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© 2007 Levente Buttyán and Jean-Pierre Hubaux Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2 – Upcoming networks Generalities.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 Levente Buttyán and Jean-Pierre Hubaux Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2 – Upcoming networks Generalities."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 Levente Buttyán and Jean-Pierre Hubaux Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2 – Upcoming networks Generalities Mesh networks Vehicular networks Slides elaborated by Naouel Ben Salem, Panos Papadimitratos, and Maxim Raya

2 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 2/58 Introduction  Upcoming wireless networks: –Personal communications: Wireless mesh networks Hybrid ad hoc networks Mobile ad hoc networks –Vehicular networks –Sensor networks –RFID –Mobility in the Internet

3 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 3/58 Wireless mesh networks  Mesh network: –One Wireless Hot Spot (WHS) –Several Transit Access Points (TAPs) –Mobile Stations Upcoming wireless networks

4 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 4/58 Wireless mesh networks  Easy to deploy: –Single connection point to the Internet  Providing Internet connectivity in a sizable geographic area: –Much lower cost than classic WiFi networks  Fairness and security are closely related  Not yet ready for wide-scale deployment: –Severe capacity and delay constraints –Lack of security guarantees Upcoming wireless networks

5 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 5/58 Hybrid ad hoc networks  Hybrid ad hoc networks or multi-hop cellular networks: –No relay stations –Other mobile stations relay the traffic  Problem of power management Upcoming wireless networks

6 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 6/58 Mobile ad hoc networks  Mobile ad hoc networks: –Mobile ad hoc networks in hostile environments –In self-organized mobile ad hoc networks Upcoming wireless networks

7 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 7/58 Mobile ad hoc networks  Mobile ad hoc networks in hostile environments: –Presence of a strong attacker: military networks –Security challenges: Secure routing Prevention of traffic analysis Resistance of a captured device to reverse engineering and key retrieval.  In self-organized mobile ad hoc networks: –No authority in the initialization phase –Nodes have to figure out how to secure the communications –Selfishness can be a serious issue: Nodes selfishly refuse to forward packets Greedily overuse the common channel Upcoming wireless networks

8 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 8/58 Sensor networks  Large number of sensor nodes, a few base stations  Sensors are usually battery powered: –Main design criteria: reduce the energy consumption  Multi-hop communication reduces energy consumption: –Overall energy consumption can be reduced, if packets are sent in several smaller hops instead of one long hop –Fewer re-transmissions are needed due to collisions Upcoming wireless networks

9 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 9/58 Sensor networks  Security requirements: –Integrity –Confidentiality –Availability  Special conditions: –Energy consumption –Computing and storage capacity of sensors is limited –Access to the sensors cannot be monitored Upcoming wireless networks

10 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 10/58 RFID – Radio Frequency Indentification  RFID systems: –RFID tags –RFID readers –Back-end databases  RFID tag: microchip and antenna –Active: have battery –Passive: harvest energy from the reader's signal Upcoming wireless networks

11 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 11/58 Mobility in the Internet  When a node changes location: its address changes  Mobile IP: solves this problem at the IP layer Upcoming wireless networks

12 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 12/58 Mobility in the Internet  Care-of address: –Address used by the mobile node while it is attached to a foreign link  Binding: –Association of a care-of address with a home address  Bidirectional tunneling: –Mobile node tunnels the packets for the correspondent node through its home agent –Home agent tunnels the packets to the mobile node via its care-of address  Route optimization: –Mobile node registers its current address binding with the correspondent node –Packets are sent directly to the mobile node's care-of address –Use the optimal route between the mobile and correspondent node Upcoming wireless networks

13 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 13/58 Mobility in the Internet  Address stealing: –If binding updates were not authenticated: an attacker could send spoofed binding updates  DoS: –Sending spoofed IP packets that trigger a large number of binding update protocol instances Upcoming wireless networks

14 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 14/58 Mobility in the Internet  Protection mechanism: Return Routability (RR) –Non-cryptographic solution –Assumption of an uncorrupted routing infrastructure Upcoming wireless networks

15 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 15/58 Return Routability  Mobile Node MN checks the routability to the Correspondent Node CN: –(a) via the Home Agent HA (HoTI) –(b) directly (CoTI)  CN replies to both of them: HoT and CoT  Once MN has received both HoT and CoT: –MN sends a Binding Update to CN Upcoming wireless networks

16 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 16/58 Wireless Mesh Networks  Wireless Mesh Network (WMN): Same coverage as with WiFi networks but with only one WAP (and several TAPs).  WMNs allow a fast, easy and inexpensive network deployment.  However, the lack of security guarantees slows down the deployment of WMNs More on mesh networks

17 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 17/58 A Typical Communication in WMNs  Several verifications need to be performed: –WAP has to authenticate the MC. –MC has also to authenticate the TAPs –Each TAP has to authenticate the other TAPs in the WMN –The data sent or received by MC has to be protected (e.g., to ensure data integrity, non-repudiation and/or confidentiality).  Performing these verifications has to be efficient and lightweight, especially for the MC. More on mesh networks

18 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 18/58 Securing a Communication in WMNs: Example More on mesh networks E K_3 (SReq) E K_2 (SReq) E K_1 (SReq) E K_WAP (SReq) SRep E K_3 (SRep) E K_2 (SRep) E K_1 (SRep) Example: SReq = E K_WAP (ReqID, roamingInfo, SessionKey, Nonce)

19 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 19/58 Characteristics of WMNs  Multi-hop communications:  Delayed detection and treatment of attacks  Routing becomes critical  Unfairness  The TAPs are not physically protected:  Capture  Cloning  Tampering  Three fundamental security operations:  Detection of corrupt nodes  Secure routing  Fairness More on mesh networks

20 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 20/58 Three Fundamental Security Operations  Detection of corrupt nodes (a) An attacker compromises two TAPs  Accessing the internal state  Modifying the internal state (b) The attack is detected and new routes are defined More on mesh networks

21 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 21/58 Three Fundamental Security Operations  Routing (a) Dos attack (b) The attack is detected and new routes are defined More on mesh networks

22 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 22/58 Three Fundamental Security Operations  Fairness: Starvation problem  Per-client fairness:  1 =  3 =2*  2  By attacking the routing, an adversary can affect fairness More on mesh networks

23 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 23/58 Three Fundamental Security Operations  Fairness: Example (a) Sub-optimal route (b) Optimal route More on mesh networks

24 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 24/58 Multi-operator WMNs More on mesh networks  New challenges: –Mutual authentication of nodes belonging to different “operating domains” –Competition for the channel (shared spectrum)

25 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 25/58 Outline  Motivation  Threat model and specific attacks  Security architecture  Security analysis  Performance evaluation  Certificate revocation  Secure positioning  Conclusion Vehicular networks

26 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 26/58 What is a VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork)? Communication: typically over the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) (5.9 GHz) Example of protocol: IEEE p Penetration will be progressive (over 2 decades or so) Vehicular networks

27 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 27/58 Vehicular communications: why?  Combat the awful side-effects of road traffic –In the EU, around 40’000 people die yearly on the roads; more than 1.5 millions are injured –Traffic jams generate a tremendous waste of time and of fuel  Most of these problems can be solved by providing appropriate information to the driver or to the vehicle Vehicular networks

28 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 28/58  Large projects have explored vehicular communications: Fleetnet, PATH (UC Berkeley),…  No solution can be deployed if not properly secured  The problem is non-trivial –Specific requirements (speed, real-time constraints) –Contradictory expectations  Industry front: standards are still under development and suffer from serious weaknesses –IEEE P1609.2: Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments - Security Services for Applications and Management Messages  Research front –Very few papers Vehicular networks Why is VANET security important?

29 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 29/58 A smart vehicle (GPS) Human-Machine Interface Vehicular networks

30 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 30/58  An attacker can be: –Insider / Outsider –Malicious / Rational –Active / Passive –Local / Extended  Attacks can be mounted on: –Safety-related applications –Traffic optimization applications –Payment-based applications –Privacy Vehicular networks Threat model

31 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 31/58 Attack 1 : Bogus traffic information Traffic jam ahead  Attacker: insider, rational, active Vehicular networks

32 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 32/58 Attack 2 : Disruption of network operation SLOW DOWN The way is clear  Attacker: insider, malicious, active Vehicular networks

33 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 33/58 Attack 3: Cheating with identity, speed, or position Wasn’t me!  Attacker: insider, rational, active Vehicular networks

34 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 34/58 Attack 4: Jamming Vehicular networks

35 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 35/58 Attack 5: Tunnel Vehicular networks

36 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 36/58 Attack 6: Tracking Vehicular networks

37 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 37/58 Penetration and connectivity Courtesy of Pravin Varaiya First level approximation: Vehicular networks

38 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 38/58 Number of hops Vs penetration (1/2) Vehicular networks

39 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 39/58 Hopping on vehicles in the reverse direction Vehicular networks

40 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 40/58 Number of hops Vs penetration (2/2) Vehicular networks

41 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 41/58 Compute connectivity in this case ;-) Vehicular networks Proposed homework

42 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 42/58 Our scope  We consider communications specific to road traffic: safety and traffic optimization –Safety-related messages –Messages related to traffic information  We do not consider more generic applications, e.g. toll collect, access to audio/video files, games,… Vehicular networks

43 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 43/58 Security system requirements  Sender authentication  Verification of data consistency  Availability  Non-repudiation  Privacy  Real-time constraints Vehicular networks

44 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 44/58 Security Architecture ? Vehicular networks

45 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 45/58 Tamper-proof device  Each vehicle carries a tamper-proof device –Contains the secrets of the vehicle itself –Has its own battery –Has its own clock (notably in order to be able to sign timestamps) –Is in charge of all security operations –Is accessible only by authorized personnel Tamper-proof device Vehicle sensors (GPS, speed and acceleration,…) On-board CPU Transmission system ((( ))) Vehicular networks

46 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 46/58 Digital signatures  Symmetric cryptography is not suitable: messages are standalone, large scale, non-repudiation requirement  Hence each message should be signed with a DS  Liability-related messages should be stored in the EDR Vehicular networks

47 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 47/58 VPKI (Vehicular PKI) PKI Security services Positioning Confidentiality Privacy... CA P A P B Authentication Shared session key  Each vehicle carries in its Tamper-Proof Device (TPD): –A unique and certified identity: Electronic License Plate (ELP) –A set of certified anonymous public/private key pairs  Mutual authentication can be done without involving a server  Authorities (national or regional) are cross-certified Vehicular networks

48 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 48/58 The CA hierarchy: two options Car A Car B Car A Car B Manuf. 1 Manuf Governmental Transportation Authorities 2. Manufacturers  The governments control certification  Long certificate chain  Keys should be recertified on borders to ensure mutual certification  Vehicle manufacturers are trusted  Only one certificate is needed  Each car has to store the keys of all vehicle manufacturers Vehicular networks

49 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 49/58 Secure VC Building Blocks  Authorities –Trusted entities issuing and managing identities and credentials

50 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 50/58 Secure VC Building Blocks  Authorities –Hierarchical organization –‘Forest’

51 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 51/58 Secure VC Building Blocks (cont’d) Roadside Unit ‘Re-filling’ with or obtaining new credentials Providing revocation information Roadside Unit Wire-line Connections  Identity and Credentials Management Vehicular networks

52 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 52/58 Anonymous keys  Preserve identity and location privacy  Keys can be preloaded at periodic checkups  The certificate of V’s i th key:  Keys renewal algorithm according to vehicle speed (e.g., ≈ 1 min at 100 km/h)  Anonymity is conditional on the scenario  The authorization to link keys with ELPs is distributed Vehicular networks

53 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 53/58 What about privacy: how to avoid the Big Brother syndrome? At 3:00 - Vehicle A spotted at position P1 At 3:15 - Vehicle A spotted at position P2  Keys change over time  Liability has to be enforced  Only law enforcement agencies should be allowed to retrieve the real identities of vehicles (and drivers) Vehicular networks

54 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 54/58 DoS resilience  Vehicles will probably have several wireless technologies onboard  In most of them, several channels can be used  To thwart DoS, vehicles can switch channels or communication technologies  In the worst case, the system can be deactivated Network layer DSRC UTRA-TDD Bluetooth Other Vehicular networks

55 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 55/58 Data verification by correlation (plausibility)  Bogus info attack relies on false data  Authenticated vehicles can also send wrong data (on purpose or not)  The correctness of the data should be verified  Correlation can help Vehicular networks

56 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 56/58 Security analysis  How much can we secure VANETs?  Messages are authenticated by their signatures  Authentication protects the network from outsiders  Correlation and fast revocation reinforce correctness  Availability remains a problem that can be alleviated  Non-repudiation is achieved because: –ELP and anonymous keys are specific to one vehicle –Position is correct if secure positioning is in place Vehicular networks

57 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 57/58 Conclusion on the security of vehicular communications  The security of vehicular communications is a difficult and highly relevant problem  Car manufacturers seem to be poised to massively invest in this area  Slow penetration makes connectivity more difficult  Security leads to a substantial overhead and must be taken into account from the beginning of the design process  The field offers plenty of novel research challenges  Pitfalls –Defer the design of security –Security by obscurity  More information at Vehicular networks

58 Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks Chapter 2: Upcoming wireless networks 58/58 Upcoming networks vs. mechanisms XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXXXX? XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXX???? XXXXX?X? X?XX? Small operators, community networks Cellular operators in shared spectrum Mesh networks Hybrid ad hoc networks Self-organized ad hoc networks Naming and addressing Discouraging greedy op. Security associations Securing neighbor discovery Secure routing Privacy Enforcing PKT FWing Enforcing fair MAC Vehicular networks Sensor networks RFID networks Upcoming wireless networks Rule enforcement mechanisms Behavior enforc. Security Cooperation


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