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Origins of the Cold War U.S.-Soviet Relations to 1945

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2 Origins of the Cold War U.S.-Soviet Relations to 1945
Allies in World War II Postwar Cooperation – the U.N Satellite States in Eastern Europe Occupation Zones in Germany Iron Curtain

3 Most of Europe had been divided by Nazi occupation, and USSR and USA superpowers were responsible for setting up new governments Free elections were agreed upon, but Soviet Union didn’t keep the agreement This created tension and division in the Western World 2 increasingly hostile blocks President Truman saw it as a struggle between good and evil, rather than between 2 regions of political inflence

4 Yalta Summit Developed out of WWII
U.S., Britain and USSR were allies after the war Yalta summit tried to settle things and keep the world free Stalin promised to have free elections if he could keep his armies in eastern Europe US never attacked USSR during Cold War Stalin controlled east Germany, and allies controlled west – Berlin was also split Policy of containment – U.S. was not going to enter WWIII, but was not going to allow Communism to spread Korean War Vietnam Conflict Cuban Missile Crisis

5 What was so cold about it?
‘Cold’ due to no large-scale fighting between the two blocs Regional wars supported by each side Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan Could better be described as an era U.S. and USSR broke temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany Huge economic and political differences Marxist-Leninist state v. capitalize state with free elections Communist nations considered capitalism as the great enemy of communism

6 Communism v. Capitalism
What is communism? A theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs Profits belong to community Society or government determine prices structures Equal sharing of work according to benefits and abilities Abolishing private property Capitalism A system in which resources or means of production lie with a private owner Profits belong to private owner Individual has control over production and price structure Individual is responsible for his work, and if he wants to rise, has to work hard Private property

7 Good theory, but throughout history…
1. No respect for human rights.  2. Controlled media.  3. No freedom of speech.  4. No freedom of religion.  5. Government controls all business and properties.  For U.S. to move to communism would require that everything about U.S. beliefs and values must change

8 A look back … and forward …

9 THE COLD WAR vs Uneasy peace between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
Competition for world dominance and global power. Fought on political and economic fronts rather than on military battlefields Even though the threat of war was always present. Defined America’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1989. It affected domestic politics and how Americans viewed the world and themselves. Constant state of military preparedness and arms race Propaganda war----Democracy vs Communism US policy: Support nations threatened by Communism

10 The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War
map/cold war 1950’s Democracy vs. Communism Bi-Polarization of the World Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies.

11 The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict
Soviet Expansion: · The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.

12 Satellite State When a nation is under the control of another.
Ex. Part of Germany was under the control of the Soviet Union. Other examples: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria

13 The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

14 The “Iron Curtain” The iron curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundaries dividing Europe into 2 separate areas from the end of WWII to the end of the Cold War Winston Churchill’s speech Does he see a problem? Does he see a solution, and if so, what?

15 A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory. Nobody knows what Soviet Russia and its Communist international organization intends to do in the immediate future, or what are the limits, if any, to their expansive and proselytizing tendencies. I have a strong admiration and regard for the valiant Russian people and for my wartime comrade, Marshal Stalin.

16 There is deep sympathy and goodwill in Britain-and I doubt not here also-towards the peoples of all the Russias and a resolve to persevere through many differences and rebuffs in establishing lasting friendships. We understand the Russian need to be secure on her western frontiers by the removal of all possibility of German aggression.

17 We welcome Russia to her rightful place among the leading nations of the world. We welcome her flag upon the seas. Above all, we welcome constant, frequent and growing contacts between the Russian people and our own people on both sides of the Atlantic. It is my duty however, for I am sure you would wish me to state the facts as I see them to you, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe.

18 The safety of the world requires a new unity in Europe, from which no nation should be permanently outcast. It is from the quarrels of the strong parent races in Europe that the world wars we have witnessed, or which occurred in former times, have sprung. Twice in our own lifetime we have seen the United States, against their wishes and their traditions, against arguments, the force of which it is impossible not to comprehend, drawn by irresistible forces, into these wars in time to secure the victory of the good cause, but only after frightful slaughter and devastation had occurred.

19 Twice the United States has had to send several millions of its young men across the Atlantic to find the war; but now war can find any nation, wherever it may dwell between dusk and dawn. Surely we should work with conscious purpose for a grand pacification of Europe, within the structure of the United Nations and in accordance with its Charter. That I feel is an open cause of policy of very great importance.

20 Anti-communist Initiatives
Assistance to Greece and Turkey The Marshall plan The Berlin Airlift

21 Truman Doctrine [1947] Strategically valuable region near middle east
Support freedom loving peoples against the communist threat Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

22 Truman Doctrine Speech to Congress
At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes ,,, The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep that hope alive.... If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world—and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation....

23 Marshall Plan [1948] “European Recovery Program.”
Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

24 * The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.

25 How did either the Truman Doctrine or the Marshall plan work to fight Communism?

26 CONTAINMENT POLICY 1950’s Soviet Union/China and Allies……..
map/cold war 1950’s Containment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and Europe Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies.

27 Communist Expansion A Chronology of Events
Soviet Union 1918 Berlin Blockade Eastern Europe 1946 China 1949 Korean War 1950 to 1953 CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War Communist Expansion A Chronology of Events 1 1

28 Focus on Berlin After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. Occupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.

29 Soviet blockade: East Berlin West Berlin
East Germany West Germany · In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.

30 Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
· In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall

31 Berlin Airlift · President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin. · At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.

32 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)


34 Spread of The cold War

35 The world would now live with the threat of nuclear war.
NUCLEAR AGE The world would now live with the threat of nuclear war. Arms race between Soviet Union and U.S. who could build the most nuclear weapons. U.S. would use nuclear weapons as a “deterrent” Peace through strength… Arms is a necessary component of strength “nuclear diplomacy” atomic bomb

36 The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

37 1949, THE YEAR OF SHOCK Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..
The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in 1953. NATO


39 Brinkmanship Belief that only going to the brink of war would protect the U.S. from going to war with the Soviet Union. U.S. would threaten mass retaliation with Soviet Union in order to try to get them to back off.

40 CIA Central Intelligence Agency- 1947
Intelligence gathering organization. Helped to place anticommunist leaders in power and also created long term resentment toward U.S.

41 Effects on the United States
1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I Effects on the United States Americans fear a Soviet attack with missile technology Americans resolved to regain technological superiority over the Soviet Union In July 1958, President Eisenhower created NASA or National Space and Aeronautics Agency > National Defense Education Act

42 Effects of Sputnik on United States
Atomic Anxieties: “Duck-and-Cover Generation” Atomic Testing: Between July 16, 1945 and Sept. 23, 1992, the United States conducted 1,054 official nuclear tests, most of them at the Nevada Test Site. Americans began building underground bomb shelters and cities had underground fallout shelters.

43 The Race for Space


45 Cold War at home

46 Red Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism
Senator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. McCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. Became a witch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oath” to the United States……. red scare

47 The Red Scare was the fear of the rise of communism in the world. I
150,000 claimed Communist supporters in the U.S. The outbreak of the Korean war also heightened the Red Scare in the U.S because people were afraid of Communistic spred Spying activities during WWII and spread of Communism caused people to believe a communist revolution would happen in America. Thousands of people were imprisoned under suspicion of working for the Russian government to spread Communism Negative results 1) Free speech declined 2) Loyalty Oath, which ordered all federal employees to be analyzed to see if they were sufficiently loyal to the government - this was startling for a country that was built on the idea of personal liberty and freedom of political organization. 3) People did not dare criticize the tactics used to persecute suspected radicals, for fear that they would be charged as supporters. So people tried to appear like super Anti-communists

48 McCarthyism Claimed 205 communists working for State Department Attacked wealthy & privileged—popular appeal Even Eisenhower wouldn’t challenge him Army hearings in 1954 televised McCarthy exposed as a bully (“reckless cruelty” Thousands of Americans were accused of being communists or sympathizers Investigations and questioning from government agencies Suspicions often won out despite a lack of evidence Many people lost their jobs and careers were destroyed Imprisonment


red scare3 1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten. Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted.

51 Cold War Conflicts

52 1949, THE YEAR OF SHOCK Mao Tse Tung Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. China became a communistic country. Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Chang Kai Shek NATO

53 Major Events of Cold War
The Cold War was never a full-blown war Many conflicts during the Cold War years in an attempt to stop the spread of Commuism Korean War Vietnam War Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis

54 Korean War (1950-1953) The “forgotten war”
After WWII and bombing of Hiroshima, Soviet troops began pouring into Korea U.S. moved quickly to prevent all of asia from becoing a soviet satellite state Drew a dividing line at 38th Parallel to divide american-controlled secotr from the Soviet-controlled sector China had become communist a few years earlier, korea was insignificant to U.S strategy Domino Theory in 1950 – a loss to communism anywhere was a loss everywhere Soviet union never got officially involved in the war Korea divided in WWII into communist northern half, and american-occupied southern half North Korean army invades non-communist South Koreas Using soviet tanks, Kim ll Sung’s army quickly took over South Korea Korea was not strategically essential for the U.S. but policymakers didn’t want to appear “soft on Communism” U.S. intervention was a part of “police action” ordered by a UN international peacekeeping force General MacArthur of U.S. recaptured south Korean capital Seoul, and chased North korean army to the Chinese border. Chinese army secretly came into Korea and attacked the US/UN forces

55 KOREAN WAR 1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea.
North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. First war of “containment” policy to stop communism “Police Action” not a declared war President Truman leads United Nations. Signaled start of CW General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. Called “forgotten war”. Ignored rather than forgotten Didn’t impact americans like WWII

56 KOREAN WAR Truman vs. MacArthur Truman fires General MacArthur when he advises Truman he would use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.

57 Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war
KOREAN WAR Stalemate by 1953. Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war Divided at 38th parallel Communism contained Remains divided today

58 General MacArthur President Truman hoped the Korean conflict would end quickly and told MacArthur to be careful and strategic MacArthur called for use of nuclear weapons against North Korea Publicly opposed Truman’s desire to not use WMD Truman fired him as commander of the army

59 New Strategy U.S tried to use strategic bombings to scare the communists into negotiating peace treaty, but they refused Neither side wanted to appear weak Eisenhower’s election changed the course of the war He was a war hero, and was unafraid of public criticism Threatened Korea with nuclear force Conflict ended with a 1953 peace treaty Korea returned to divided state like before the war 4 million dead and wounded, (50,000 americans dead), the war or it’s outcome did nothing to lessen the Cold War

60 Effects People’s Republic of China enters the world stage
Soviet aid to fight the U.S. helped them become a major military power Proved the skill of the Asian militaries, something that would be seen again in the Vietnam war of 1960s The coming Vietnam was a continuation of many of the mistakes made in the Korean War

61 Disastrous for Korea U.S negative impact
Destroyed most of its industrial plants N. Korea fell into poverty U.S negative impact Didn’t take the lessons of Korea as it went into Vietnam Backed corrupt southern regime against communist northern regime fighting Guerrilla war Impossible to keep war limited (china entered) Employed strategic bombings to greater extent, with very little results First war that U.S entered and didn’t win showed that Korea had emerged from WWII as a superpower

62 Vietnam 1959-1975 Vietnam had a long history of conflict
Independence from China French colonialism Japanese occupation North-South Disunity Vietnam war fought between N. and S. Vietnam (communist v. anti-communist forces) Viet Cong, a south communist force in the South were supported by the communist North Fought small battles using non-typical tactics against U.S. enters during Cold War era (had sent aid to french soldiers since 1940s)) In 1960 soviet union begins sending supplies to communist led rebel group in Laos (vietnam’s neighbor) Concerned U.S. that first “domino” was about to fall Laos became an important point of the conflict for a short time 1962 Khrushchev put nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 145km from U.S

63 U.S. Enters 1961 – Kennedy vowed to take a stand against communism, and sent US troops to assist the south Vietnam struggle U.S. warship was attacked by North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin U.S. Congress created an allowance that allowed U.S. to enter Vietnam to conduct military operations, without declaring war U.S. Aircraft began bombing targets in N. Vietnam and experienced several victories After U.S. victories, Vietnamese focused on fighting in small units in the sweltering jungles of S. Vietnam

64 Americanization of Vietnam war
Retribution for the Gulf of Tonkin Bombing campaign lasted over 3 years To protect US airbases in south Vietnam, 3500 marines were deployed

65 Guerilla Warfare Small units fight limited battles against enemy forces Ambushes, surprise attacks on enemy camps, then retreat into countryside or blend with local population Made it difficult to know the enemy and set traps Communist troops usually engaged in guerilla warfare against south vietnamese and american troops Effects of guerilla warfare increased hurt or killed people, but created fear and low morale in soldiers

66 U.S. Confidence shaken Tet Offensive included attacks by Viet Cong on cities throughout S. Vietnam, and on U.S. Military Vietnamese new year – commemoration of ancestors North Vietnam experienced many casualties, but the attacks were enough to cause fear and a loss of confidence for the Americans who thought the war was going well

67 Vietnamization of the war
Tet offensive was a victory for US military but it was political and media disaster Public support weakened as americans questioned how the conflict was being handled New president richard nixon planned to end the war by the vietnamization of the war to build up the southern forces so they could continue the war without american support

68 Public Support Things were going well until increased bombings by US occurred, suggesting an expansion of the war rather than ending In 1970, ground forces attacked Cambodia Public support fell further when the Pentagon Papers were discovered Top secret official documents showing lies about Gulf of Tonkin, secret American bombings of Laos, and provided a bleak outlook for victory

69 Paris Peace Accord U.S. Troops withdrew in 1973 with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords Terms included Complete ceasefire in S. vietnam allowed N. forces to capture the territory Released U.S. POW Called for both sides to find a political solution to conflict

70 A definitive loss In 1975, the Vietnam War was a clear loss for the U.S. Much of Indochina became communist, which validated the Domino Theory in part Vietnam war was and remains morally and historically problematic for the U.S.

71 Effects of the war Death toll about 2 million vietnamese civilians, 1.1 milliona north vietnamese troops, 200,000 south vietnamese troops, 58,000 U.S. troops Over 10,000 wounded Country was destroyed from massive bombings from U.S. U.S. army’s chemical use destroyed the environment and caused health problems that lasted for decades Vietnam was unified under socialist government China was threatened by the extension of influence and began border war with Vietnam After decades of conflict Vietnam was the world’s 4th largest army, and one of the poorest economies; in 1990’s it turned toward more capitalistic and liberal economy

72 Vietnam and U.S. Post-Vietnam:
Created widespread distrust of the U.S. government Made the military less popular Eliminated the draft Difficulty of veterans to readjust to American society and deal with war trauma

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