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© 2015 Cengage Learning1
Chapter 14 Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues © 2015 Cengage Learning2
Learning Outcomes 1.Describe and discuss the two major product issues: quality and safety. 2.Explain the role and functions of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and the Food and Drug Administration. 3.Enumerate and discuss the reasons for concern about product liability, and differentiate strict liability, absolute liability, and market share liability. 4.Outline business’s responses to consumer stakeholders, including customer service, Total Quality Management (TQM programs), and Six Sigma. © 2015 Cengage Learning 3
Chapter Outline Two Central Issues: Quality and Safety Two Central Issues: Quality and Safety Consumer Product Safety Commission Consumer Product Safety Commission Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Business’s Response to Consumer Stakeholders Business’s Response to Consumer Stakeholders Customer Service Programs Customer Service Programs Total Quality Management Programs Total Quality Management Programs Six Sigma Strategy and Process Six Sigma Strategy and Process Summary Summary Key Terms Key Terms © 2015 Cengage Learning 4
Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues Sam Walton, founder of Walmart – “There is only one boss. The customer. And he can fire everybody in the company …, simply by spending his money somewhere else.” Toyota, which enjoyed a sterling reputation for quality, saw it evaporate with its gas pedal acceleration case: First First, there was the problem itself; people died. And 8 million of its cars would have to be recalled. Second Second, there was Toyota’s slow response. Despite knowing about the problem in Europe since 2008, and installing new pedals there, nothing was done in the U.S. Then in 2010, the company faced a U.S. recall of 2.3 million cars. The company had dragged its feet. © 2015 Cengage Learning5
Two Central Issues - The Issue of Quality - Product quality means different things to different people. Service quality usually means that the service was performed as expected and on time. Interest is driven by an increase in family income and intense global competition. The Issue of Safety - Nearly all consumer products or services entail some small degree of risk. Interest about safety is driven by the public’s concern with safety and risk-free products– and business’ responsibility to address this concern. © 2015 Cengage Learning6
Critical Dimensions of Product Quality 7© 2015 Cengage Learning
Ethical Underpinnings of Quality © 2015 Cengage Learning8
The Issue of Safety Who is liable for a defective product? Historical Perspective - Caveat emptor - “Let the buyer beware.” This doctrine assumed that the buyer had as much knowledge of the product as the seller, but this was not correct. Modern Day - Caveat venditor – “Let the seller beware.” But how safe should a product be? © 2015 Cengage Learning9
Top Ten List of Safety Principles 1.Build safety into product design. 2.Do product safety testing for all foreseeable hazards. 3.Keep informed about and implement latest developments in product safety. 4.Educate consumers about product safety. 5.Track and address products’ safety performance. 6.Fully investigate product safety incidents. 7.Report product safety defects promptly. 8.If a defect occurs, promptly offer a comprehensive recall plan. 9.Work with the Consumer Product Safety Commission to make sure your recall is effective. 10.Learn from mistakes—yours and others’. © 2015 Cengage Learning10
Product Liability (1 of 3) Reasons for the concern - The sheer number of cases where products resulted in injury, illness, or death. The amount of the financial award. Doctrine of strict liability - Anyone in the value chain of a product is liable for harm caused to the user if the product is unreasonably dangerous because of a defective condition. The U.S. is a litigious society. © 2015 Cengage Learning11
Product Liability (2 of 3) Extensions of the strict liability rule – Courts in several states and some countries have established a standard more demanding than strict liability: Absolute liability - A manufacturer could be held strictly liable for failure to warn of a product hazard, even if the hazard was scientifically unknowable at the time of manufacture and sale. Market share liability – Manufacturers who made the product share in the liability for injury according to their market shares. This doctrine was applied in delayed manifestation cases, but limited to those. © 2015 Cengage Learning12
Product Liability (3 of 3) Product Tampering and Product Extortion– The Tylenol tampering cases of the 1980s are best known. As a result, firms began to use tamper- evident packaging. Despite these efforts, 2 Australian manufacturers received threats from extortionists who poisoned over the counter analgesics and returned them to the shelves. Product Liability Reform – These issues have raised calls tor product liability reform, also known as tort reform. Tort law requires that the one causing injury pay the injured party. Businesses seek tort reform; consumer groups oppose it. © 2015 Cengage Learning13
Consumer Product Safety Commission - An independent regulatory agency created by the Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972, which works to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths from products by: 1. Developing voluntary standards with industry 2. Issuing and enforcing mandatory standards 3. Banning consumer products if no feasible standard would adequately protect the public 4. Obtaining the recall of products or arranging for their repair 5. Conducting research on potential product hazards 6. Informing and educating consumers through media, state and local governments, private organizations, and by responding to consumer inquiries © 2015 Cengage Learning14
A Sketch of Ethical Principles © 2015 Cengage Learning15
CSPC Strategic Plan, x x Goal 2 Goal 4 Goal 5 Carbon monoxide detectors Formaldehyde in wood Carbon monoxide detectors Formaldehyde in wood Commitment to Prevention Decisive Response Raising Awareness © 2015 Cengage Learning Vision The CPSC is the recognized global leader in consumer Product safety The CPSC is the recognized global leader in consumer Product safety Mission Protecting the public against unreasonable risks of injury From consumer products. Protecting the public against unreasonable risks of injury From consumer products. Goal 3 Rigorous Hazard Identification Goal 1 Leadership in Safety
Food and Drug Administration (1 of 2) Food and Drug Administration - Grew out of experiments with food safety by Harvey W. Wiley in the late 1800s. The FDA resides within the Health and Human Services Department. Engages in three categories of activity - Analysis Surveillance Correction © 2015 Cengage Learning17
Food and Drug Administration (2 of 2) The FDA regulates - Foods Human prescription and non-prescription drugs Vaccines, blood products, and other biologics Medical devices Electronic products Cosmetics Veterinary products Tobacco products © 2015 Cengage Learning18
Business’ Response to Consumers 19© 2015 Cengage Learning
Customer Service Programs Customer Service or self service? Retailers of all types have been pushing the idea of self-service. We check out our own groceries, pump our own gas, print our boarding passes, and fix our cable tv, following a computer voice. Customers are frustrated with after-sale problems not quickly and easily remedied. Experts know that the key to customer retention is customer service. Building life-long devotion among customers takes serious commitment and hard work. © 2015 Cengage Learning20
Seven Principles of Customer Service 1.Keeping your word is where it begins. 2.Always be honest and tell it like it is. 3.Always think proactively, looking around the corner. 4.Deal with problems as best you can yourself, never passing the buck. 5.Do not argue with a customer because it is a lose/lose situation. 6.Accept your mistakes, learn from them, and do not repeat them. 7.Consistency is the name of the game for lasting success. © 2015 Cengage Learning21
Creating a Customer-Oriented Company © 2015 Cengage Learning22
Total Quality Management – (1 of 2) Has many characteristics, but essentially means – All business functions are blended into an integrated philosophy built around quality, teamwork, productivity, and customer understanding and satisfaction. TQM focuses on product quality and safety, focuses on the customer, and uses continuous improvement. The customer is the final judge of quality. © 2015 Cengage Learning23
Total Quality Management – (2 of 2) TQM emphasizes eight key elements - 1.Ethics 2.Integrity 3.Trust 4.Training 5.Teamwork 6.Leadership 7.Recognition 8.Communication The foundation upon which all else is built The foundation upon which all else is built © 2015 Cengage Learning24
Six Sigma Strategy and Process Six Sigma - A development within TQM that has become a way of life for many corporations. Sigma is a statistical measure of variation from the mean; higher values of sigma mean fewer defects. Six Sigma level of operation is 3.4 defects per million. 6,000 defects Most companies have 6,000 defects per million. © 2015 Cengage Learning25
Consumer-Stak eholder Satisfaction Model 26© 2015 Cengage Learning
absolute liability caveat emptor caveat vendor Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 consumer stakeholder satisfaction model contractual theory delayed manifestation cases doctrine of strict liability due care theory Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food and Drugs Act Food Safety Modernization Act market share liability product liability reform Six Sigma social costs view tort reform Total Quality Management © 2015 Cengage Learning 27 Key Terms
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