Presentation on theme: "Developing Diverse Germplasm and Student Skill Sets to Address Needs in the Food Industry. M. Campbell, Truman State University, Truman State University,"— Presentation transcript:
Developing Diverse Germplasm and Student Skill Sets to Address Needs in the Food Industry. M. Campbell, Truman State University, Truman State University, Annual GEM Cooperator meeting, ASTA, Dec., Chicago, IL
Truman State University Mandated by the state of Missouri to serve as its only highly selective public Liberal Arts and Sciences University. Goals of University - Focus: undergraduates - To ‘Liberally’ Educate - Provide students an opportunity to engage in research.
USDA Ames Iowa (ISU) Yield – ‘agronomics’ Texas A&M (Drought resistance) Cornell (Plant Pathology) UW-Madison (corn silage quality) NDSU (short season) Truman State University (Food/industrial starch Development) USDA Univ. Missouri- (Genomics) USDA Raleigh NC (NC-state) Yield – ‘agronomics’ Truman Provides students opportunity to practice applied genetic
1996 - 2012 Faculty State Funding Entering Freshman Corporate Funding – out of state- -One of 25 state universities with agriculture programs -Small ag. programs collectively graduate more majors than our ‘Flagship Land-grant’ school Truman Agriculture program:
Other Challenges : -Varied levels of a basic understanding of sciences among student and faculty. -Healthy skepticism vs. general mistrust of industry and new technologies -Conventional plant breeding lumped with GMO’s
Perkins yellow dent PI 269744 Accession was collected -1960. Missouri, US. Locality: From Perkins family in Adair County who have grown it for years Hybrids replaced local varieties. USDA scientists rushed to collect and preserve germplasm. Your grandparents were plant breeders!!!
Resistant starch, the last novelty on that list of ingredients, has the corn refiners particularly excited today. They've figured out how to tease a new starch from corn that is virtually indigestible. You would not think this as a particularly good thing for a food to be, unless of course your goal is to somehow get around the biological limit on how much each of us can eat in a year. Since the body can't break down resistant starch, it slips through the digestive track without ever turning into calories of glucose -- a particular boon, we're told, for diabetics. When fake sugars and fake fats are joined by fake starches, the food industry will at long last have overcome the dilemma of the fixed stomach: whole meals you can eat as often or as much of as you like, since this food will leave no trace. Meet the ultimate -- the utterly elastic! -- industrial eater
Butyrate: main energy used by large intestinal epithelial (inner lining) cells. inhibits the malignant transformation of such cells Colon Cancer: 3rd most common cancer in the Western World. 4 th most common in US
‘The addition of a resistant starch to oral rehydration solution reduces fecal fluid loss and shortens the duration of diarrhea in adolescents and adults with cholera. ‘
Hypoglycemia low blood sugar, is the most common adverse event associated with insulin therapy. Excess insulin in causes large amounts of glucose to be taken up by liver and too little glucose to be released later. Especially a problem with children at night. Slow release starch theoropy for Nocturnal hypoglycemia Hepatocyte cell
PI 586689. incorporates germplasm from CIMMYT Pool 33 QPM (modified opaque-2) and synthetic BSCB1(R)C11. Developed by Dr. Brent Zehr at Purdue University. A: F1 ears: PI 586689 x NS amylomaize VII line) PI 586690. Incorporates germplasm from CIMMYT Pool 33 QPM (modified opaque-2) and synthetic BSSS(R)C11. Developed by Dr. Brent Zehr at Purdue University. B: F1 ears: 586690 x SS amylomaize VII line)
GEM program and Benefits for Public Cooperators
-Presence of an active plant breeding program educates students and faculty of all majors. -Financial support helps to leverage further funding. -Provides relevance to science: food security, economic development, awareness of genetic resources as a non renewable resource
Recently awarded to Missouri State University and Truman State University. Enhancing plant breeding program through collaborative distance learning and student exchange
History leasons: Embraced by the world, corn became the real gold Columbus discovered.
Corn is a starch crop 75% starch High yielding, stores well, energy dense Improved food security Shift in Diet: Enriched with carbohydrate. Cost: Compromised health
Examples Porotic hyperostosis: Native Americans in Amelia isle. FL) Mississippian Skeletal Remains. Indicators of iron deficiency, poor growth and health upon adoption of corn. Clark Spencer Larsen Department of Anthropology The Ohio State University Enamel hypoplasia: may be due to increased use of maize in the weanling diet (Illinois) Alan Goodman Department of Anthropology, University of MA
Demonstrate value of diversity to improve a crop.
ae 1.Mutator sbe1a-Mu;ae (Penn State) 2.Gene silencing – antisence/RNAi (DuPont) Recently this iso-form has been knocked out by.. Resulting in amylomaize VII starch
Population/GEM release/Synthetic x GEM Amylomaize VII WT Yield (bu/ac) MOIS TY/MTWT % stand % skldg % rtldg Nepal 1701 -- PI 511578 X AR03056:N09B////CH05015:N15///GEMS-67 10.777.321.33.654.576.426.2 Nepal 1701 -- PI 511578 X CH05015:N15B///GEMS-67 13.798.721.74.655.5 127. 3 19.221.6 Nepal No. 1 -- PI 208468 X FS8A(S):S09///GEMS-67 14.0104.618.95.654.6 100. 0 3.313.1 Nepal 2402 -- PI 511581 X CHIS740:S11411a////2011-01_SE32_S17///GEMS-67 13.4101.617.45.957.279.123.424.5 Nepal 5503 -- PI 511601 X 2088- 01_DK212T_S11/////DKB844:S1601////AR16035:S02///GEMS-67 5.237.722.01.843.092.712.515.5 MAKKAI - Punjab, India PI 164375 - X DKB844:S1601////AR16035:S02///GEMS-67 14.6184.108.40.2067.6220.127.116.11 Nepal 4109 -- PI 511597 X CHIS740:S1411a////AR16035:S02B///GEMS-67 8.058.221.02.955.086.84.53.4 Nepal 5603 -- PI 511602 X CH05015:N1502/////AR03056:N09////CH05015:N15///GEMS-67 18.104.22.168.955.274.311.420.3 Nepal 4109 -- PI 511597 X 2011-01_SE32_S170////2011-01_SE32_S17b///GEMS-67 9.568.621.73.354.084.023.05.2 Nepal 5603 -- PI 511602 X DKB844:S1601////AR16035:S02///GEMS-67 11.376.626.43.052.981.25.311.0 PI 208472s (POKHARA) X DK212T:N11a12B/////AR03056:N09B////CH05015:N15B///GEMS-67 13.599.522.214.171.1240.47.61.5 Nepal 3905A -- PI 511591 X DKB844:S1601////AR16035:S02///GEMS-67 9.364.925.12.752.472.231.621.2 Nepal 4104 -- PI 511595 X DKB844:S1601////UR10001:S1813///GEMS-67 13.898.622.34.556.972.91.05.8 Entry0.050.040.00 0.02ns Blockns 0.01ns 0.02 ns Soils, climate, adaptation, test crossing of Nepal accessions
Influence of High Amylose Corn on Growth Rates of Animal? Figure 3. Reduction in skatole concentration of hog feces when fed a ration containing potato starch as the source of resistant starch (Clause et al 2003)
Incorporation of high amylose corn starch in two noodle types as a means of introducing resistant starch into the diet. Christina Spellman and Yuka Shibasaki Udon (Japanese) is a type of thick wheat- based noodle popular in Japanese cuisine (Wiki)JapanesewheatnoodleJapanese cuisine
Wheat flour substituted with varying proportions of high amylose starch (HAS)