3Business Reorganizes Economic Boom Conglomerates GNP--$212B in 1945; $504B in 1960Income--$1526 to $2,788ConglomeratesBusinesses diversified to avoid mistakes of the 1920s
4Life Changing Technology DishwashersGas powered lawn mowersTelevision1955 Average family watched 5hrs / dayComputersDeveloped for the warBecame available for business use.Bell Telephone Labs invented the Transistor.
5Nuclear Power Medicine Technology was used to generate electricity. Seen as cheap energy sourceMedicine1954--Polio Vaccine1944--Penicillin and other antibiotics were bing produced
6The Work ForceHistorically Americans were blue collar workers (produced tangible goods)White Collar jobs emerged (services not manufacturing)
7The Baby Boom Began during WWII Birth rate had fell to 19 births/1000 people during the depression.births / 1000 (peak)
8Suburbs Growing families left the cities Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill) gave low interest mortgages to veterans.Mass production techniques were applied to housing development.
9Cars and Highways Americans depended more on cars than public transit. 1956 Interstate Highway Act$26 Billion to build 40K milesDesigned for military purposesQuick evacuation after nuclear strikeRun way system (every 5th mi straight)Quick troop movement.New businesses emerged b/c of the new “car culture”
10Consumer Credit Gas companies offered credit cards Americans willingly went into debt to purchase products
12Comfort and Security Society emphasized conformity Emergence of the “Youth Culture”Young people had more leisureCompanies marketed products to younger Americans.
13Resurgence of Religion Caused in Part by the Cold War and the nuclear threat.“Under God” was added to the Pledge of Allegiance“In God We Trust” was placed on our currencyBilly GrahamKey figureSouthern Baptist ministerPreached large scale crusadesFrequent guest at the White House
14Roles of Men and Women Men Women 1963 The Feminine Mystique Expected to work and provide for the family.WomenExpected to play a supportive role in the home.1963 The Feminine MystiqueBetty FriedanAttacked the cultural denial of creative roles to women
15Challenges to Conformity Emergence of Rock and Roll“Beat Generation” BeatniksStressed spontaneity and spiritualityChallenged traditional patterns of respectabilityOpen sexuality and drug use.
17Economic Reconversion Was Truman’s 1st priorityEconomic controls were lifted and prices soared 25%StrikesHit the auto, steel, electrical, coal, and railroad industries.4.6 million struck in 19461947 Taft Hartley ActAllowed the President to declare an 80 day cooling off period
18Truman’s Fair Deal 21 new programs that extended the New Deal Included:Programs to bring full employmentHigher minimum wageGreater unemployment compensationHousing assistanceNational Health Insurance programAtomic Energy controlFaced Opposition from Conservative Dem’s and Rep’s
19Election of 1948 Truman’s support was weakening, even among Democrats. “You just sor of forget about Harry until he makes another mistake.”“To err is Truman”Republican Thomas E. Dewey opposed him.
20Truman campaigned by train against the Republican Congress “Do nothing 80th Congress”“If you send another Republican Congress to Washington, you’re a bigger bunch of suckers than I think you are.”Republican Thomas E. Dewey opposed him.Poles and Experts picked Dewey to win.Truman won an astounding upset
24Checkers SpeechSept Ike’s VP candidate--Richard Nixon--was accused by the NY Post of having a special fund set up by rich Republicans.Nixon had done nothing wrong, but the accusation was hard to shake.Many wanted Ike to dump him.Sept 23 Nixon went on TV and:Denied any wrong doingAdmitted taking one gift: “We did get something, a gift, after the election It was a little cocker spaniel dog And you know, the kids, like all kids, loved the dog, and I just want to say this, right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we are going to keep it.” p. 782Appealed to the American people to contact the Eisenhower campaign and express their opinion.Ike kept Nixon on the ticket and won the election
25Eisenhower Presidency Served 2 termsModern RepublicanismWorked to slow the growth of governmentCut spendingReduced taxesWorked to balance the budgetSought to encourage and support corporate America.Maintained a mood of stability
27Gains for Equality Truman’s Actions Jackie Robinson 1948 banned discrimination in the hiring of federal employees1948 ended segregation in the military.Jackie Robinson1st African American to break the color line in MLB
28Brown v. Bd. of Ed. Topeka, Kansas Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 had upheld “separate but equal” segregation.1951 Oliver Brown sued Topeka Bd. of Ed. To allow his 8 yr. old daughter attend an all white school.Thurgood Marshall argued the case.May 17, US Supreme Court declared unanimously that “separate facilities are inherently unequal.”
29The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Rosa Parks (sec. of the NAACP) refused to give up her seat in the middle section of the bus for a white man.Was arrested for violating segregation laws.
30BoycottAfrican Americans refused to use the bus system until the segregation policy was dropped.26 year old Martin Luther King, Jr. became the spokesman for the protest.50K African Americans in Montgomery walked, rode bicycles, or carpooled for a yearThe bus company refused to change, but the US Supreme Court ruled bus segregation illegal.
31The Little Rock 9 Central High School was to be integrated 1957 Gov. Orval Faubus delcared he couldn’t face integration.Ike federalized the National Guard to protect the students.The school year was grueling, but all 9 made it through.