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Digital Certificates GROUP 11 MEMBERS Rackenee Rhule Danielle Lee Norman Benjamin Jason Gunning Swain Henry Richard Spence.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Certificates GROUP 11 MEMBERS Rackenee Rhule Danielle Lee Norman Benjamin Jason Gunning Swain Henry Richard Spence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Certificates GROUP 11 MEMBERS Rackenee Rhule Danielle Lee Norman Benjamin Jason Gunning Swain Henry Richard Spence

2 What are Digital Certificates? A digital certificate (DC) is a digital file that certifies the identity of an individual or institution, or even a router seeking access to computer- based information. It is issued by a Certification Authority (CA), and serves the same purpose as a driver’s license or a passport. A digital certificate (DC) is a digital file that certifies the identity of an individual or institution, or even a router seeking access to computer- based information. It is issued by a Certification Authority (CA), and serves the same purpose as a driver’s license or a passport.CA

3 What are Certification Authorities? What are Certification Authorities? Certification Authorities are the digital world’s equivalent to passport offices. They issue digital certificates and validate holders’ identity and authority. Certification Authorities are the digital world’s equivalent to passport offices. They issue digital certificates and validate holders’ identity and authority. They embed an individual or institution’s public key along with other identifying information into each digital certificate and then cryptographically sign it as a tamper-proof seal verifying the integrity of the data within it, and validating its use. They embed an individual or institution’s public key along with other identifying information into each digital certificate and then cryptographically sign it as a tamper-proof seal verifying the integrity of the data within it, and validating its use.

4 What is the Process of obtaining a certificate? 1.Subscriber (sender) generates a public\private key pair. Applies to CA for digital certificate with the public key. 2.CA verifies subscriber's identity and issues digital certificate containing the public key. 3.CA publishes certificate to public, on-line repository. 4.Subscriber signs message with private key and sends message to second party. 5.Receiving party verifies digital signature with sender's public key and requests verification of sender's digital certificate from CA's public repository. 6.Repository reports status of subscriber's certificate.

5 Bob’s public key Bob’s identifying information CA private key K B + certificate for Bob’s public key, signed by CA Digital signature (encrypt) K B + K CA - Bob’s public key Bob’s identifying information CA private key K B + certificate for Bob’s public key, signed by CA Digital signature (encrypt) K B + K CA What is the Process in obtaining a certificate?

6 Types of Digital Certificates  There are four main types of digital certificates :- Server Certificates Server Certificates Personal Certificates Personal Certificates Organization Certificates Organization Certificates Developer Certificates Developer Certificates

7 Server Certificates  Allows visitors to exchange personal information such as credit card numbers, free from the threat of interception or tampering.  Server Certificates are a must for building and designing e-commerce sites as confidential information is shared between clients, customers and vendors.

8 Personal Certificates  Personal Certificates allow one to authenticate a visitor’s identity and restrict access to specified content to particular visitors.  Personal Certificates are perfect for business to business communications such as offering suppliers and partners controlled access to special web sites for updating product availability, shipping dates and inventory management.

9 Organization & Developer Certificates  Organization Certificates are used by corporate entities to identify employees for secure e-mail and web-based transaction.  Developer Certificates prove authorship and retain integrity of distributed software programs e.g. installing a software on a computer system in most instances requires what is called a “serial key”

10 What Does a Digital Certificate Contain? It contains your name, a serial number, expiration date, a copy of the certificate- holder's public key (used for encrypting messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that a recipient can verify that the certificate is real. Some digital certificates conform to the X.509 standard. It contains your name, a serial number, expiration date, a copy of the certificate- holder's public key (used for encrypting messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that a recipient can verify that the certificate is real. Some digital certificates conform to the X.509 standard.public keydigital signaturepublic keydigital signature

11 Example of a Certificate:  Serial number (unique to issuer)  info about certificate owner, including algorithm and key value itself (not shown)  info about certificate issuer  valid dates  digital signature by issuer

12 Why are they Used? There are four(4) main uses: 1. Proving the Identity of the sender of a transaction 2. Non Repudiation – the owner of the certificate cannot deny partaking in the transaction 3. Encryption and checking the integrity of data - provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. 4. Single Sign-On - It can be used to validate a user and log them into various computer systems without having to use a different password for each system

13 Public & Private Keys Public and Private Key pairs comprise of two uniquely related cryptographic keys. Public key is made accessible to everyone, whereas Private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Since both keys are mathematically related only the corresponding private key can decrypt their corresponding public key.

14 How do You Obtain An Individual’s Public Key? When Alice wants Bob’s public key: When Alice wants Bob’s public key: Alice gets Bob’s certificate (from Bob or elsewhere).Alice gets Bob’s certificate (from Bob or elsewhere). apply CA’s public key to Bob’s certificate, get Bob’s public keyapply CA’s public key to Bob’s certificate, get Bob’s public key K B + digital signature (decrypt) K B + CA public key K CA Bob’s public key

15 Where are Digital Certificates Used?   In a number of Internet applications that include:   1.Secure Socket Layer (SSL) developed by Netscape Communications Corporation   2. Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Standard for securing email and electronic data interchange (EDI).

16   3. Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) protocol for securing electronic payments   4. Internet Protocol Secure Standard (IPSec) for authenticating networking devices Where are Digital Certificates Used?

17 How Digital Certificates are Used for Message Encryption

18 Why do I need a Digital Certificate?  Virtual malls, electronic banking and other electronic services are a commonplace offering service from the luxury of one’s home. One’s concern about privacy and security may prevent you from taking advantage of the luxury; this is where digital certificate comes in.

19 Why do I need a Digital Certificate?  Encryption alone is not enough as it provides no proof of the identity of the sender of the encrypted information. Used in conjunction with Encryption, Digital Certificates provides a more complete security solution, assuring the identity of all the parties involved in a transaction.

20 How do I view Digital Certificates on my PC?  For MS Explorer Users:- Open your MS Internet Explorer Open your MS Internet Explorer Click on the Tools Menu Click on the Tools Menu From the drop down list, select Internet options From the drop down list, select Internet options Click the Content tab Click the Content tab Click the certificates button Click the certificates button

21 Example of an MS Explorer Certificate.

22 How do I view Digital Certificates on my PC?  For Netscape users:- Open your Netscape Communicator Open your Netscape Communicator Click on the Communicator Menu Click on the Communicator Menu From the drop down list select the Tools and then Security info From the drop down list select the Tools and then Security info Click on the Certificates link to view and learn more about each certificate type stored by Netscape Click on the Certificates link to view and learn more about each certificate type stored by Netscape

23 Example of a Netscape Certificate

24 Advantages of Digital Certificates   Decrease the number of passwords a user has to remember to gain access to different network domains.   They create an electronic audit trail that allows companies to track down who executed a transaction or accessed an area.

25 Do Digital Certificates Have Vulnerabilities?  One problem with a digital certificate is where it resides once it is obtained.  The owner's certificate sits on his computer, and it is the sole responsibility of the owner to protect it.  If the owner walks away from his computer, others can gain access to it and use his digital certificate to execute unauthorized business.

26  The best way to address the vulnerabilities of digital certificates is by combining them with biometric technology, as that confirms the actual identity of the sender, rather than the computer. Do Digital Certificates Have Vulnerabilities?

27 Glossary PKI – Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) provides a framework for addressing the previously illustrated fundamentals of security listed above. Encryption- Encryption is converting of data into seemingly random, incomprehensible data. Decryption- Decryption is reversing encryption via the use of Public and Private Keys.

28 In Conclusion   Public Key Cryptography is used in message authentication and key distribution.   Key management is achieved by Digital Certificates, which are a mechanism that enables distribution of keys to participants exchanging information. They ensure the Confidentiality of these messages and the Authentication of the participants.

29   The strength of Digital Certificates through X.509 lies, inter alia, in the fact that they have been standardized by the ITU-T.   This makes for security in investment and training, as it is assured Digital Certificates will be maintained in the future. In Conclusion

30 Bibliography  e-Business & e-Commerce: How to Program, 1/e, by H.M. Deitel, P.J. Deitel and T.R, Nieto, Prentice Hall, 2000  Cryptography and Network Security, 2/e, by William Stallings, Prentice Hall, 2000  Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective, 1/e, by Efraim Turban, Jae Lee, David King and H.Michael Chung, Prentice Hall, 2000

31   http://gsa.gov/ACES   http://ec.fed.gov   http://smartcard.gov http://smartcard.gov   E-commerce, business. technology. society. Second Edition By: Kenneth C. Laudon, Carol Guercio Traver   Digital Certificates/Signatures in Electronic Commerce By: Norman G. Litell ; Visa U.S.A. Risk Management Bibliography

32  Digital Certificates by: Ann Harrison (Computorworld v34 no33 p58 Ag 14 2000)  Certificate authorities move in-house: Group Telecom and PSINet track users with digital certificates by: Hanna Hurlrey (Telephony v237 no11 p80 S 13 1999) Bibliography

33  DIGITAL CERTIFICATES: On good authority by: Deryck Williams (CA Magazine v132 no9 p43-4 N 1999)  Are digital certificates secure? by: Benjamin Hammel (Communications News 37 no12 D 2000) Bibliography

34   PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY:DIGITAL CERTIFICATES: Study on Attribute Certificates by:Mwelwa Chibesakunda (Computer Science Department University of Cape Town May 2002) Bibliography


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