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Confidential 1 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Mixing cryptography and watermarking for copy protection in consumer electronic devices FURON Teddy DIEHL Eric THOMSON multimedia R&D France
Confidential 2 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Plan Introduction Limitations of encryption and watermark A mixed approach: DVD-COPS Public key like watermark? Conclusion
Confidential 3 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Copy protection for CE devices Every multimedia content will be digital Easily copied Protection against illegal copy Four states to manage – Copy free, copy never, copy once, and copy no more Cost effective solution Keep Honest People Honest – Not against pirate organization The aim is not To protect against copyright infringement To trace the pirate
Confidential 4 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Some proposed solutions Mainly two classes of protection Encryption based protection The content to protect is encrypted Duration of the protection varies – XCA: From reception till display – 5C’s DTCP: On the bus connecting two devices Watermark based protection The watermark describes the copy status Handling of copy once varies – MILLENIUM: cryptographic ticket – GALAXY: additional watermark when recording
Confidential 5 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Plan Introduction Limitations of encryption and watermark A mixed approach DVD-COPS Public key like watermark? Conclusion
Confidential 6 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Why encryption is not enough? CP Decryption key Original Content CP Encryption key Protected Content
Confidential 7 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Why Watermark is not enough? CP Original Content WM emb. WM emb. Watermarked Content WMdet. WMdet. WM det WM det
Confidential 8 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Plan Introduction Limitations of encryption and watermark A mixed approach: DVD-COPS Public key like watermark? Conclusion
Confidential 9 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 A mixed approach (1/3) Protected creation by watermark & encryption Removing watermark is useless Breaking encryption is not sufficient One bit payload Detection of presence of watermark More robust then isolated protection #1 Personal creation Protected creation Free copy
Confidential 10 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 A mixed approach (2/3) A recordable medium carries only copies Detection of media type Assume that media type is tamper proof #1 Personal creation Protected creation Free copy Original Copy No more copy #2
Confidential 11 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 A mixed approach (3/3) Digital signature protects “copy once” Hacker has no interest to tamper or break the signature Bad signature means “copy never” Using asymmetric cryptosystem Secret only for content owner #1 Personal creation Protected creation Free copy Original Copy Never copy No more copy Copy Once #2 #3
Confidential 12 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Plan Introduction Limitations of encryption and watermark DVD-COPS: an example Public key like watermark? Conclusion
Confidential 13 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Public key like WM Embedding ciphertext in watermark does not improve security Detection of watermark is weakest point Applying cryptographic trap door function in signal processing is not possible. Mimicking the basic ideas of public key crypto- system is the only way to succeed.
Confidential 14 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 From cryptography to signal processing Basic ideas in cryptography are: One way function Observe the effect, ignoring the cause. How to achieve that with real signals? Filtering a Gaussian white noise is a one way operation (h n, v n ) w n = h n v n The effect of filtering is noticeable in spectral analysis ww( f ) ~ |H( f )| 2
Confidential 15 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Classical spread spectrum technique Transformation Cover Content Watermarked Content Adder Multiplier Human Perception Model Inverse Transformation Gaussian noise Private key
Confidential 16 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Improving SSWM scheme Embedding the WM Transformation Cover Content Watermarked Content Adder Multiplier Human Perception Model H filter Interleaver Gaussian noise Private key Inverse Transformation
Confidential 17 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Improving WMSS scheme Detecting the WM The detection process is a test hypothesis in spectral analysis using a public key Transformation Content Interleaver Estimated Spectrum Test Hypothesis Y / N Public key
Confidential 18 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Plan Introduction Limitations of encryption and watermark DVD-COPS: an example Public key like watermark? Conclusion
Confidential 19 Corporate Research © THOMSON multimedia, 1999 Conclusion J The CE device has now only public keys (signature and watermark). WM is robust because of low capacity Extra constraints Copy Once on pressed media The system is only based on switch decisions (Y / N). Can a switch be implemented securely in hardware? Can a switch be implemented securely in software?
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