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Copyright © 2006 EEM202B/CSM213B - Spring 2006 August Joki, Timothy Chow UCLA Student Presentation #2: Vehicular.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 EEM202B/CSM213B - Spring 2006 August Joki, Timothy Chow UCLA Student Presentation #2: Vehicular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 EEM202B/CSM213B - Spring 2006 August Joki, Timothy Chow UCLA, Student Presentation #2: Vehicular Sensor Networks

2 2 Overview Intersection, Freeways and Parking Management –Sensys Networks Mobile Distributed Sensor Systems –CarTel –511 Vehicle to Vehicle Communication Security

3 3 Intersection, Freeways and Parking Management Collects traffic flow, traffic pattern and vehicle information for real-time decisions and adjustments Intersections –Improves safety and efficiency –Traffic claming –Green light extension –Collision avoidance Freeways –Measures vehicle counts, speed and length Parking –Optimizes parking structure operation –Minimizes motorists search time –Increases parking income

4 4 How Is It Done Today? Expensive wired sensors infrastructure in parking lots Inductive Loop –Lanes need to be closed for installation

5 5 Intersection, Freeways and Parking Management Wireless sensor is a good replacement! –Minimum lane closure –Easier to deploy –Versatile California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) – –Low-Cost Vehicle Detection and Communication Systems for Urban Intersections, Freeways and Parking Lots Monitor freeway traffic every 30 seconds per lane Detect events at urban intersections and parking lots Design and fabricate hardware that fit in a raised pavement marker

6 6 Intersection, Freeways and Parking Management –Smart Parking Wireless sensors at entrances to detect incoming and outgoing vehicles Real-time information available on road sign and online Pilot program in selected BART parking lots

7 7 Intersection, Freeways and Parking Management Streetline Networks – –$1.4 million contract from The Port of San Francisco –Studies on parking space utilizations –Deployed sensors powered by “2 AA batteries” XM Satellite Radio –Introduced “Dynamic Parking Information” service last November in selected parking lots in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Detroit –Integrated with navigation systems

8 8 Sensys Networks Sensys Networks products: –Low-power vehicle detection wireless sensors Measure vehicle counts and lane occupancy –Access points Collect data from sensors and control external logic –Repeaters Extend the size of the sensor network

9 9 Sensys Networks VSN240 Wireless Sensor –Magneto resistive sensor to measure X, Y, Z components of magnetic field. –128 Hz sampling rate –Devices can be deployed in each lane at a known distance from each other –IEEE 802.15.4 Radio –Battery powered –7 to 10 years expected lifetime –Synchronized clock through access point to measure speed and length of a vehicle

10 10 Sensys Networks VSN240-f –Installed flush with the pavement surface in a 4” diameter, 2” deep cored hole –2.9” x 2.9” x 1.9” –10 years expected lifetime

11 11 Sensys Networks VSN240-s –Surface mount version using adhesive –5.35” x 3.6” x 0.9” –7 years of expected lifetime

12 12 Sensys Networks Communication Protocol –Based on IEEE 802.15.4 radio –Operated in 2.4 GHz ISM band –TDMA protocol –Nodes transmit data in a time-slot assigned by AP –A single radio channel supports up to 96 nodes –Reporting latency from 0.125 s to 30 s –50 ms low-latency mode available with fewer sensors per radio channel

13 13 Sensys Networks Range –APs and Repeaters to sensors: 100 ft – 200 ft –Repeaters to APs – Up to 1000 ft

14 14 Sensys Networks Improves intersection safety and efficiency

15 15 Sensys Networks Parking lane count system

16 16 CarTel MIT project Design and deploy a mobile distributed sensor computing system. Applications can collect, process, deliver and visual data from sensors on automobiles. –Provides a application programming interface –Handles intermittent and variable network connectivity –Handles data heterogeneity

17 17 CarTel Applications Road Traffic Monitoring –Make personalized and current route recommendations –Based on driver’s commute history and histories of other drivers willing to share their information On-Board Automotive Diagnostics and Notification –Monitor and report internal performance –Such as emissions and gas mileage –Early trouble notification Civil and Environmental Monitoring –Assess and report road surface conditions –Pollution levels, air quality, potholes, oil spills, flooding –Help drivers and authorities to identify road hazards

18 18 CarTel Applications Opportunistic Data Transport –Delay-tolerant networking –Mobiles units assist disconnected peers to deliver data Peer-to-Peer Networks

19 19 CarTel Software Architecture Three major software components –Portal –CarTelDB –CafNet

20 20 CarTel Software Architecture Portal –Hosts CarTel applications –Point of control and configurations –Issues queries to specify how mobile nodes should collect, process and deliver sensor data –Sink for all data sent from the mobile nodes

21 21 CarTel Software Architecture CarTelDB –Delay-tolerant continuous query processor –Query results across the mobile nodes are stored in a relational database –Accepts continuous SQL queries from Portal

22 22 CarTel Software Architecture CafNet –Delay-tolerant network stack –Provides seamless bidirectional data transport in an intermittently connected environment –“Data mule” – Nodes carry large amount of data –Opportunistically forward data to the destination or another mule

23 23 CarTel Prototype Embedded Computer –WiFi card –Linux GPS ODB-II –Collects data from on-board computer

24 24 CarTel Prototype

25 25 511 Toll free number + website of all transportation related information Designated by FCC in 2000 as the national travel information number Implemented in many states

26 26 Bay Area 511 Gives estimated driving times between specified destinations Gives traffic conditions for major freeways

27 27 Bay Area 620 miles of freeway 155,500 hours spent in traffic in 2001 $1.85 million per day in delays and fuel costs * State of the System 2002, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, available at

28 28 FasTrak Bay Area has many toll bridges –8 Use FasTrak to electronically pay toll –And have dedicated lanes as a bonus Need transponder for identification

29 29 Bay Area 511 implementation Why not use transponder for more than just paying toll? –Especially when not on any bridge Readers set up along freeways Count cars for a rough estimation of flow Also aggregate CHP blotter

30 30 Bay Area 511 Interface Can call from any cell phone –Voice commands for safety Access map and traffic cams through the web Near real-time accident reporting

31 31 Vehicle to Vehicle Communication © Doug Chezem

32 32 Vehicle to Vehicle Communication 5.9 GHz for Dedicated Short-Range Communication –DSRC Car-to-Car Car-to-Roadside gnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html gnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html 11389_3-5933641.html 11389_3-5933641.html

33 33 V2V Allows cars to be aware of surrounding cars and infrastructure 5 - 10 years until production 4 Computers + GPS + Wifi currently –Single chip by production time

34 34 V2V deployments VW –2 Jettas and 2 A3s –platoon style through San Francisco GM –Cadillac CTS –Actuates self to avoid accidents

35 35 V2V specs GPS + 100 different data points from the car –speed, braking, and the use of turn signals Every car within 1/4 mile hears it Real-time calculation of all other cars in range Removes need for expensive Radar/Lidar

36 36 V2V perqs Show driver positions of all other cars Alert driver to potential hazards –Fast approaching cars –Cars in blind spot –Parallel parking –‘Sees’ around curves Take over control of car if driver doesn’t

37 37 V2V concerns Can we rely on the system? –One car without the system would wreak havoc on a busy road Can we be sure no personal info is being sent out? CHP could easily snoop –Proof in court? Spoofing?

38 38 Security of Smart Vehicles Cars are gaining lots of electronic sensors and identifiers –Electronic license plates –Event Data Recorders –GPS Who should have access?

39 39 Security Allowables V2V relies on communication of coordinates CHP need to know who it is that is speeding CSI needs EDR data for event recreation Bridges need to know who to charge toll Emergency workers would like to know who might be in the car

40 40 Security Malcontents Other drivers Random Cracker with a portable DSRC unit by the side of the road Cars spoofed as others Pretty much everyone

41 41 Security Solutions Create a Public Key Infrastructure –Same magnitude as securing cell phones –But has real-time constraints Law enforcement would have access to all keys Tamper proof hardware –Trigger an alarm if tampering occurs Other cars should hear alarm and/or GPRS

42 42 Security Solutions Broadcast varying pseudonym as id –Law enforcement knows how to make the connection Tamper-proof GPS –Use secure base stations in urban canyons for multilateration Use redundancy to protect against DoS

43 43 Conclusion Wireless sensors are drawing attention in automotive applications Traffic data collection Parking management Commuter management Mobile distributed sensor network for information sharing and performance monitoring

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