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Age classification: Quo vadis? Phillip Strydom Agricultural Research Council Irene Tel: 072 4491012 SAFA Conference 18 March 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Age classification: Quo vadis? Phillip Strydom Agricultural Research Council Irene Tel: 072 4491012 SAFA Conference 18 March 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age classification: Quo vadis? Phillip Strydom Agricultural Research Council Irene Tel: SAFA Conference 18 March 2010 OR Tambo Conference Centre

2 Statement……. oMeat industry leans heavily on profit (like any good industry)  ….regarded as commodity….  ….little emphasis on quality or consumer satisfaction….

3 Argued……. oWe sell all our meat, so…  ….our meat must be good….  ….consumers can not really distinguish…  ….consumers will buy if price is right….  …..quality compromises will go unnoticed…. For large part of consumer spectrum this may be true, but….

4 In a recent consumer survey (not without shortcomings)? oRural and urban oVariation due to age, diet and cooking method  Demographics little effect on appreciation of quality – international trend  Young consumers value quality more  Frequent consumers value quality more  SA consumers discriminate better between bad and fair, and between good and very good – Ausies only between bad and fair

5 What has this to do with classification? oClassification describes a product so that all parts of industry could distinguish - and in the end the consumer oSo….  Do we need classification  Is our classification system adequate  If not ……the shortfalls  The rest of the world  A different angle  Other technologies

6 A good system: the ideal! TOF’s oAccurate oSimple to use and cheap? oTamper proof oRepeatable and human error oOn line – day of slaughter + oComplete description – applicable  fatness and tenderness by age

7 Where it started.. (Schönfeldt, 1992)

8 Still on the right tract… (Crossley, 1994; Sensory scale 1-8)

9 Collagen solubility (Crossley, 1994)

10 Not considered previously…. Cookingprocedures Breeding(genetics) Weaning age Slaughter age Stress e.g. feed withdrawal, transport, climate etc. Electrical stimulation time or not time or not Carcass temperature pH/temperature ratio (Carcass size) Ageing/maturation Freezing or not Slaughterprocess Feed regime /growth stim.

11 Age and production system: loin (all stimulated, only implanted) (2009; unpublished)

12 Not considered previously…. Cookingprocedures Breeding(genetics) Weaning age Slaughter age Stress e.g. feed withdrawal, transport, climate etc. Electrical stimulation time or not time or not Carcass temperature pH/temperature ratio (Carcass size) Ageing/maturation Freezing or not Slaughterprocess Feed regime /growth stim.

13 Age, variation in abattoir practice (rigor mortis) - loin

14 Highest and lowest – non stimulated - loin

15 Highest and lowest –stimulated - loin

16 Not considered previously…. Cookingprocedures Breeding(genetics) Weaning age Slaughter age Stress e.g. feed withdrawal, transport, climate etc. Electrical stimulation time or not time or not Carcass temperature pH/temperature ratio (Carcass size) Ageing/maturation Freezing or not Slaughterprocess Feed regime /growth stim.

17 Zilpaterol Zilpaterol, stimulation and aging: Loin Worst scenario Best Scenario

18 Zilpaterol Zilpaterol, stimulation, age and aging: Loin

19 Zilpaterol Zilpaterol, stimulation, age and aging: Silverside

20 Where are we? oClassification describes a product so that all parts of industry could distinguish - and in the end the consumer oSo….  Do we need classification  Is our classification system adequate  If not ……the shortfalls  The rest of the world  A different angle  Other technologies

21 Where are we? oClassification describes a product so that all parts of industry could distinguish - and in the end the consumer oSo….  Do we need classification  Is our classification system adequate  If not ……the shortfalls  The rest of the world  A different angle  Other technologies

22 USDA grading – quality grade oEight grades – prime to canner oConsider firmness and marbling in relation to maturity defined as ossification, colour and grain of muscle oBone maturity – size, shape and ossification

23 USDA grading – quality grade oYounger grain fed cattle (maturity A: 9-30 months)  Good predictor of juiciness and flavour  Good predictor of tenderness for mid cuts – roast, broil etc.  Poorer for end cuts – moist heat

24 Irony….. oNo significant relationship between sensory tenderness and maturity score (colour and bone), fatness, marbling, weight or dentition

25 Prof Gary Smith “Although USDA grading exist 84 years, most Brands use PACCP or TQM’s for quality assurance”

26 Closest to that: Meat Standards Australia Cuts based

27 A good system: the ideal! Accurate – apart from Brahman –hump size xSimple, practical to use and cheap? xTamper proof/honesty Repeatable and human error ?On line – day of slaughter + Broad description – applicable

28 Where are we? oClassification describes a product so that all parts of industry could distinguish - and in the end the consumer oSo….  Do we need classification  Is our classification system adequate  If not ……the shortfalls  The rest of the world  A different angle  Other technologies

29 Pasture Grain Different products oTenderness – cut and cooking oFlavour/taste – personal preference  Skatoles, FA, Mailard o(Emotional, nutrient value)

30 Grain and grass: separate systems oAge oWhat about grain supplement, HGP oUse of HGP type and beta agonist – trust?

31 For both – mostly for loin, fillet and rump; oBreed – problematic oStress – pH? oStimulation/chilling  Knowledge oSuspension method – n/a oAging – out of scope

32 What has this to do with classification? oClassification describes a product so that all parts of industry could distinguish - and in the end the consumer oSo….  Do we need classification  Is our classification system adequate  If not ……the shortfalls  The rest of the world  A different angle  Other technologies oVarious attempts…..

33 Proteomics

34 Classification: Probably more questions than answers Dangerous grounds !!!

35 To summarize …. 1.Age classification specify/describe age like fat code describe fatness Accuracy to predict is limited by other …often overriding effects Efficiency to limit variation is questionable 2.It probably describes or class types of carcasses into categories 3.The pricing system needs attention – science can proof a lot but not dictate price formation

36 To summarize …. 4.Also to consider colour of fat and meat and flavour Flavour is a personal experience Colour is unfluenced by numerous factors but also age Yellow fat – relevant but a continuum

37 Drie steaks

38 “Portehouse steak” Prys, ouderdom en kwaliteit Retail Food service R88/kg R 101/kg R 70/kg

39 “Portehouse steak” Price, age and tenderness Retail Food service

40 Age and cooking method on consumer acceptance (all stimulated and aged 5 days) 2009 (unpublished)


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