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© Boardworks Ltd of 23 © Boardworks Ltd of 23 Food Technology Labelling and Packaging These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Learning objectives To understand about the function of food packaging. To learn about what information must be provided on packaging. To learn about the different types of packaging used. To understand about the impact of food packaging on the environment. © Boardworks Ltd of 23
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Food comes in all sorts of shapes and sizes. Why does food need packaging? When it is bought in shops it needs transporting home!
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 food was measured out for each customer tea leaves were weighed into paper bags cheese was cut off a block and wrapped in waxed paper milk was poured into the customer’s jug and women shopped every day. History of packaging © Beamish, The North Of England Open Air Museum
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Traditionally packaging was used to transport food, help store it and to contain some food such as liquids. What does packaging do? It was also discovered, however, that packaging preserves food and prolongs its shelf life by protecting it from bacterial damage, moisture and insect attack. Some packaging preserves food for a very long time, such as tins. Today, due to the way we shop, packaging also prevents tampering, provides information and attracts customers.
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Since most shopping today is self-service, tamper- evident packaging is very important in showing whether a product has been tampered with at the time of purchase. Tampering might involve the food being deliberately damaged in some way (e.g. glass being added to it) or some of the food being eaten. Tamper-evident packaging
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Packaging is used as a way of attracting customers to the product in place of the shopkeeper. This is done by using: How does packaging attract customers? colourful packaging a photo of the product enticing adjectives to describe the product such as moist, sweet and creamy
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Packaging must also inform the customer as there is usually no interaction between the retailer and the customer. What information does packaging provide? Food manufacturers must provide nine pieces of information by law: name of the food description of the food name and address of the manufacturer or seller storage instructions cooking or preparation instructions weight or volume a list of the ingredients (heaviest first) use-by date any special claims such as low-fat. They might also choose to add four or five pieces of extra information: bar or smart codes that identify the price and are used by shops and manufacturers for stock control nutritional information – the big four or the big four and the little four serving suggestions more information about the ingredients – what is not in it further storage information such as not suitable for freezing the price.
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Which information is essential?
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Food is either packaged in a single material such as glass or plastic or in a combination of materials. The choice of packaging will depend on: What type of material should be used? the kind of food (dry, wet, light, heavy or fragile) the length of time the food is to be kept in the packaging whether the food is to be cooked in the packaging whether the food is to be eaten or drunk all at once.
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 When glass manufacture became easier and cheaper, milk started to be sold in glass bottles. This saved delivery time as well as being more convenient for the customer – even if the odd bottle got broken. Today there is a choice of different packaging: Different types of packaging material glasstetrapakplastic Which is best?
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Type 1 – PET is the most commonly used one (water containers); APET (fizzy drinks); CPET is heat resistant (oven ready-meal trays) Type 2 – HDPE (milk and detergent bottles) Type 3 – PVC is banned in some countries (food trays, cling film, bottles of squash, water and shampoo) Type 4 – LDPE (plastic bags and bin liners) Type 5 – PP (margarine tubs and microwaveable meal trays) Type 6 – PS is polystyrene (yoghurt pots, plastic cutlery, egg cartons, vending cups and burger cartons) Type 7 – other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories (melamine and non-breakable plates and cups). Plastics have different properties and are used for different purposes: Plastics
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Advantages of different packaging
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Disadvantages of different packaging
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Food and packaging quiz
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Aseptic packaging is used with tetrapaks. Sterilized food is put into a sterilized tetrapak in sterilized conditions so that no bacteria is present. Food can be stored in these tetrapaks for up to six months. Vacuum packaging is used with plastic packaging and has been around for many years. All the air is removed from the package and the food is kept in anaerobic conditions (without oxygen). Examples of foods packaged in this way are bacon, smoked fish and coffee. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is also used with plastic packaging. Air is flushed out of the package and replaced with another gas before it is quickly sealed. Packaging that preserves food
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Quite a lot of food packaging is made from more than one material: Ovenable paperboard has a coating of PET (polyester), withstands temperatures of -40°C to 230°C and can be used in an oven or microwave. Gualapack is flexible and made from aluminium and four different plastics (PET, PE, PP and OPA). Its big disadvantage is that it is difficult to recycle. Tetrapak is rigid and is made of 24% LDPE, 6% aluminium and 70% paperboard. Combined material packaging
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 How would you describe each packaging?
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Which packaging is being described?
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Packaging and the environment
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Packaging and the environment
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 One answer to the environmental issue of food packaging is to use a package that is easily biodegradable and made from waste products of food processing. New developments in packaging A company, Potatopak, does exactly this. They make packaging from the potato starch formed during the processing of potatoes into crisps and other potato products. The packaging biodegrades in weeks, even days, if there is leftover food on it. It can withstand high and low temperatures and can be made waterproof! It is already being used in some supermarkets and takeaway outlets.
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Key points © Boardworks Ltd of 23 Packaging has many uses. Labelling provides important information about the food product. There is a wide variety of packaging material that can be used. The material must suit the food product. Packaging methods can be used as a way of extending the shelf life of food. Consumers and manufacturers must consider the environmental impact of the food packaging they use.
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