless spiral. (17) Paraphrase: The whole process of spraying chemicals to kill insects is a vicious cycle of chemical abuse. The more deadly chemicals are used, the more resistance they meet from the insects. Detailed Discussion of the Text
Thus it is no accident that our most troublesome insects are introduced species. (23) Paraphrase: That’s why the most troublesome insects in our country are brought in from other places. Detailed Discussion of the Text
I am saying, rather, that control must be geared to realities, and that the methods employed must be such that they do not destroy us along with the insects. (19) Paraphrase: On the contrary I am saying that the control should be determined by the actual environment and that the methods should not be harmful to humans that they die along with the insects. Detailed Discussion of the Text
… instead we need the basic knowledge of animal populations and their relations to their surroundings that will “promote an even balance and damp down the explosive power of outbreaks and new invasions”. (24) Paraphrase: Instead we need the basic knowledge of animal populations and their relations to their surroundings. This knowledge contributes to retaining an equal balance and reducing their mass- breeding and invading power. Detailed Discussion of the Text
What do you think of Carson’s views published some forty years ago? Do you think it has any relevance to today’s realities in our own country? In-class Discussion